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PATTERN AND EFFECTS OF COMMON MENSTRUAL ABNORMALITIES AMONG FEMALE STUDENTS

Pattern and Effects of Common Menstrual Abnormalities among Female Students of Ebonyi State College of Education, Ikwo


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

Study has shown that menstrual abnormalities are same in the entire world but varies among young girls in the countries. Ethnics and morals expose them to different type of menstrual abnormalities (Kummar, 2003). It is normal for a woman’s menstrual bleeding to last up to seven days and for bleeding to occur every 21-35 days. Abnormal menstrual bleeding occurs when they get periods too frequently, may not get periods, have unpredictable menstrual bleeding, or they may have painful periods. (McDonough, 2011). Menstruation refers to the monthly shading of blood per vagina. It becomes abnormal when there is a mal­functioning of the menstrual1 cycle. Menstrual abnormality is a common presenting symptom in the family practice setting. It is a complicated clinical presentation. One study found out that menstrual disorders were the reason for 19.1% of 20.1% million physician Officers for gynecologic condition over a two years period. Furthermore, a greatest percent of gynecologic surgeries involves abnormal menstruation. (Guyton and Hall, 2006). Except for self-limiting, physiologic withdrawal, vaginal bleeding before menarche is abnormal. In women of childbearing age, abnormal menstruation includes any changes in menstrual period, frequent or duration, or amount of flows as well as bleeding within cycles. In postmenopausal women, abnormalities include vaginal bleeding for 12 months or more after the cessation of menses. (Ganogng, 2012). It has been reported that pain   before   and   during   menses   is   in   high percentage  among young girls of menarche over the country. An ovulation with absence of pregnancy occur more in early menarche age group and those who take drugs. (Kummar, 2003). Menstrual abnormalities have posed great effect to young girls (students) such as absenteeism from school, discomfort, social effect, malnutrition and aggressiveness. (Dell, et al 2011). The author further commented that heavy bleeding is a common experience among them.

Statement of the problem

During a personal observation and discussion, the researcher found out that a lot of young girls suffer from pain during menses. Some experienced absence or heavy blood flow during menses due to intake of contraceptives, scanty/heavy flow also associated with poor diet. A menstrual abnormality appears to be a very common condition among females which need to be adequately investigated. The researcher was motivated to conduct this study since menstrual abnormalities have made most female students she has come across to isolate themselves from others due to several discomforts some of them suffer e.g do not eat at this juncture. Worse still, they absent themselves from classes.

Purpose/Objectives of study

This study aimed at studying the pattern and effect of common menstrual abnormalities among female students of Ebonyi State College of Education located at Ikwo.

It is thus designed specifically to.

  1. Identify the extent and types of menstrual abnormalities among students.
  2. Identity the factors associated with menstrual abnormalities.
  3. Ascertain the effects of menstrual abnormalities on female students.

Significance of study

This study will be of immense benefit and importance to young women. The study will be of more importance to researchers as it will motivate their interest in investigating more about menstrual abnormalities. The study will be used as baseline information to young women on how to promote health, prevent illness and to maintain health. The study will also be use for Nursing intervention, how to control and maintain or improve health.

Research questions

These questions guided the research.

  • What is the prevalence of menstrual abnormalities among female students?
  • What are the factors associated with menstrual abnormalities in the female students?
  • What are the effects of menstrual abnormalities among female students?

Scope of study

This study is exclusively to determine the effects of menstrual abnormalities on the female students…..

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