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FACTORS AFFECTING THE MOTIVATION OF TEACHERS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Education Project, Topic:

Factors Affecting the Motivation of Teachers in Secondary Schools in Abakaliki Metropolis


 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

  • BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY.

Any nation that wants to be recognized as a developed country must build its human resources resolutely. Thus a country is technologically developed if majority of her populace are well educated.

Therefore, those that impart the needed knowledge or those that build and mould character must be motivated adequately because motivation is the key to performance and improvement. Teachers are power tools for improving quality of education through effective classroom practices in the secondary schools (Davidson, 2007). According to Bess (1997), the primary factor that contributes to effective classroom practices in the secondary schools is strong motivation. Consequently, in order to bring about a change to an educational system, improvements to teacher motivation is essential.

Teacher motivation plays an important role in the promotion of teaching and learning quality. Motivated teachers are more likely to motivate students to learn in the classroom to ensure the implementation of educational reforms and feelings of fulfillment and satisfaction. Although teacher motivation is essential to teaching and learning process, several teacher teachers are not motivated. This observation should be taken seriously and an investigation into the factors influencing or affecting teacher motivation is therefore necessary to achieve the educational goals in every learning institution. Compared with other professions, teachers across various countries, school contexts and subject fields exhibit higher levels of emotional symptoms. According to Dai and Stenberg (2004), high levels of job dissatisfaction, stress and burnout can negatively influence motivation and job performance. According to Gorham and Millet (1997), teachers who report low levels of motivation tend to perceive their student’s motivation levels low.

Many factors have been found to promote teacher motivation. Pay incentives, for example have been found to be unsuccessful in increasing motivation in a study done by Sylvia and Hutchinson (1985) in the USA, a study among 167  teachers  found that teacher motivation is due to freedom to try out new ideals, assignment of appropriate responsibility levels and intrinsic  work elements. They explain that true job satisfaction derived from the gratification of higher order needs rather than lower order needs. In a study done by Ofoegbu (2004) in Nigeria on teacher motivation as a factor for classroom effectiveness and school improvement; he found that teacher motivation enhance classroom effectiveness and improve school.

Teachers are arguably the most important group of professionals for our nation’s future. Michael Owa (2002) in her study on the analysis of the key determinants of teacher motivation in the developing country context, found that large class size, double shifting, rural location, high educational attainment and active parental involvement negatively correlated with teacher job satisfaction in these countries. She further found that the level of communication between teachers and school managers had no statistically significant impact on teacher job satisfaction.

Motivation can be intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic factors include enjoyment, personal satisfaction etc while extrinsic factor include salary, working conditions and so on Oscan (1996) propose that teacher motivation is likely to be enhanced by three types of rewards in which one of it is intrinsic rewards. He described intrinsic reward as the inner feeling experienced within the individual such as joy, pleasure and psychological satisfaction. As elsewhere, many factors affected teachers’ motivation and job satisfaction levels in Nigeria. Adelabu (2005), classifies these factors according to three main categories, namely job context, job context, and reward system.

Job context: public schools in Nigeria are a collection of dilapidated buildings, many without toilet and other basic facilities. The schools are staffed by tired and frustrated teachers and attended by poorly fed, disenchanted pupils. This environment does not engender high job morale.

Job content: teachers, particularly in elementary schools, are seriously over-worked. A usual government teacher is required to teach between seven to eight periods each day to classes which often have more than forty pupils. Teachers are also expected to assist with other school based activities that are sometimes labour intensive.

Reward system: The reward systems in terms of pay packages and promotion do not appear to have job motivation as its goal.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Despite the fact that government has improved the teacher payroll management, and made resources available for the increase in the secondary school teachers’ salaries as a way of motivation, there are still many factors considered to be militating against the full motivation of teachers in the secondary schools in Nigeria including in Abakaliki metropolis. More so, there has been deteriorating standards of professional conduct including serious misbehaviour (in and outside of work), poor preparation of teaching materials especially lesson notes, lack of continuous students’ assessment, general poor professional performance, and teacher absenteeism are unacceptably high and rising.

According Dibia (2008), teacher job satisfaction is an index for quality assurance in education. Apparently, motivation strategies such as conference, seminars, workshop, in-service training programme, welfare packages (housing and car loans), prompt payment of salaries and other remunerations are pertinent to improve teachers’ proficiency. For Nigeria to cope with 21st century technology revolution, something positive has to be done to rescue the situation. There is therefore need for government to encourage science teachers through payment of enhanced allowances and pointed out that lack of interest and low performance of students were due to the neglect of the teachers’ welfare. It is such a situation that has prompted the researcher to conduct a study to establish the various factors that affect he extrinsic and intrinsic motivational measure and how they had affected teachers’ performance in secondary schools in Abakaliki Metropolis

  • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY.

The main purpose of the research is to establish the factors affecting the motivation of teachers in secondary schools in Abakaliki metropolis.

Specifically, the study will find out

  1. The role of the motivation of teachers in secondary schools in Abakaliki metropolis.

Ii        Types of motivational factors of teachers in secondary schools in Abakaliki metropolis.

Iii       Impact of motivation on teachers’ performance in secondary schools in Abakaliki metropolis.

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Topic: Factors Affecting the Motivation of Teachers in Secondary Schools in Abakaliki Metropolis

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