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Electronic Learning Gadgets (E-Learning) -Use in Assessment of Learning Outcome in Computer Science Students

The Use of Electronic Learning Gadgets (E-Learning) in Assessment of Learning Outcome in Computer Science Students


This research investigated the use of electronic learning gadgets (e-learning) in assessment of learning outcomes in computer science students. The sample comprised of 100 students in computer science department of National Open University Abagana in Njikoka L.G.A of Anambra State. A sample random sampling technique was used in selecting the 100 computer science students from 200 and 400 levels respectively. Questionnaire was used as the instrument for data collection. The data was analyzed using mean and frequency table. The findings showed that insufficient e-learning gadgets like computers, teleconferencing etc, and lack of larger laboratory halls for e-learning militate against learning outcomes in students in computer science department. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that; Awareness and training programme should be organized to inform and teach students on how to use some of this gadgets, and more computers and e-learning laboratories should be equipped and built to improve the students performance in assessments using e-learning.



Background to the Study

In this age of information and communication Technology (ICT), there is growing concern for the use of ICT resources such as the computer, scanner,  printer, intranet, internet, e-mail ,videophone system, teleconferencing devices, wireless application protocol(WAP), radio and microwaves, television and satellites, multimedia computer, and multimedia projector in curriculum implementation. In e-learning, curriculum content in the form of texts, visuals, e.g pictures, posters, videos, audio/sound, multi color images, maps and graphs, can be simultaneously presented online to students in both immediate locations (classroom model of e-learning) and various geographical distances(Distance Education model of e-learning)

E-learning in education is the wholesome integration of modern telecommunications equipment and ICT resources, particularly the internet, into the education system. Tracy (1995) defines the internet as the international network of communications in which computers in the Wide Area Network (WAN) communicates with each other. Shavinina (2001) defines ICT as all the digital technologies, including: computers, scanners, printer, telephone, internet, digital satellite system (DSS) direct broadcast satellite (DBS), pocket switching fiber optic cables, laser disc, micro waves and multimedia systems for collection, processing, storage and dissemination of information all over the world. E-learning as an aspect of ICT is relatively new in Nigerian’s educational system. It is a departure from the conventional approach in curriculum implementation. The main purpose of e-learning is to transform the old methods and approaches to curriculum implementation and not to silence the curriculum or to extinguish or erase the contents of curriculum.

E-learning (Electronic learning) is driven by the curriculum. It should follow the curriculum and should not rob the curriculum of its essence. E-learning should also ensure effective pedagogy and curriculum implementation in the computer age. According to Nicholls and Nicholls (1980), Mkpa (1987), and Offorma (2002), curriculum implementation is the planning and execution of the contexts of curriculum in order to bring about certain changes in the behavior of the learners and the assessment of the extent to which the change takes place. The primary aim or purpose of implementation is to achieve the objectives of instruction, and achieve retention and transfer of knowledge.

E-learning is an instructional medium that permits alternative approaches to curriculum implementation in an ICT age. Richmond (1997) observed that, there is a great link between the curriculum and ICT. Similarly, the role of ICT in curriculum implementation is recognized by the Nigeria National strategy of Education (FRN), 2004, p.53) where it stated that, “the government shall provide facilities and necessary infrastructures for the promotion of ICT and e-learning

Statement of the Problem

There is an urgent need to improve the quality of education and also assessment of student in order to bridge the gap between developed and developing nations and e-learning is considered as a necessary tool for this purpose. However, the presence of e-learning or ICT alone will not stimulate significant changes in the learning outcome of students. Teachers are important ingredient in the implementation of such outcomes.

However, without the involvement of teachers, most students may not take advantage of all the available potential benefits of using e-learning. Teachers need to actively participate in the use of ICT and e-learning gadgets and facilities. They have to be trained in the use of ICT and other e-learning gadgets and in its integration in the classroom activities and also in the assessment of students to enhance thinking and creativity among students. They must also learn to facilitate and encourage students by making them responsible for their own learning. Many of the current graduates were found to be lacking in creativity, communication skills, analytical and critical thinking and problem solving skills (Teo and Wong 2000; Tan 2000)

In this study, attempts are therefore made to examine the use of electronic learning gadgets (e-learning) in assessment of learning outcomes in computer science students.

Purpose of the Study

Specifically, the objectives of this study are to:

  1. Determine the use of e-learning gadgets in assessment of learning outcomes in computer science students.
  2. Determines the availability of the instructional e-learning gadgets in the teaching and assessment of students.
  3. Determine the pattern and frequency of use of the e-learning gadgets by teachers in the selected schools for assessment of learning outcomes.
  4. Investigate the adequacy of e-learning gadgets for teaching and assessment of learning outcomes.
  5. Identify factors, if any, which limit the use of electronic learning gadgets (e-learning) in assessment of learning outcome of students.

Significance of Study

There has not been much study in the use of electronic learning gadgets (e-learning) in assessment of learning outcomes in computer science students. The finding of this study, no doubt will have a lot of implementations for teaching and assessment using e-learning gadgets. It is on this basis, that recommendations will be made towards redesigning the curriculum of teachers training institutions and universities so as to equip prospective teachers with the competencies required for effective use of this e-learning gadget in teaching and assessment of students.

Further researchers will learn from the work and use it as a reference base where necessary

Knowledge of the use of ICT or e-learning gadgets in teaching and assessment of students will help teachers make more valid decisions regarding the learning outcome of students and thus helping them improve their teaching strategies.

Also parents should be informed on the importance of e-learning in teaching and assessment of students. By this, they can always help in financial assistance.

By this also, students will be able to benefit by knowing the kind of assessment method that is favorable for them.

Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the use of electronic learning gadgets (e-learning) in assessment of learning outcomes in computer science students. The study is limited to undergraduate students of National Open University, Abagana in Njikoka L.G.A who are in 200 and 400 levels of the study. The department is limited to computer science department. It is believed that this category of students would have adequate knowledge of resources available for use.

Research Questions

The study is structural to prove and answer to the following questions:

  1. To what extent are the electronic learning gadgets used in assessment of computer science students?
  2. How available are the electronic learning gadgets for assessment?
  3. What is the pattern and frequency of use of electronic learning gadgets for teaching and assessment by teachers?
  4. How adequate are the electronic learning gadgets for assessment in computer science?
  5. What factors limit the use of electronic learning gadgets in assessment?



The literature review for this study is discussed under the following headings:

  1. History, Nature and Meaning of E-learning gadgets
  2. History, Nature and Meaning of e-assessment
  3. Methods of e-assessment
  4. Merits and Demerits of e-assessment
  5. Appraisal of reviewed literature


Electronic learning (e-learning) is defined as Education through the internet, network, or standalone computer. In other words, e-learning refers to using electronic applications and processes to learn. Jay cross (2004) has normally been created with coining the term e-learning in 1998. However, the term seems to have been in far back as 1997. It was first called “internet based training” then “web based training” today you will still find these terms being used along with variation of e-learning, E learning and e learning.

Electronic learning is the use of electronic media for a variety of learning purposes that range from add-on functions in conventional classrooms to full substitution for the face-to-face meetings by online encounters (Guri Rosenblit, 2005). It can also be described as taking a course online using a modem, wireless or cable connection to access academic course material from a computer, phone or handheld device (Governors State University, 2008). Marque (2006) describes it as learning through remote resources. It is the use technology to deliver learning and training programs (electronic learning portals, 2009).

There are many definitions of e-learning from different authors. Some authors see it as a new way of learning or as an improvement on an existing educational paradigm. Aldrich (2005) sees e-learning so and he gave his own definition as the

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