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Chemical Plant Design

Chemical Plant Design – Production of 4-Hydroxy 2- Butanone by the Dehydrogenation of 2, 4- Hydroxy Butanol

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of Study

This is a chemical plant design project for the production of 4-hydroxy 2- butanone by the dehydrogenation of 2, 4- Hydroxy butanol. In Other words, it is a chemical Plant design for the dehydrogenation of 2, 4-hydroxy butanol to obtain 4-Hydroxyl-2 butanone. Chemical Plant design is the Part of chemical Engineering Concerned with Processes which change the Composition and Properties of Matter, though in bulk through the application of fully engineering principles, Specified Plant and items of equipment. These Changes may be either Physical or chemical in nature or even both. Process design is also concerned with the development and design of these processes and the improvement of Processes already in existence. It achieves these through the application of chemistry, Physics, Physical Science, mathematics as well as economics and other basic engineering principle.

Chemical Process design is Principally Concerned with the application, hence it is an iteration decision making tool used in the development of chemical engineering system for optimum Conversion of resources into useful and desired ends. In an attempt to produce a sound process design of any Plant, the knowledge of mass transfer and energy transformation will be fully Considered, and these are interpreted in the laws of Conservation of mass and energy Stated thus;

(a). The Law of Conservation of Mass States that “in a Closed system, the total mass of the System remains Constant regardless of the Changes taking Place within the System “.

(b). The law of conservation of energy is fully based on the first Law of thermodynamics and it states that “energy Can neither be Created nor destroyed but can be transferred from one form to another “. Thus the total energy of the Universe or a System remains Constant.

These two laws are the basis of the known material and energy balances in Process Plant design operation. Process design usually invokes the design of systems for carrying out certain desirable chemical and Physical processes reactions for the Production of desirable products.

To design a chemical Plant, knowledge of the functions and working conditions and parameters of the major Compounds are desirable. Thus, to design a chemical plant for the Production of 4-hydroxy-2-butanone, a full knowledge of the material expected Such as the major Product (4-hydroxy-2-butanone) must be highly desirable so that the designer have the full knowledge of the material being handled and are able to determine the best Variable and routes that would follow in the design of such a plant to achieve optimization. Based on this reason, an indebt study of 4-hydroxy-2 -butanone, its physical and chemical properties, reactions, manufacturing processes and uses are briefly discussed in the literature review.In the design of a chemical plant like that for the production of 4 –hydroxy -2 butanone, the major Considerations include: Material balance to account for the material being handled by the plant, the energy balance across the items of equipment to account for the energy requirement of the equipment and the plant as a whole, the reaction variables, materials of Constriction for the plant and the economic analysis of the plant.

1.2 Statement of Problem

Design a plant for the production of 4-hydroxy 2- butanone by the dehydrogenation of 2, 4- Hydroxy butanol.

  • Aims and Objectives of the Project.

The aim of this project is to design a plant that will produce 2.6×105 metric tonnes per annum of 4-Hydroxyl-2 butanone by dehydrogenation of 2, 4-hydroxy butanol.

This design Project is aimed at exposing the Student chemical engineering to the intricate requirements adequate for a sound and practical design of plants in the field of practical endeavor. It gives the Student a Clear picture and understanding of physical and chemical processes involved in a chemical plant. The Students are made to go back and put into practice all they have learnt Concerning Chemical engineering.

Also, the extent of industrial and technological advancement of a Country is usually measured by the Variety of Products it Processes from the available raw material provided by nature. In this Case, where 4-hydroxy-2-butanone can be conveniently produced from 2, 4-hydroxy butanol (dehydrogenation) through the designed chemical plant at hand, it will be better to here 4-hydroxy -2-butanone produced locally instead of importing it at exhorbitant Prices and disposing 2, 4-hydroxy butanol at a giveaway price in the international market.

The raw material for the production of 4-hydrox y 2-butanone is 2, 4-hydroxy butanol which can be Source locally and cheaply. Production of 4-hydroxy-2-butanone will thus Save the Country the much needed for foreign exchange.

The purpose of this project is also to prepare a preliminary design of a plant that will produce 150000 metric tonnes per annum of 4-hydroxy-2 butanone. The project is intended to ginger up manufacturing firms into 4-hydroxy-2-butanone production and hence reducing the country’s dependency on developed countries for the supply of 4-hxdroxyl butanone.

4-hydroxy-2-butanone is a very important chemical product because of its applications and uses in other industries. The timely establishment of these industries to use this important product will not only foster diversification in our country but will also boosts the country’s revenue.

1.3 Scope of the Project

The scope of the project covers the following areas of interest,

(a). Detailed process description.

(b). Material balance on the flow process diagram.

(c). Energy balance on the flow sheet.

(d). Detailed chemical engineering design of the principal items involved in the process, that is reactor, heat exchange (Condenser), and the rectification Column (fractionating Column).

(e). Detailed mechanical engineering design with sketches suitable for submission to a drawing office of selected units involved in the Process.

(f). Safely considerations and plant location.

(g). Economic analysis of the plant.

—This article is incomplete———–This article is incomplete———— It was extracted from a well articulated quality Project, Research Work/Material

Project Topic: Chemical Plant Design – Production of 4-Hydroxy 2- Butanone by the Dehydrogenation of 2, 4- Hydroxy Butanol

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