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IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON DEVELOPMENT TRENDS

Project Topic: An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Globalization on selected Development Trends in Enugu State


CHAPTER ONE:  INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND

Globalization has become the defining process of the present age (Khor, 2003:1).  Globalization is a polarized concept t and paradigm, meaning different things to different people depending on their worldview, orientation and perspectives. The United Nations Organization (UNO) is the effigy of globalization (Njoku, 2008:62). Nwosu (2007:1) contends that when the United Nations Organization (UNO), which metamorphosed from the league of nations after the Second World War, was established, all peoples and nations of the world saw and embraced it as the panacea for global peace, security, understanding stability, development and everything good. With so many operational agencies like United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), and others, the UNO raised high hopes especially in the so called less developed countries (LDCs), for the so called less developed countries (LDCs, for the emergence of at least a fair and equitable global society in which the glaring gap between the rich and the poor nations and individuals within nations, are eradicated or at least reduced to the barest minimum. No matter the expectation gaps, it can arguably be said that this was the first attempt at globalization, especially from the viewpoint of pro-globalization, activists and movements (Nwosu, 2007: 1). Hence, globalization has been aptly described as an old and new phenomenon (Njoku, 2009:4, Izuogu, 2007:53; Adejo, 2003:7).

We live in a globalizing and increasingly interdependent world. For developing countries, dependence on rich nations remains a stark fact of economic life. At the same time, the developed world, which once prided itself on its apparent economic self-sufficiency has come to realize that in an age of dramatically increased capital flows, diminishing natural and mineral resources, global environmental threats, accelerated international migration, bourgeoning world trade in manufacturers and services and new forms of geopolitical tensions, it is becoming even more economically dependent on the developing world (Todaro and Smith, 2009:998).

Rich – nation dependence does not center solely on the need for energy and raw materials supplies or on the ability of key nations like Brazil, India, and China to control their environmental damage. It is also manifested in the importance of LDCs as markets for developed country exports. The developing nations accounted for 47 percent in 1985; Moreover, developing nations provided almost 55 percent of U.S. imports in 2006, compared with less than 35 percent in 1995 (U.S. State Department, 2009). The economic progress of developing countries now has both a direct and an indirect impact on the economic performance of industrialized nations (Todaro and Smith, 2009:798). International interdependence is not limited to the economic sphere. It is a broad spectrum with economic, political, social, cultural, technological and environmental dimensions (Ojebode, 2004:40). Globalization is therefore both a movement and a process. It is a movement of people, ideas, goods, technology and culture across the globe. As a process, it involves the increasing integration of the world into a monolithic entity, or what Marshal Mcluhan (1964) called a global village. Ojebode (2004:40) described globalization as the process of integrity the nations of the world in all dimensions of human life. Some scholars view globalization as both an economic and political concept. The economic concept can be traced to Marxist Perspective of the economy as the sub structure upon which all other structures and institutions named the superstructure depend. This economic paradigm informs their view of globalization as connected with the deepening and expansion of the capitalist mode and relation of production. To them, globalization is the new benign and euphemistic name for international capitalist expansion and foray as its ideologues have jettisoned the more malignant concept of imperialism and neo imperialism (Ezekwe, 2002:40; Onwe, 2007:47; Izuogu, 2007:55; Offiong, 2001:4). Hence, it has been described as a philosophy of inequality, between the developed and undeveloped countries (Anichebe, 2008: 169-177). The political aspect of globalization means the establishment of a minimal liberal state enabled by a capacity building initiative and disciplined by a democratic politics well enough to maintain the legal administrative political and infrastructural conditions for private sector capacity accumulation (Njoku, 2009). But globalization is much more than these. Thus, globalization is the term that describes the growing worldwide interdependence of people and countries (Awake 2002:3). Globalization is a holistic term that expresses the increasing interconnectedness interrelationship and interdependence of the world in all spheres of life energized by advances in information, communication technologies (ICTs). Encarta (2008) reinforces this by positing that globalization is the comprehensive term for the emergence of a global society in which economic, political, environmental and cultural events in one part of the world quickly come to have significance for people in other parts of the world. It describes the growing economic, political, technology and cultural linkages that connect individuals, communities, businesses and governments around the world. Although most people continue to live as citizens of a single nation, they are culturally materially and psychologically engaged with the lives of people in other countries as never before. Distant events often have an immediate and significant impact, blurring the boundaries of our personal world. Items common to our daily lives such as the clothes we wear, the food we eat and the car we drive are the products of globalization (Encarta, 2008). In mid 90s (1996), Boutrous Ghali the Egyptian born Secretary-General of the United Nations, defined globalization as “creating a world that is increasingly interconnected, in which national boundaries are less important and it is generating both possibilities and problems” (Offiong, 2001:4).         A dialectical nexus exists between globalization and development. Nigeria, being a major player in the commonwealth and comity of nations, has been influenced and impacted on in its development trends by the allied forces of globalization….

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM    

Emerging trends and realities of the continuous shrinking of the world into a seemingly homogeneous space otherwise regarded as a global village are confirming the ambivalence of globalization as a world phenomenon (Oduulani, 2007: 198). Thus, globalization comes with its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) which impinge on sub-national, national and international development. Globalization is a very uneven process, with unequal distribution of benefits and gains costs and losses. This imbalance lends to polarization between the countries and groups that gain that are mostly in the North (more developed countries) and the many countries and groups in society that lose out or are marginalized, mostly in the South (less developed countries). Globalization, polarization, wealth concentration, poverty and marginalization are therefore interwoven. Globalization has been a mixed blessing to Nigeria, as a member of the less developed countries (LDCs) in the South. This study therefore sets out to investigate the impact of globalization on Nigeria’s development, with focus on Enugu State.

1.3       THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY       

The specific research objectives are as follows:

    1. To determine people’s knowledge, understanding and attitude to Globalization.
    2. To determine the relationship between globalization and education trends in Enugu State.
    3. To determine the relationship between globalization and health trends in Enugu State.
    4. To determine the relationship between globalization and ICTs trends in Enugu State.
    5. To determine the relationship between globalization and environmental trends in Enugu State.
    6. To determine the relationship between globalization and agricultural trends in Enugu State.
    7. To determine the relationship between globalization and cultural trends in Enugu State.

1.4       RESEARCH QUESTIONS 

The research questions which are derivates of the research objectives include the following:

  1. What is the level of people’s knowledge, understanding and attitude to globalization?
  2. What is the relationship between globalization and education trends in Nigeria with focus on Enugu State?
  3. What is the relationship between globalization and health trends in Nigeria with focus on Enugu State?
  4. What is the relationship between globalization and ICTs trends in Nigeria with focus on Enugu State?
  5. What is the relationship between globalization and environmental trends in Nigeria with focus on Enugu State?
  6. What is the relationship between globalization and agricultural trends in Nigeria with focus on Enugu State?
  7. What is the relationship between globalization and cultural trends in Nigeria with focus on Enugu State?
  8. What is the relationship between globalization and religious trends in Nigeria focus on Enugu State?

1.5       HYPOTHESES

HO:      Globalization has not impacted significantly on development trends in        Nigeria.

Ho:       Globalization has impacted significantly on development trends in Nigeria.

H1:       The people don’t have a good understanding and knowledge of      globalization   

Ho:       The people have a good understanding and knowledge of    globalization.

Ho:       The attitude of the people to globalization is negative

HI:       The attitude of the people to globalization is positive.

1.6      SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 

The study is significant in various ways. It will provide valuable insights to the effects and impact of globalization on Enugu State in particular and Nigeria in general…..

1.7       SCOPE OF THE STUDY     

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Project Topic: An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Globalization on selected Development Trends in Enugu State

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