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Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Among Quarry Workers

CHAPTER ONE

Project Topic: Estimation of Total and Free Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) among Quarry Workers at Ezza Umuoghara Quarry Site ln Eza North Local Government, Ebonyi State


1.0          Introduction

Quarries have been very important in environmental development and also serve a means of employment and source of income. A quarry is a type of open pit mine from which minerals are extracted. They are used for extracting building materials such as dimension stone. They are usually shallower than other types of open pit mines (Kumaggi et al., 1978).

Stone or rock quarrying is a multistage process by which rock or stone is extracted from the ground and crushed to produce aggregates (granites and many other  minerals) which is then screened into required size for immediate use or for further processing such as coating with sidemen to make bituminous macadam (bitimae) or asphalt (Terpordei et al., 2002) .

Thus, it is this process stone or rock quarrying that crystalline silica quarter can be produced, which is said to have a significant impact on the environment, workers or people living near by possibly due to the increase circulation of dust (Raymond et al., 2010).

1.1          Prostrate Specific Antigen (PSA)

                prostate specific antigen (PSA) is as a Glycoprotein produced Primary by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland and its regulation is under the control of androgens and progesterone it is as serine protease with chymotr-ypsin. Like senzymatic activity. (Diamondis 1998, American  urological association 200). The normal amount of PSA level in blood  is 4.0ng/ml a, level above this is an indication of abnormality, which may not necessarily be prostate cancer. (Baillaragen et al., 2005).

According to diamondis Ep (1998) PSA is the most voluable prostate cancer marker that is used for population screening diagnosis and monitoring of patients with prostate cancer when there is problem with the prostate, such as when prostate cancer develops and grows, more and more PSA is released, until it reaches a level where it can be easily detected in the blood (Leitzinan et al., 2004). Healthy men have low amount of PSA in the blood. The amount of PSA in the blood normality increases as a mains prostate enlarges with age (Goodman et al.,2004).

PSA test measures the level of PSA in the blood. Because PSA is produced by the body and can be used to detect the disease. It is sometimes called a biological maker or tumor marker (Gerber et al., 1991).

PSA may increase as a result of an injury a digital rectal exam, sexual activity (ejaculation) and inflammation of the prostate gland (Chodak et al; 1994). PSA is present in the serum of normal men, and is often elevated in the presence of prostate cancer and in other prostate disorders. A blood test to measure PSA is the most effective test currently available for the early detection of prostate cancer. Higher than normal levels of PSA are associated with so localized and metastatic prostate cancer, (Albertson et al., 2005).

1.2          Aims

This research is aimed at assessing the prostate function of male workers exposed to quarry mining by measuring their total and free PSA.

1.3          Objectives

To assess the prostate function based on the duration of exposure to quarry mining by correlating mean + sd of total PSA and free PSA with duration (time).

To find out if any relationship exist between total and free PSA.

 

CHAPTER TWO

1.0          Literature Review

1.1          Description of Prostrate Gland

Prostate gland is a compound inbuloalveolar exocrine gland of male reproductive system in most mammals (Tsukisa, A. Yamada’K. et al., 1984).

It differs considerably among species anatomy, chemically, and physiologically.

In 2002, female paraurethral glands or skenes gland, were officially renamed the female prostate by the Federative international committee on Anatomical terminology (Flam  et al., 2006). A healthy human prostate is classically said to be slightly larger than a walnut. The mean weight of the normal prostate in adult males is about 11 grans usually  raging between 7 and 16 grans (Leissner et al; 1979). It surrounds the urethra just below the urinary exam. It is the only exocrine organ located in the midline in humans and similar animals.

The secretary epithelium is mainly pseudostratified comprising tall columnar cells and basal cells which are supported by a fibroelastic stroma containing randomly orientated smooth muscle bundles. The epithelium is highly variable and areas of low cuboidal or squamous epithelium are also present, with transitional epithelium in the distal regions of the longer duets. Within the prostate, the urethra coming from the bladder is called prostatic urethra and merges with the two ejaculatory ducts.

2.2          Zones of Prostrate Gland

The prostate can be divided in two way by zone or by lobe it does not have a capsule, rather an integral fibro-muscular band surrounds it (Cahill et al., 2008). It is sheathed in the muscles of the pelvic floor which contract during the ejaculatory process. The “zone” classification is more often used in pathology. The idea of “zone” was first proposed by mcNeal in 1968 mcNeal found that the relatively homogencous cut surface of an adult prostate in no way resembled “lobes” and thus led to the description of zones (Robert et al., 2000).

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Topic:

Estimation of Total and Free Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) among Quarry Workers at Ezza Umuoghara Quarry Site in Ezza North Local Government, Ebonyi State

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