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COMPOSITION OF PLEUROTUS TUBER-REGIUM ITS NUTRITIVE IMPORTANCE

CHAPTER  ONE

  •                                                        INTRODUCTION

 

1.1.  BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

         Pleurotus tuber-regium, also known as the king tuber mushroom, is an edible gilled fungus native of the tropics, example, Africa, Asia, and Australasia. (Oso, 1977) It has been shown to be a different species unable to cross-breed and phylogenetically detached from other species of Pleurotus  (Adenle,1985).

  1. tuber-regium is a form of saprotroph found on dead wood, including Daniellia trees in Africa. (Okhuoya and Okogbo,1990) show that when the fungus consumes the wood, it produces a sclerotium or storage tuber, either in the decaying wood or else in the underlying soil. These sclerotia are round, dark-brown, they have white interiors, and are up to 30 cm in width. The fruiting bodies then emerge from the sclerotium. Both the sclerotium itself and the fruiting bodies are all edible. (Oso, 1977)

In addition to it being saprotrophic, P. tuber-regium is as well nematophagous, catching nematodes by process of paralyzing them with toxin (Adenle, 1985). P. tuber-regium has a history of economic importance in Africa as food and as a medicinal mushroom. (Isikhuemhen and LeBauer,2004) Industrial cultivation is still uncommon, but resent studies show P. tuber-regium can be grown on organic wastes such as corn, sawdust, cardboard (Osaige,1986). Mycelial growth occurs between 15°C and 40°C, with an optimum growth rate at 35°C. (Oso, 1997)

In broad terms, mushroom is a non traditional horticultural crop, having high quality protein, fibre and minerals. Most edible fungi have strong enzyme system and are capable of utilizing organic compounds, agricultural waste and industrial by products. They can transform lignocellulostic biomass into highly quality food, with good flavour nutritive value (Pearson, 1981). In the world mushroom production, Pleurotus are rated second after Agaricus bisporus. In 1986, Pluerotus spp production accounted for approximately 7% of the total world production of edible mushroom and  by 1990, it moved to 24%. The consumption of mushroom in Nigeria is still very low and restricted to the rural areas, since it is still perceived as delicacy for the poor. In order to fully maximise the benefits derived from mushroom consumption and its economic value, intensive effort has been directed towards the training of farmers by Nigerian researchers using  modern methods of its propagation, to produce affordable mushroom for Nigerians.

The proximate and mineral composition of locally available mushroom, are speculative. It is a common sight in the rural areas in West Africa for women to gather mushroom (Chihara, 1993). A critical problem is the identification of non poisonous species as traditional and rural settlers consume mushroom, due to its availability because it grows naturally on deadwood and organic materials. Modern science has shown that mushroom strengthens immune system, increases antibody level and helps to lower blood pressure, because of its low level of sodium. Its hypoglycaemic effect was confirmed in diabetic induced rats (Choudhary and Bandyopadhyay 1999). Results of investigations have shown that some varieties inhibit tumour, reduced blood cholesterol, they are also used in the treatment of duodenal ulcers, gives body resistance against fever, helps in the maintenance of healthy lungs and also used in reducing bleeding. Conflicting values of the nutritional potential of mushroom have been reported, which has been attributed to strains, composition of growth substrate, method of cultivation, stage of harvesting and specific portion of the fruiting body used for analysis ( Enwere, 1989).

1.2.   JUSTIFICATION

In the rural community of Umenye  in Isu Local Government area of Imo State of Nigeria.  Pleurotus tuber-regium  soup  is a  delicacy of the people . Owing to the interest and likeness for mushroom soups by most people in my community, I saw a need in finding out the nutritive and mineral content of  Pleurotus tuber-regium  which is a common soup thickner in  my community and most parts of the South Eastern States of Nigeria.

1.3.      AIMS OF THE RESEARCH

The aims and objective of the research include the following;

  • To evaluate proximate and mineral composition of Pleurotus tuber-regium
  • To create awareness on the nutritive importance of Pleurotus tuber-regium

—This article is not complete———–This article is not complete———— This article was extracted from a well articulated quality Project, Research Work/Material

 

Topic: COMPOSITION OF PLEUROTUS TUBER-REGIUM  AND ITS NUTRITIVE IMPORTANCE

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