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Factors Influencing Nurses’ Clinical Training in Nigeria

Perception of Nursing Students about Factors Influencing their Clinical Training in Nigeria –Case of University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus

ABSTRACT

Clinical training is the application of clinical and theoritical knowledge for the care of a patient.The perception of nursing students about factors influencing their clinical training either negatively or positively will determine the level at which clinical practice in Nursing schools and universities will go in producing competent graduate nurses that will meet the high demand of nursing services in Nigeria and overseas. The broad objective of this study was to determine the perception of nursing students about factors influencing their clinical training in the University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus. Four objectives were set for the study. A descriptive survey research method was used and a sample size of 161 (109 five hundred level students, 96 four hundred level nursing students) was used applying the Taro Yamene’s formular. A purposive sampling technique was used to select the students. The instrument for data collection was the closed-ended questionnaire with a 4 point Likert scale. Data were analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 16. Data were presented using descriptive statistics; such as frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations. The major findings were that nursing students strongly concurred that clinical training is the application of knowledge for the care of the patient shown by a mean of 3.15, individual factor influencing clinical training was large class size(student-tutor ratio) with a mean score of 3.25, institutional factor influencing their clinical training was inadequate supervision of students and not giving clinical instructors the objective for each clinical posting depending on the level with a mean score of 3.15, clinical factor influencing their clinical training was an un conducive clinical environment evidenced by a mean score of 3.32 It was recommended that student nurses be exposed more to clinical experience. The school should plan with the hospital for proper supervision of students and also make the working environment conducive for learning. Students should show interest during clinical experience. Other recommendations were made based on the findings.

Chapter One

Introduction

Background of the Study

Nursing is a profession within the health care sector, which focuses majorly on the care of individuals, families and communities in order to attain, maintain or recover optimal health and quality of life (Mc Farlarel-lcky, 2004).

Nursing may be differentiated from other health care providers via their approach to patient care, training and scope of practice. Many nurses provide care within the ordering scope of physician hence this traditional role has come to shape the historic public image of nurses as care providers (Andrew, 2006).

Nursing services have moved as a professional practice from the 19th century till the 21st century as many nurse practitioners have recorded significant landmarks about nursing such as Florence Nightingale, Martha, Rodger, Lilian Ward and Calistra Roy Their principles are used and continuously modeled till data and form significant basis for nursing professional practice. An appropriate background in clinical knowledge and theory will help prepare nursing students for competent clinical performance (Elliot, 2002).

Clinical competence is the ability of an individual to use his knowledge effectively in doing something. Clinical competence can be perceived as a way of demonstration in which learner attempts to perform the skill with cues from the teacher as needed. This competence is necessary in nursing profession (Bastable, 2004).

According to Mimi (2006), nursing profession is a tedious job in which primary goal is to render health care services towards patient. Its practice is the actual provision of nursing care through nursing care plan that is encompassing in nursing process.

With all of this process, nursing sectors exemplifies by education, administration and service, collaborating with each other just to uplift the standard for safe and quality nursing care.

According to Chung (2009), nursing students are required to participate in clinical education, training and assessment in order to ensure that they can apply their knowledge in a competent manner for the care of their patient. He also agreed that although, the study of medicine, anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, and clinical research is important for the practice of becoming a nurse, nursing students must also acquire the skill necessary to achieve competence.

Clinical training of nursing students as measured through observation and feedback during clinical rotation they are also assessed using simulated scenarios with patients in a fair and objective way. Moreover, clinical training of nursing students can be assessed and compared objectively through assessing their cognitive skills, psychomotor skill and their effectiveness (Adah, 2009).

True that, to better attest the students learning in regards with these certain topic, they are allowed to apply their knowledge into practice, however, assurance is not well imposed for insufficiency in acquire insight has been empirically observed through passing.

A preceptor is responsible for ensuring that nursing students receive the clinical training necessary to meet the learning objectives and also for providing feedbacks to nursing students (Hutchings, Williamson & Humphreys, 2005).

Such factors influencing their clinical training show stressors associated with going out into the clinical field for the first time, the fear of making mistakes, anxiety over possible criticisms from peers, being able to communicate with health personnel and patients providing care for the seriously ill or terminal patient having the necessary technical skills for procedures, attitude towards and expectation of staff of students (Elcigil and Sari, 2008).

Clinical training is measured via practical ability. It will be unscientific to make assumptions without concrete proofs. As a result, there is the need to examine clinical training of nursing students and the factors that influence them (Ezike, 2009).

Statement of Problem

The nursing profession in Nigeria is dwindling because of nurses’ inherent subsequent behaviour in clinical setting even though, nurses have been granted professional status in Nigeria, they are still subservient in practice (Omofuma, 2007).

Over the years, the clinical training of nursing students in University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus has been very poor as evidenced by the grades in the pre-qualifying clinical examination. The researcher from experience and keen observation identified individual, institutional and clinical factors that influence clinical training of nursing students.

The researcher is therefore motivated to find out the perception of nursing students about factors that influence their clinical training in the University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus

Purpose of study

The general aim of this study is to identify the perception of nursing students about factors that influence the clinical training of nursing students in the University Of Nigeria, Enugu campus who undergo their clinical training in the University of Nigeria, Teaching hospital, Enugu State.

Objectives of the Study

The objectives of the study are to:-

  • Determine perception of clinical training of nursing
  • Find out individual factors that influence clinical training of nursing
  • Determine institutional factors that influence clinical training of nursing
  • Identify clinical factors that influence clinical training of nursing

Significance of the Study

The significance of the study is that adequate information and knowledge will be provided to nursing students and the school authority in the nursing profession for better understanding of the factors influencing student’s clinical training.

The findings obtained from this study will highlight the major factors that influence the training of students in the clinical setting.

Analysis and information from this study will be used to educate the students, nurses, hospitals, institutions, and the nation in general. It will enormously add to the existing body of knowledge.

Research questions

  • What are the nursing students’ perceptions of clinical training?
  • What are the individual factors that influence clinical training of the students?
  • What are the institutional factors that influence clinical training of the students?
  • What are the clinical factors that influence clinical training the students?

Scope of Study

This study is delimited to nursing students in the University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus (UNEC) who had their clinical training in the University of Nigeria, Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu State.

Operational Definition

  • Clinical training: This refers to ability of the nursing students to acquire clinical skills and competent to care for the sick in an in-patient ward in UNTH.
  • Perception of Nursing Students:: These are undergraduate in UNEC who are undergoing clinical training in an in-patient ward in UNTH.
  • Factors: Those elements in individual, institution and clinical area that has the ability to affect the clinical training of nursing students as they learn to care for the sick in an in-patient ward in UNTH.

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