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Nursing Care Study on a Patient with Bipolar Disorder

A Nursing Care Study on a Patient with Bipolar Disorder

Chapter One

Introduction

Bipolar disorder involves extreme mood swings, from episodes of mania to episodes of depression and normal mood. It was formerly known as manic depressive illness. During manic phases, clients are euphoric, grandiose, energetic and sleepless. They have poor judgment, rapid thoughts, actions and speech. During depressed phases, mood behavior and thoughts are same as persons diagnosed with major depression (Basavanthappa, 2007). They feel sad, moody, fatigued and preoccupied with death and suicide. When the episodes are mixed, the person must meet the criteria for both mania and major depression.

Delusion and hallucinations may or may not be part of the clinical picture and onset of symptoms may reflect a seasonal pattern.

A milder degree of this clinical symptom is called hypomania. This type is not severe enough to cause marked impairment in social and occupational functioning or to require hospitalization and it does not include psychotic features (Townsend, 2006).

Bipolar disorders are treated with anti-depressant, antipsychotic and other supportive drugs. The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown but the predisposing factors include genetics, environmental, physiological and biochemical influences (Basavanthapp 2007).

A 33 year old man, Mr. N.C. was admitted into the male ward through the emergency unit of the Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Enugu. He lives at Umundnyi Ndiagu Akpaugo in Nkanu West Local Government Area of Enugu State. He is a bachelor and stays with his parents.

Patient has been an old patient of the hospital who was first admitted in the male acute award on 16th of May, 2010 on account of verbal and physical aggression, talking out of context, restlessness, lack of concentration and destructions of property all of ten days duration prior to patient’s presentation to the hospital.

He was seen by the doctor who gave diagnosis of schizophrenia, he absconded from the ward and was not seen again.  Second episode of his condition started  three  months prior to this admission into the male acute ward on 18 – 05 – 2013. He was accompanied by his relatives who gave history of verbal and physical aggression, at any interruption, loss of concentration, destruction of fathers properties, withdrawal to self, insomnia and refusal to take care of personal hygiene. On this visit, a diagnosis of mixed bipolar affective disorder was made. Due to the above observed symptoms and signs, he was forced back on restraint for expert management.

Significance of the Study

  • This study will enlighten students, general public on the aetiology, signs, symptoms, prevention and treatment regimes of bipolar disorder.
  • To help in educating the patient and their relatives in the care of the patient with the bipolar affective disorder.
  • This will also help to reduce the misconception of people about mental illness.
  • It will also serve as a document of reference during research study for others.

Aims and Objectives of the Study are

  1. To study the anatomy and physiology of the brain and to aid the student in understanding the concept of bipolar disorder.
  2. To identify the actual course or causes of bipolar disorder, so as to create therapeutic relationship to aid quick recovery of the patients.
  3. To decrease the increasing incidence of bipolar disorder especially in younger age through health education.

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