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PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL QUALITIES OF BOREHOLE WATER IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Water is an odorless, colorless, tasteless, transparent liquid that forms the seas, lakes, rivers, and rain fall as well as the basis of the fluids to living organisms (Michael, 2000). Water is a combination of hydrogen and oxygen atoms, with a chemical formula H2O and known to be the most abundant compound (70%) on earth’s surface (Osei, 2005). Moreover, for water to be potable it must be microbiologically safe and in order to realize this, a strategy that will get rid of pathogenic organisms from the source of water supply must be applied. Retra (2002) described water in its pure form as a substance with a pH value of 7.0, a freezing point of 0 C and also a boiling point of 100 C at a pressure of 760mmHg. Water is capable of dissolving other substances more than any other known solvent and therefore, it is called a universal solvent. It is useful to man in a lot of ways, for example, it serves as a source of transportation (in bringing goods from one country to another i.e., seas, oceans and rivers), recreation like sports (Swimming, diving and skating). Water is also used for electricity generation, domestic purpose; bathing, washing, cooking e.t.c. Since the start or recorded history, it has been acknowledged as a potential carrier of germs and diseases (Retra, 2002). Ground water sources, wells, boreholes and springs; that are properly located produce water of a very good quality. The following are micro-organisms associated with water; (Chris, 2004). Water borne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms which are directly transmitted when contaminated water is consumed. Cholera is a good example of water borne disease and it is endemic in some parts of Nigeria. In 1991, more than 16,000 people died throughout the world from half a million cholera cases. Better treatment has reduced the death rate dramatically, but it is still a serious disease (UNPE, 1997).

Diarrhea is the world’s second leading killer of children under the age of five, just below Pneumonia, killing about 1.5million infants a year, more than AIDS and measles put together. In various places, parents are still ignorant of what to do when their children get infected with diarrhea Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Escherichia coli Proteus, Mycobacteria, Shigellasonnei, Klebsiella Salmonella,Cyanobacteria (Chris, 2004). Cholera is a good example of water borne disease and it is endemic in some parts of Nigeria. As earlier Stated, in 1991 alone above 16,000 people died worldwide from half a million cholera cases. Enhanced treatment has reduced the death rate significantly, but it is still a serious disease (UNPE, 1997). Diarrhea diseases are caused by waterborne bacteria, viruses, toxins and parasites. Important factors in controlling the disease includes: i) The availability of health services ii.) Effectively use of prevention strategies (proper sanitation and nutrition): iii) effectively use of vaccines.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVE

 

The aims and objective of the study include the following

 

  • To determine the microbiological and physicochemical quality of borehole water in Nguzu Edda boreholes water in Afikpo South LGA,Nigeria.
  • To determine the biological and chemical standards of the borehole water for consumption.
  • To compare the results discovered with World Health Organisation standards.

—This article is not complete———–This article is not complete———— This article was extracted from a well articulated quality Project, Research Work/Material

Topic: EVALUATION OF THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL QUALITIES OF NGUZU EDDA BOREHOLE WATER IN AFIKPO SOUTH LGA, NIGERIA

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