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Cement -Materials and Methods of Casting in Sculptural Pieces

 Materials and Methods of Casting in Sculptural Pieces using Cement



The emphasis of this project is how to correctly cast sculptural pieces using cement and different applications of cement as a sculptural medium, cement is a material that is mostly used in contemporary African sculpture, because of its affordability, availability, durability and slow crystallization and hydration. Cement is a powdery substance made by caleining (limestone), lime and clay, mixed with water to form motar or mixed with sand, gravel and water to make concrete.

The Background of the Study

There is an unintellectual of identification cement as a material and its methods of casting; difficulties and constraints associated with casting approach, phobia of materials and its usages in experimentation of modern sculptural media, limitation of sculptural materials to its pre-historic media like stone, wood, terracotta and Ivory.

Cement historical background, could be traced to early uses, it is uncertain where it was first discovered. Technically, a combination of hydrated non-hydraulic lime and a Pozzolan produces a hydraulic mixture, but concrete mode from such mixtures was first used by the Ancient Macedonians and three centuries later, on a large scale by Roman engineers. They used both natural Pozzolans (trass or punice) and artificial Pozzolans (ground brick or pottery) in these concrete, According to Hill, Donald and Routledge (1984: 106), in the history of Engineering in classical and medieval times. Although any preservation of this knowledge in literary sources from the middle ages is unknown, medieval Masons and some military engineers maintained an active tradition of using hydraulic cement in structures such as canals, fortresses, harbors and ship-building facility. The technical knowledge of making hydraulic Cement was later formalized by French and British Engineer in the 18th Century.

According to Macedonians in British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) news Europe, in the most general sense of the word, a cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together.

The word “cement” traces to the Romans, who used the term Opus Caementicium to describe masonry resembling modern concrete that was made from crushed rock with burnt lime as binder. The Volcanic ash and pulverized brick additives that were added were to the burnt lime to obtain a hydraulic binder were later referred to as cementum, cimentum, cament and cement.

Cement used in construction in characterized as hydraulic or non-hydraulic. Hydraulic cement example; Portland cement) harden because of hydration, chemical reactions that occur is independent of the mixture’s water or when constantly exposed to wet weather or water. The chemical reaction that result when the anhydrous cement powder is mixed with water produces hydrates that are not water soluble. Non-hydraulic cement (example; gypsum plaster) must be kept day in order to retain their strength. The most important uses of cement are as an ingredient in the production of mortar in masonry, and of concrete, a combination of cement and an aggregate to form a strong sculpture material.

Modern Cement

Modern hydraulic cement began to be developed from the start of the industrials revolution (around 1800), driven by three main needs. Hydraulic cement render (Stucco) for finishing brick building in wet climates. Hydraulic mortars for masonry construction of harbor works, etcetera. In contact with sea water and development of strong concretes.

In Britain particularly, good quality sculptural stone became even more expensive during a period of rapid growth, of it became a common practice to construct prestige building from the new industrial bricks, and to finish them with a stucco to imitate stone. Hydraulic limes were favoured for his, but the need for a fast set time encouraged the development of new cements.

Most famous was parker’s “Roman Cement”. This was developed of James Parker in the 1780s, and finally patented in 1796. It was, in fact nothing like any materials used by the Romans, but was a “Natural cement made by burning Septaria-nodules that are found in certain clay deposits, and that contain both clay mineral and calcium carbonate. The burnt nodules were ground to a fine powder. This product, made into a  morter with sand, set in 5-15 minutes. The success of “Roman Cement” led other manufacturers to develop rival products by burning artificial mixtures of clay and chalk.

According to Laurie, Schneider Adams, (2005) while writing on the architecture of the ancient Romans in her book,  Art Across time, started that the Romans assimilated and Etruria she went further to say that “the Romans recognized the potential of cement which had been invented in the ancient Near East”. Thus invariably, it will be safe for one to assume that the ancient Near East were the ones that invented or first made use of cement which is one of the mixtures used in concrete.


Exposition of the inability to achieve minor sculptural volume such as:- Finger, Leg and surface impression. Volume Brittleness of sculptural piece in regards to inability to fix the positive parts of the work in cement any production, non crystallization and its hydration of setting inability, un mass-production of sculptural pieces, the weakness of mould-making investment, has constituted some problem in this area of sculptural production. It has also made up-coming sculptors to look for alternative sculptural materials thereby reducing the use of cement as a sculptural material.


The identification of materials and its suitable methods. Analysing the criteria that are involve in the issue of casting in technical and its theoretical aspect; engaging in experimentation of piece and waste mould in regards to casting production, emphasis on the issue of non-crystallization, to highlight the criteria in the issue of cement durability.


It has the nitty-gritty of materials and its methods of casting to enlighten every sculptural students in executing their works; To liberate the phobia of sculptural material usage; the study goes further to threat the material-constants of a sculptor because of inability to experiment the essence of being truthful to the material, thus the sculptor should know the suitable applicational material in every sculptural media; the arithmetical approach of cement mixture, in order to achieve a good finishing.


Using cement as a medium of casting, cement as a medium of direct method of modeling in sculpture, environmental research on sculptural pieces done with cement, practical exposure of sculptural piece, using cement as a medium of investment and its casting approach.

This thesis traces the migration of sculptural media from the ancient to the modern era, strategies of applying cement as a sculptural medium to register in the negative inner-surface to achieve a positive sculptural piece.


Scarcity of text books in regard to the modern sculptural media affected the process of this research and it’s affected textbook that back them up in ancient period.

Financial constraints this is concerned with library, tour and flow transportation fee and internet subscribing, type writing and the compliment of project. Time factor this has to do with second semester limited time and its elaborated curriculum both practical and theoretical disciplines.

Unconducive environments inadequate electricity breeches the internet browser and it causes hot temperature inside the browsing rooms

—This article is incomplete———–This article is incomplete———— It was extracted from a well articulated quality Project, Research Work/Material

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