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FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND ITS TREATMENT

The Statistical Analysis of the Effects of Factors that Contribute to High Blood Pressure and its Treatment (Case Study of Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki)


CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

Every human being needs blood to stay alive, blood moves from heart to the other parts of the body (arteries) and back to the heart. The rate by which blood moves is called blood pressure.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

       A study based in a semi-rural Michigan, population examined ambulatory blood pressure related to the effects of age sex, in 131 patients who had more than two prior office diastolic blood pressure measurements greater than 90 mmHg and loss than 155 mmHg. Blood pressure measurements were taken every 10 to 60 minutes over a 24 hours period using the space-labs 90207 computerized ambulatory blood pressure monitor. The results showed that patients aged 65 years or over had a higher mean systolic and lower mean diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001) in the office than those aged less than 65 years. Office mean arterial blood pressure were also higher (P <0.001) in older patients. For mean ambulatory blood pressure, older patients had higher mean ambulatory systolic blood pressure than the younger age group, but there were no differences in mean ambulatory diastolic blood pressure between the two groups. Men had higher mean ambulatory diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure than women; however women had higher systolic (P <0.008) and mean arterial office blood pressure than men (Khoury et al 1992).

Research in animals also supports these findings. In one study, blood pressure and heart rates were measured continuously at ten minute intervals for one week in six months old spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rates using biotelemetry transmitters implanted in the abdominal cavity with the pressure-sensing catheter inserted into the descending aorta below the renal artery (Maris et al 2005).

Blood pressure are classified into two:- High blood pressure (Hypertension) and low blood pressure (Hypotension). High blood pressure (Hypertension): This is dangerous because, it makes the heart to work too hard to pump blood to the body and contributes to hardening of the arteries or atherosclerosis and to the development of heart failure. A blood pressure reading appears as two numbers: The first and higher of the two is a measure of systolic pressure or the pressure in the arteries when the heart beats and fills them with blood. And the second measures diastolic pressure which is the pressure in the arteries when the heart rests between beats.

The ranges are:

Normal: less than 120 over 80 (120/80)

Prehypertension: 120 – 139 over 80 – 89

Stage I high blood pressure: 140 – 159 over 90 – 99.

Stage II high blood pressure: 160 and above over 100 and above.

High blood pressure (Hypertension) are classified into two: Essential and Secondary hypertension.

The essential hypertension is greatly influenced by diet and lifestyle.

Some other factors that can raise the risk of having essential hypertension are obesity, diabetes, insufficient intake of magnesium, calcium and potassium.

The secondary hypertension is a direct cause for high blood pressure which can be identified; the condition is described as secondary hypertension, highest in rank is kidney disease. Hypertension can also be triggered by tumors or other abnormalities that cause the adrenal glands to secrete excess amounts of the hormones that elevate blood pressure.

Low blood pressure (Hypotension):- Hypotension is the medical term for low blood pressure (less than 90/60). The optimal blood pressure is less than 120/80 (systolic/ Diastolic).

In healthy people, low blood pressure without any symptoms is not usually a concern and does not need to be treated although it can be a sign of an underlying problem where it may cause inadequate blood flow to the heart, brain and other vital organs. Chronic low blood pressure with no symptoms is almost never serious. However, health problems can occur when blood pressure drops unexpected and the brain is deprived of sufficient blood supply. These can lead to lightheadedness. Abrupt blood pressure drops most commonly happen in someone who’s rising from a sitting position to standing. Low blood pressure of this kind is called postural or orthostatic hypotension. Low blood pressure of another type can occur when someone stands for a long time is known as neutrally mediated hypotension.

Postural or orthostatic hypotension is considered as failure of the cardiovascular system or nervous system to react properly to sudden changes.

As the body mass index increases, blood pressure also increase (Kotsis et al 2005) and the consumption of food high in saturated fat, salt or sodium, the level of alcohol intake and weight gain play an important role in contributing to hypertension (Beevers and Marshall 1995).

Smoking caused high systolic blood pressures only in men aged more than 45 years. Women who were light smokers (up to nine cigarettes a day) had lower systolic blood pressure than those who were heavy smokers or who did not smoke (Primatesta et al 2001)5.

People with a chronic disease may seek ways to reduce their suffering by using both conventional treatment and complementary therapies. Foot reflexology, one of the complementary therapies, is chosen for patients with chronic disease as a means of improving their quality of life (Hodgson 2000; Miligan et al 2002).

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

In the world today, there is a problem of increase in blood pressure which are caused by several factors like Nutritional, emotional, Medical, body weight and Age. Due to these factors, the government, NGO’s and other International Organizations (Global health, UNICEF, WHO) etc. take various measures, aim at reducing the incidence of problems associated with high blood pressure in Nigeria.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

  1. To test whether there is treatments significant.
  2. Testing hypothesis about regression coefficient slope, if high blood pressure is linearly related to age.
  3. To estimate the regression coefficient which necessitates the use of ANCOVA instead of ANOVA.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It will help the government and agencies in health……

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Topic: THE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO HYPERTENSION AND ITS TREATMENT

(A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL TEACHING HOSPITAL, ABAKALIKI)

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