Urinary Tract Infection Prevalence among Pregnant Women

Urinary Tract Infection Prevalence among Pregnant Women at Antenatal Clinic at Federal Teaching Hospital

ABSTRACT

Pregnancy is the joy of every married woman, but this pregnancy is associated with some physiological changes in the body that subject the woman to some degree of vulnerability and prone to infections especially urinary tract infection. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of knowledge of urinary tract infections among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (FETHAI) in Ebonyi State. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study. The study population comprised of 784 pregnant mothers that attended antenatal clinic from January to August 2012 at Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki. A sample of 265 pregnant mothers were used and random selection were used to reach the respondents in the antenatal clinic. Data for the study were collected through the use of self-structured questionnaire that have been scrutinized and validated by the project supervisor. Data collected were analyzed with the use of frequency distribution tables and percentages. The major findings revealed that 184 (71%) of the respondents had knowledge of urinary tract infection which refers to any infection that affect the urinary tract like the kidney, bladder, urethra and others. Majority 236(91%) are not knowledgeable of the signs and symptoms of urinary tract infections. Also 228(88%) do not have knowledge about the predisposing factors of urinary tract infections and 230(89%) do not know the preventive measure of urinary tract infections. Also, the factor responsible for urinary tract infections among these pregnant women was poor hygienic practices. Based on this findings, the midwives should always give health talk to pregnant women on urinary tract infections so as to lower its occurrence among pregnant women and in the society at large.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Pregnancy is the joy of every married woman, but this pregnancy is associated with some physiological changes in the body that subject the woman to some degree of vulnerability and prone to infections especially urinary tract infection. This is because during pregnancy the urinary tract is subjected to pressure from the growing uterus making it more prone to urinary tract infections Cunningham (2008).

However, the knowledge of pregnant mothers on their susceptibility to urinary tract infections will make them to take all the necessary precautions to avert urinary tract infections, while lack of this knowledge will contribute to the frequency of its occurrence during pregnancy.

Urinary tract infection is the invasion of microorganisms to the urinary tract. Urinary tract infection defined as an infection of one or more structures of the urinary system  (Mosby’s Medical Dictionary, 2009). Urinary infection is also defined as a bladder, kidney or urethral infection due to bacteria that typically have entered urethra during the process of sexual intercourse, poor hygiene, improper wiping techniques and any other reasons Kate (2005).

A variety of signs and symptoms are associated with urinary tract infections in pregnancy and this includes: polyuria, frequent urination, pain during sexual intercourse, blood or mucus in urine, having a burning sensation during urination and among others (Litwin, 2007). Urinary tract infections are caused by pathogenic microorganisms in the urinary tract. The normal urine is sterile above the urethra. The main etiologic agent is Escherichia coli. It is also caused by species of Klebsiella, Proteus, pseudomonas or enterobacter, although some strains such as Staphylococcus and Serratia are emerging (Mosbys Medical Dictionary, 2009).

It was observed, by Gilstrup and, Ramin (2008) that Iwornen with acute pyelonephritis may develop significant implication such as preterm labour, transient renal failure acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sepsis and lock.

Moreso, Adabara et al. (2002) in her study at General Hospital Minna reported that 75.5% of pregnant women are found to be positive of urinary tract infection. Hence all pregnant women should be screened and treated for bacteriaemia during antenatal clinic. Hence make the pregnant women free from the infection and be healthy for labour and delivery.

Statement of the Problem

Several studies done on the incidence of urinary tract infections among women in and outside Nigeria showed that there is an increase in it’s occurrence.

In Nigeria, Akerele et al, (2005) reported an increasing rate of 86.6% on their study on the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy.

The researcher during her clinical posting in Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (FETHAI) observed the poor hygiene nature of these pregnant women that attends antenatal clinic which can lead to urinary tract infections (UTIs) and due to this fact, the researcher was prompted to carry out this study to find out if these pregnant women are really knowledgeable about urinary tract infections in pregnancy.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to assess the level of knowledge of urinary tract infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (FETHA I).

Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study are:

  • To determine the pregnant mothers level of knowledge of the signs and symptoms of urinary tract infection in pregnancy.
  • To determine the pregnant mothers knowledge of the predisposing factors of urinary tract infections in pregnancy.
  • To determine the knowledge of pregnant mothers on the preventive measures of urinary tract infection

Significance of the Study

The findings of this research will help to:

  • Reveal the knowledge of pregnant mothers to the signs and symptoms of urinary tract infections thereby making nurses to alert the mothers on the early signs and symptoms, easy identification and prompt treatment.
  • The findings also revealed the pregnant mothers knowledge on the predisposing factors of urinary tract infections and also help to health educate them in other to prevent it’s occurrence and to ensure a healthy mother and child.
  • It will also help the health workers to organize health talk on urinary tract infections among pregnant mothers.
  • It will also serve as a reference for future studies.

Research Questions

  • What are the level of knowledge of pregnant mothers on the signs and symptoms of urinary tract infections in pregnancy?
  • What are the level of knowledge of pregnant mothers on the predisposing factors of urinary tract infections in pregnancy?
  • What are the level of knowledge of pregnant mothers on the preventive measures to be taken on urinary tract infections in pregnancy.

Scope of the Study

The study was restricted within Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (FETHA I) with special reference to pregnant women attending antenatal clinic.

Operational Definition of Terms

Pregnant Women: They are those women with growing foetus in utero being used as the sample in carrying out this research work.

Urinary Tract Infections: In this study refers to those bacterial infections that affects any part of the urinary tract of a pregnant woman like the bladder, kidney, ureter and the urethra characterized by polyuria, dysuria, blood or mucus in urine, pain or burning while urinating, pain during sexual intercourse and the others.

Level of Knowledge of Pregnant Mothers: Means the quality of information which these pregnant mothers have acquired about urinary tract infections.

Signs and Symptoms of Urinary Tract Infections: In this research work refers to the manifestations of those infections that affects any part of the urinary tract of a pregnant woman such as pain or burning while urinating, pain during sexual intercourse, polyuria, dysuria and among others.

Predisposing Factors of Urinary Tract Infection: In this study are those unhealthy practices, and disease conditions which exposes pregnant woman to urinary tract infection and it includes poor hygiene, improper wiping techniques, diabetes mellitus, kidney diseases and others.

Preventive Measures of Urinary Tract Infection: In this research refers to those precautions which should be taken by pregnant mothers to prevent the occurrence of urinary tract infection and it includes proper hygiene, wiping from front to back with soap and clean water after each bowel movement, use of best choice of contraceptive prescribed by the doctor and the others.

Antenatal Clinic: This is a branch of the hospital where this study is being carried out on pregnant women, these pregnant women converge in the antenatal clinic to receive care, advice, supervision, education and information from the healthcare providers from the time pregnancy is diagnosed to the onset of labour.

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