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GEOLOGY AND HYDROGEOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF SURFACE WATER RESOURCES

Project Topic: GEOLOGY AND HYDROGEOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF SURFACE WATER RESOURCES IN AFIKPO (EBONYI STATE) AND ENVIRONS


CHAPTER ONE

  INTRODUCTION

1.0 General Introduction

Water is an essential part of the ecological system. Geographically, water covers about 70% of the entire area of the Earth s surface and it is naturally found in streams, oceans, seas, rivers, ponds, lakes, springs and underground (Ogunji, 2004). Biologically, water makes up a large proportion of the total body fluid system of living things. An average water consumptions rate of ten liters per person per day has been recommended for small rural communities (UNICEF, 1988). This value is very small compared to World Health Organization (WHO) standard of at least twenty liters per day per person. Despite this, WHO in 1989 that only 61% of urban dwellers in developing countries have excess to safe water supply sources.  It is also estimated that 1.2 billion people around the world lack access to safe water and close to 2.5 billion not provided with adequate anitation (Third World Water Forum, 2003). In Nigeria, about eight percent 80% of the total population live in rural areas, and less than 50% have access to portable water. The pollutant sources have either been from inappropriate refuse disposal, salt water invasion or contaminants from the host rock (Egboka and Uma, 1985). This is pertinent as water during its movement and storage in aquifer tends to dissolve mineral their host rocks. Higher concentration of these constituent above acceptable standard stands to make the water harmful for certain type of use.

1.1       Accessibility and Location

The study area Afikpo is accessible through a network of well developed roads. These include, the Abakaliki Afikpo road, Afikpo – Okigwe road, Nguzu – Amasiri-Edda road. Other minor roads in the areas are Unwana road, Ndibe beach and Ozizza beach road and some outcrops are trekable few meters into the bush and others are along river channels.

The study area is located between latitude 060501 N to 06055 ‘N and longitude 70551E to 080001E the area is accessible through Abakaliki – Afikpo road, Unwana road, Ndibe beach and Ozizza beach road and Afikpo – Amasiri road as most of the outcrops were exposed by the road cuts. The accessibility of the outcrops was also enhanced by some local footpaths in the area.

The major towns within the mapped areas are Afikpo and Amasiri some of the villages within Afikpo town area. Amuro, Amangabara, Amuzu, Mgbom, Ndibe and Ozizza.

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Topic:

GEOLOGY AND HYDROGEOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF SURFACE WATER RESOURCES IN AFIKPO (EBONYI STATE) AND ENVIRONS

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related project topics and materials

Geology of Cross River State, Nigeria – a Case of Ugep and its Environs in Yakurr Local Government Area

Geology of Ebonyi State, Nigeria – a Case of Nguzu-Edda and its Environs in Afikpo South Local Government Area

Detailed Study and Description of Limestone Deposit in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

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