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PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES OF WASTE MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA

Project Topic: Prospects and Challenges of Waste Management in Nigeria – A Case of Enugu State Waste Management Authority (ESWAMA)


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Solid waste management in Nigeria and Enugu State is a fundamental issue that must be addressed in order to achieve success. The problem of solid waste management is the deficient of appropriate and adequate policies plain legislation, and an environmentally stimulated and enlightens the public. Government policies on the environment are piecemeal where they exist and poorly implemented. Programs for public enlightenment lacked the needed coverage, intensity and continuity to correct a pathetic attitude towards the environment. Up to now, the activities of the environmental authorities have been hampered by poor funding, poor facilities and human resources, unsuitable technology and taxation system are inequitable. Efficient solid waste management in Nigeria requires a holistic program that will integrate all the technical, economical, social cultural and psychological factors that are often ignored in solid waste management exercise.

At this junction, management of solid and liquid waste in Enugu State through ensuring a clean and sustainable environment for the good health and well-being of people of the State, and to achieve this, commitment to the state is ensured.

According to the Standard English Dictionary, waste is that material which is useless; thrown away because it is not wanted. It can also be defined as a substance produced in our daily (consumption, recreational, production and living) activities, which is unwanted and no longer useful to man (Federal Ministry of Housing and Environment of Nigeria Monograph series No 2, (1983). The substance must be handled and disposed of with care, so that it does not constitute danger to public health. Waste however could be said to relative especially in the manufacturing and production sector.

In this sector, what is regarded as waste by certain groups may become premium raw material to another group? There is therefore a clear need for the current approach of waste disposal that is focused on municipalities and uses high energy/high technology to move towards waste processing and waste recycling (this involves public-private partnerships, aiming for eventual waste minimization and prevention of the harmful effect of waste on man and the environment). The system of waste salvaging, reclamation or recycling though objectionable and often economically unsound, is fast gaining ground (Eze DM1995).

Environmental sanitation is perhaps the most obvious element in environmental management but is certainly not the most important. Its significance lies in it’s effectiveness in raising and maintaining an environment, healthy and hygienic for the needs and standards of the present (Sada and Odenmerho 1989). Solid waste generation and its management has become a major issue in urban areas especially Enugu because of increasing gap between the prolific level of generation and the limited technology and capacity of evacuation. Mark Holies in (Satellite Newspaper of September 5, 1991) states that “a clean environment is considered important by many Nigerians and this is the pillar for governments’ primary program on the need to achieve health for all by the year 2000 together with the world health. There are still lapses here and there. The objective gave rise to the need for environmental sanitation and its importance to human existence as illness is no respecter of persons”.

The need for a healthful environment is common to all peoples, it cuts across boundaries of occupation, class and politics, it differs from neighborhood and from region to region; it differs not only in fundamental but in complexity. Apparently, some of those environmental problems could be solved by providing a standard refuse disposal and drainage method.

1.2       STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

In Enugu and many urban and rural centers in Nigeria, the management and procedure of waste disposal have been ineffective. Hence wastes are often indiscriminately dumped in open plots of land and particularly along roads and streets. Some affected streets may be impassable for several weeks or months as a consequence. The whole people living around the area can hardly stay comfortably in their houses. All the people in the area are exposed to and may be affected by any type of disease the mess might cause. Those living very close are the most affected and most vulnerable to these disease such as cholera, typhoid, malaria, etc.  Thus, the study focuses on the prospects and challenges of Enugu State waste Management Authority.

1.3       OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The specific objectives of the study include

  1. To identify the challenges encountered by ESWAMA in managing waste in Enugu.
  2. To evaluate the waste disposal systems of ESWAMA
  3. To identify the prospects from waste management.

1.4       RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The study poses the following research questions

  • What are the challenges encountered by ESWAMA in Managing waste in Enugu?
  • What are the waste disposal systems of ESWAMA?
  • What are the prospects from waste Management?

1.5       RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

For the purpose of the study the following research hypotheses were formulated.

  1. Ho: Poor management and insufficient waste disposal facilities are not challenges encountered by ESWAMA in managing waste in Enugu.

Hi:       Poor management and insufficient waste disposal facilities are the challenges encountered by ESWAMA in managing waste in Enugu.

  1. Ho: Hog feeding, open dumping, incineration, resources recovering, composition, and phrolysis are not the disposal systems of ESWAMA.

Hi:       Hog feeding, open dumping, incineration, resources recovering, composition, and phrolysis are the disposal systems of ESWAMA.

  1. Ho: Environmental protection and preservation are not the prospects from waste management.

Hi:       Environmental protection and preservation are the prospects from waste management.

1.6       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The research focuses on the challenges encountered by Enugu State Waste Management Authority (ESWAMA) in managing waste in Enugu, waste disposal system of ESWAMA and prospects from waste management.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The major constraints of the study include the following;

Time Constraint:

Due to limited time for the study the researcher could not get all the information needed for the study.

Financial Constraint:

The researcher has not got enough money to embark on the study. Due to financial hurdles, the researcher could not visit places where information relevant to the study could be obtained.

Attitude of the Respondents:

Some of the respondents showed negative attitude towards the study because they felt that they have no financial gain from the study.

1.7       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study is very significant

  • It will help organizations to know about waste disposal systems for healthy environment.
  • It will assist future students to read and know much about waste, and how the waste should be put into use.
  • It will also serve as a reference base for future researchers in the field of environmental management as well as business and management.

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