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SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATED FROM HOSPITAL ENVIRONMENT TO VARIOUS DISINFECTANTS

Thesis, Project Topic: Susceptibility Pattern of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated from Hospital Environment to Various Disinfectants


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Bacteria resistance is a predictable and perhaps unavoidable response to the use of antimicrobial agents. It can arise from the selection of resistant strains among naturally susceptible species or from the entrance of new strains of naturally resistant species. The extent of use of a particular antimicrobial agent in a give environment dictates the rate at which resistance arise among microbial populations (Kurin et al., 1990). Some microorganisms rapidly acquire resistance e.g. E. coli and S. aureus while others rarely do so e.g. S. pyogenes.

The emergence of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agent is influenced by the characteristics of pathogen, antibiotic prescribing practice including the use of systemic antibiotic and general health care guideline which posses’ problems both ecologically and in clinics. Bacteria susceptibility as well as resistances patterns may vary according to geographical and regional locations. The effectiveness and concentration of antimicrobial agent incorporated to disinfectant is measured by their ability to kill microorganism with specified contact time. (Coolkson et al, 2003)

Disinfectants are used extensively in the hospital and healthcare setting for a variety of topical and hard surface application. In particular, they are an essential part of infection control practices and aid in the prevention of nosocomial infection (Olowe et al, 2004). The selection, use and control of the effectiveness of disinfectants have been emphasized in hospital environment, medical and surgical instrument as a great source of potentially pathogenic microorganism (Bryce et al, 2007). Disinfectants used in the hospital includes alcohol, Aldehydes, Heavy metals, oxidizing agent, phenol and phenolic, OUAS and chlorohexidine etc.

Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive cocci, catalase positive, coagulase positive and non-motile bacterium that causes disease through the production of toxin or through direct invasion and destruction of tissue ib adults and children (Tenovet et al., 2000). Strains of Staph. aureus, in the hospital environment commonly causes serious and potentially life threatening infection, such as blood stream, surgical site infections, Urinary tract infection ( UTI), Gastrointestinal tract (G IT) Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and toxic shock syndrome

The organism mat cause disease come from either endogenous or exogenous sources, Endogenous sources are patient own micro biota or microflora. This may be brought into the hospital by the patient or acquired when the patient become colonized after admission. In either case, the pathogen colonizing the patient may subsequently cause a nosocomical disease. Exogenous sources are micro biota other than the patient own that may be animate or inanimate. Animate source are the hospital staff, patients or visitors while inanimate source are food, urinary catheters, hospital equipment, floor, wall, bed, water system and specific hospital articles in use to assist patients

The pathogenic effects of Staphylococci are mainly associated with the toxin it produces. Most of these toxins are produced in the stationary phase of the bacterial growth curve. These toxins damage the host tissue and cause disease condition and they includes alpha, beta, gamma, delta, toxic shock syndrome and entertoxins (Mark and Bill, 1997). The main anatomical sites at which the occurrence of resistant strains of Staphylococcus are normal flora that have been studied includes the gut, skin and upper respiratory tract.

Hospital acquired infection (HAI) or nosocomical infection result from pathogen that developed within the hospital or health service unit. Hospital acquired infection are common in new born babies, patients who undergo medical procedures, or who have weakened immune system and hospital staff.

Hospital acquired infection is transmitted by direct contact (involving a direct body surface to body surface contact and physical transfer of micro-organism between a susceptible host and an infected or colonized person). Indirect contact (contact of susceptible host with a contaminated intermediate object usually in-animate such as needle, dressing, gloves) Droplet transmission, (e.g. cough, sneezing,), Air borne transmission (e.g. ribola, TB e.t.c) Vector borne transmission (e.g. mosquito, flies transmit microorganism), vehicle transmission (microorganism transmitted to host by contaminated items such as food, water and medication)

Hospital acquired infection are result of three factors namely high prevalence of pathogen (MRSA, Vanconycin resistant), high prevalence of pathogen of compromised host (weakened immune system e.g. diabetes) and efficient mechanism transmission from patient to patient

In various hospitals, one of the ways of controlling spread of infection within the hospital environment is by the use of chemical disinfectants formulation in disinfecting hospital environment, equipment, washing hand’s when moving from patient to patient and disinfectant patient’s skin before injection, catheterization, operation procedures.

Aim and Objectives

Aim

To determine the prevalence of Staph. aureus within the hospital environment

Objectives

  1. To determine the prevalence of Staph. aureus pre and I hr post disinfectant application.

2          To determine the susceptibility and resistant pattern of Staph. aureus isolated pre and 1 hr post disinfectant application to different disinfectant.

3).        To compare the susceptibility and resistant pattern of Staph. aureus isolated pre and 1 hr post disinfectant application to different disinfectant.

—This article is incomplete———–This article is incomplete———— It was extracted from a well articulated quality Project, Research Work/Material

Topic: SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATED FROM HOSPITAL ENVIRONMENT TO VARIOUS DISINFECTANTS

 

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