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Design and Fabrication -Laboratory Greywater Recycling Plant

Design and Fabrication of a Laboratory Greywater Recycling Plant



1.0 Background of Study



1.1  Problem Definition

In Awka, water supply has been a major problem because all the three existed public water supply schemes operated by Anambra State Water Corporation are in deplorable states. These public water supply schemes are Imo-Awka water scheme, Amawbia water scheme, and Okika water scheme. In Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka (NAU) in particular, there has been unavailability of public water supply because none of the schemes was originally connected to the university at the time it was operational. Therefore, the alternative sources of water supply left to the university are either surface water or groundwater. Unfortunately, the only existing and reliable source of surface water close to the school is the Ezu river. The river is located at the boundary between Amansea and Ugwuoba communities. Investigation by Okonkwo (2010) showed that Ezu river can produce enough yield needed to serve the population of Awka and its environs effectively, but has not attracted government attention.

The second optional source is groundwater, although much effort has been made to depend on it, yet its reliability has been questionable. This is due to the fact that the groundwater formation of Awka and its environs lie on Imo shale formation. This shale is intercalated by few lenses of sandstone which are too thin to allow sustainable yield that will serve an institution like NAU. This condition is manifested in very low yield especially during intensive dry season by shallow wells presently existing in the school hostels. (Nwajuaku,  2010).

Hence in the light of the above circumstances, the reuse of greywater for purposes such as toilet flushing in UNIZIK hostels can be a potential solution to water demand particularly in the dry seasons. This is because the resident student population could contribute substantial amount of greywater for recycling.

1.2   Aim of the Study

The aim of this study is to treat greywater with a view to reduce turbidity, biochemical oxygen demamd (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solid (TSS), total dissolved solid (TDS), and total hardness concentrations as well as bacterial load to make the effluent suitable for domestic purposes using a low cost technology.

1.3  Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study are:

  1. To determine the efficiency of a greywater recycling system.
  2. To determine a cost-effective treatment process and operation that will be adopted in water reuse applications in the future.
  3. To determine a level of treatment using a low-cost wastewater  reclamation technology.

1.4 Scope of Work      

This study focused on design and fabrication of a laboratory greywater recycling plant for treatment of greywater collected from the female bathroom basins of the university hostel at NAU. A total of five samples of raw greywater taken every morning were analyzed before and after the experiment in order to evaluate the efficiency of the recycling plant.

1.5      Justification for the Work

The development of groundwater resources in UNIZIK hostel has not kept pace with the population growth of students in the hostels. The greatest problem is the inadequate supply of water in the university hostels especially during dry seasons. Hence adequate exploration of alternative sources of water such as greywater recycling is an important consideration.

Data collected in course of interviewing students from female hostel showed that the hostel has a total of two hundred and forty (240) rooms and a room uses an average of 15 litres of water per person per day for bathing. This equates to about 60litre/capital/day for a room of four students thereby resulting in greywater availability of about 14,400 litres daily, which is sufficient to meet water demand.

Greywater recycling systems in commercial buildings that provide water for toilet flushing can save over 40 percent of the building’s annual water demand (Funamizu et al, 1998). If this water is metered, there will be a reduction in water bill. Therefore, recycling of greywater will help reduce energy associated with pumping underground water in school hostel.

1.6  Description of Study Area

The study was conducted with greywater from two female hostels, namely Prof. Dora Akunyili and Chief Stella Okoye hostels in Nnamdi Azikiwe University, (NAU) Awka.  The university is located at about 45km distance from Onitsha, one of the commercial nerve centres of eastern Nigeria and 55km from Enugu, the capital city of Enugu State. The school is on the right hand site of Enugu- Onitsha Express way when accessed from Enugu. It lies between latitude 60 201 1511N and 60 151 2011N and longitude 70 0413511 and 70 71 2211 E. its location has two distinct seasons namely dry season (October to March) and rainy  season (April to September).

—This article is incomplete———–This article is incomplete———— It was extracted from a well articulated quality Project, Research Work/Material

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Design and Fabrication of a Laboratory Greywater Recycling Plant

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