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Training and Development on Workers Productivity

The Impact of Training and Development on Workers Productivity

A Case of Lemon Nig Plc Owerri

 

CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  • History background of manpower training and development in Nigeria.

The late 1940’s and early 1950’s a great deal of political awareness on the part of the citizens of this country. The end of second world war brought the coming of Nigerians who participated in the war. This period coincided with the coming home of the elites who went abroad to acquire western education, while the elite fought for political independence, they also rigorously sought to participate in the formulation and execution of policies that effect them in Nigerians.

In 1980’s the staff development division logos was named Nigerianisation of civic service. However, not much training was embarked upon them, but by the middle of 1960’s to rapid changes in political, economic and social life of the country, it becomes dear that manpower training and development was needed to solve the problem of shortage of skilled manpower requirement.

In 1969, a commission carried out a survey on the training needs of the federal civil service was set up. The survey was carried out by Professor C.P. Wale, a senior consultant in the public administration department of university of Ile-Ife. One of the significant recommendation of Wale report was the establishment of staff development. It also ensured that Nigerians especially those in strategic position in administration and other professions were develop rapidly to carryout their duties and responsibilities with speed, competency and efficiency. In the efforts to meet up with the above recommendation, a lot needed to be done to achieve the desired objectives.

Advance management: this is for officers on grade level 13-16 five advanced managerial courses were run annually since 1974 with an average of twenty five (25) participants.

Middle management training: This course is for officials on grade level 09-12 run size middle management course per year.

Training for management support: this include secretarial training and clerical training and also training for messengers and receptionist. These course were taken at the industrial training centers which are located at Lagos Kaduna and Ilorin.

Since inception, training and management development have becomes an integral part in both public and private administration. All policies made in organization area supposedly aimed at achieving the goals and objectives for which the organization was established. The twin concepts of training and development seldom escapes the intellectual base of organizational policy formulations in bid to design effective programmes for eventual attainment of organizational policy makes towards assuming a functional relationship between workers training and development and the potentials performance and productivity of the prospective beneficiaries such training and development programmes. The above chains that there is a functional relationship between training productivity as well as effective performance solidification that it has become impossible to make any empirical role acceptance of productivity and performance, only a few of the many types of training programmes have been subjected to extension research. Some authors are of the opinion that training and development literature is voluminous non-empirical, non-theoretical, poorly written and dull

2.2     AN OVERVIEW OF THE CONCEPT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

The term training has been used most often to refer to the teaching of technical skills to non managerial personnel. The relevance of training cannot be over emphasized once recruitment and selection are made. The next step in providing appropriate human resources for the organization is training. Training helps to mold the behaviour of an employee to suit the job requirement. Industrial firms, volunteer organizational educational institution and other segments of our society should emphasis the need to train their human resources.

According to Njoku (2007:10) manager through training ensures that organization members skills and abilities are retained for development of their jobs effectively in the present and in the future. There is often a gap between what employees do known and what they should know. This knowledge gap is filled through training. On the other hand, plus positive change. It services and income which in turn translate to improved the overall effectiveness of managers. In their present position and to impose the technical human relations and conceptual skills of managers. Management development programmes have become prevalent in recent years because letting experience along, trained workers is too time consuming and unreliable process.

Salvi (2012) Training is an educational process. People can learn new information re-legin and reinforce existing knowledge and skills, and most importantly have time to think and consider what new options can help them improve their effectiveness at work. Effective trainings convey relevant and useful information that inform participants and develop skills and behaviours that can be transferred back to h workplace.

Training is concerned with organizational axctivity aimed at bettring the performance of individuals and group in organizational settings.

Chukwuemeka (2015:42 Training is one of the most important ways to develop employees. Training is organizational activities intended to improve the performances of individuals and groups in organizational settings. Training and development refers to the practice of providing training, workshops, coaching, mentoring, or other learning opportunities to employees to inspire, challenge and motivate them to perform the functions of their position to the best of their ability and within standards set by organizational guideline. Training and development activities provide all involved parties with the tools hey need to develop professionally, increase their knowledge, effectively work with families, and build their capacity to perform the task associated with their positions within the system.

Training and development ahs three important steps. Training, education, and development.

  • Training: This activity focuses on an individual’s current job and is evaluated based on that current job.
  • Education: This activity focuses on jobs an individual might hold in the future and is measured based on those potential jobs
  • Development: This activity focuses on potential future activities of he organization and is therefore extremely challenging to evaluate.

2.3     PRINCIPLE OF TRAINING

According to Flip (2000:206) for training to be effective, a number of effective principles need to be applied.

The main major principles include.

1        Motivation: The major highly motivated trainees are the learn. The training must therefore be relate to trainees defers needs and wants. Such as job recognition, prestige and promotion. In effect learning is most effective when the trainees realize that they can fulfil certain needs through training.

2        Practice learning participation: Practice make performance perfect is appropriate here. Practice learners participation or learning by doing is a difficult term which implies active participation. It is a prerequisite for effective learning since the greater the mantel of human sense involve the more complete the learning process. In essence carefully designed practices method is quite essential to effective learning.

4        Feedback knowledge of result: This means that learners are allowed to know the trainers were wrong as regard on the training. For example, supervisors should let employees know their success and failure so that they can make amendment where necessary. Research findings have shown that people learn lesser when they informed of their accomplishments.

5        Transfer of Learning: Training should be related to job performance, skill, knowledge and attitude acquired in taining but if not used on the job cannot contribute ot organizational goals. such as phenomenon will not encourage employees’ purse further training, learning is likely to occur between situations that have many common elements. This underscores the desirability of ensuring that as much as possible, training tasks are similar to job tasks.

6        Distribution of training period: This refers to the questions of optimal distribution of the time available for training. It relates to the spacing to training, the length to training sessions and the intervals between sessions. Three distributions normally depend on several facors related to the nature of the task and characteristics of the trainees. A reasonable distribution of available training programme.

2.4     STEPS FOR MAINTAINING THE EFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING PROCESS

Training is meant to improve the performances of individual and groups in organizational setting and should not be done haphazardly.

The training of individuals is essential in steps: according to Chukwuemeka (2015:47)

  • Consider the organizational objectives
  • Identifying Training needs
  • Determine the training objectives
  • Select the trainees
  • Select the training methods and mode
  • Select the trainer
  • Administer training
  • Evaluate the training

The relationship among these steps is presented in the following:

Consider the organizational objectives

The business should have a clearly defined strategy and set of objectives that direct and drive all the decisions made especially for training decisions. Firms that plan their training process are more successful than those that do not. A well conceived training program can help your firm succeed. A program structured with the company’s strategy and objectives in mind has a high probability of improving productivity and other goals that are set in the training mission. A clear vision of its mission, strategy and objectives, a company can identity its training needs.

Identifying Training Needs

Training needs can be assessed by analyzing three major human resources areas: the organization as a whole, the job characteristics and the needs of the individuals. Being by assessing the current status of the company how it does what it does best and the abilities of our employees to do these tasks. This analysis will provide some benchmarks against which the effectiveness of a training program can be evaluate. The firm should know where it wants to be in five years from its long-range strategic plan. A training program is required to take the firm from here to there.

Second, consider whether the organization is financially committed to supporting the training efforts. If not any attempt to develop a solid training program will fail.

Next determine exactly where training is needed. It is foolish to implement a company-wide training effort without concentrating resources where they are needed most.

Determine Training Objectives

The goals of the training program should elate directly to the needs determined by the assessment process outlined above course objectives should clearly state what behaviour or skill will be changed as a result of the training and should relate to the mission and strategic plan of the company. Goals should include milestones to help take the employee from where he or she is today to where the firm wants him or her in the future. Setting goals help to evaluate the training program and also to motivate employees. Allowing employees to participate in setting goals increases the probability of success.

Selection of Trainees

One you have decided what training is necessary and were it is needed, the next decision is who should be trained? For a small business, this question is crucial. Training an employee is expensive, especially when he or she leaves your firm for a better job. Therefore, it is important to carefully select who will be trained.

Select Training method(2)

The next step is to choose the appropriate training method(s) that will be most effective looking at the nature of the organization, the resources available, the trainees involved, etc. there are two broad type of training available in small businesses on-the-job and off-the-job techniques. Individual circumstances and the “who”, “what” and “why” of your program determine which method to use.

Select the Trainers

Who actually conducts the training depends on the type of training needed and who will be receiving it on-the job training is conducted mostly by supervisors; off-the-job training, by either in-house personnel or outside instructor. Whoever is selected to conduct the training, either outside or in-house trainers, it is important that the company’s goals and values be carefully explained.

Training Administration

Having planned the training program properly, the next in line is to administer the training to the selected employees. It is important to follow through to make sure the goal are being met. Questions to consider before training begins include location, facilities, accessibility, comfort, equipment and timing careful attention to these operational details will contribute the success of the training program.

Evaluation of Training

Training should be evaluated several times during the process. Determine these milestones when you develop the training. Employees should be evaluated by comparing their newly acquired skills with the skills defined by the goals of the training program. Any discrepancies should be noted and adjustments made to the training program to enable it to meet specified goals. Many training programs fall short of their expectations simply because the administrator failed to evaluate its progress until it was too late. Timely evaluation will prevent the training from straying from its goals.

2.5     METHODS OF TRAINING

These methods of training are not mutually exclusive but invariably oveerlap and employ many of he same technique. The method of training adopted by the organization is determined by various factors which include cost, time, available numbr of persons to be trained, depth of knowledge required and other things. Training can be undertaken by development of internal programs or using programs provided by outside agencies.

However, most organization with sizeable training programs use both sources, trying to arrive at a balanced approach after careful evaluation of training need and facilities (Ohiri 2002).

The methods of training include:

  • On the job training: this is perhaps the most common form of training method used in an organization. It involves training employees for job, tasks under the fuidance of an experienced worker. The experienced worker which may e a supervisor through advice and suggestion teaches the specific method of handling the job. However, in a country such as Nigeria, the method of conducting of the job training varies form the learners trail and error, his undirected observation of experienced and some causal systematic instruction to systematically structure training aids and written explanation, pictures, chats and tape recordings. The advantages of this method are that the employee is using the same machine, equipment which he will be used after the training.
  • Apprenticeship Training: This method combines on the job training and regular instructing. By combining the practical and theoretical aspects of that job, the employee acquires both skill and knowledge: it is best where extensive training, manual skill is reaquired. For example to become a motor machine operator, judicious of practical and theoretical knowledge makes the trainee a professional soon after the apprenticeship training.
  • Vestibule Training: This is often referred to as off-the-job training. In this aspect of training, the trainee is not in the regular environment but is taught how to do his job in an identical situation using the same kind of equipment that he will use at job sit. The employee is allowed to learn without the normal risks associated with on-the-job training.
  • Classroom Training: This involves seeding employees who have acquired for their jobs to conferences. This type of training is undertaken by person secretaries, office managers and typist and clerical officers.

2.6     Method of developing Managers

Managers can be developed in different ways. In an organization managers are developed through the following ways;

Method coaching and understudies

Job rotation

Assistant to

Multiple management. According to Njoku r. (2001:124)

Coaching method: This is one of the most frequent used methods, especially for management trainees. As myles mace pointed out, the most effective way of providing is through the conscious coaching of subordinates by their immediate superiors.

Job rotation: Some organization encourages job rotation this is in order to give he trainee an appreciation of the different department and also the opportunity to learn form different superiors, where this is effectively practical, thereappears to bae open communication and understanding. No single executive becomes indispensable as manager. A, can execute he responsibilities of manager Bl, in all good management development programs, job rotation is encouragaged.

Assist to. “An assistant ot be a staff function. The trainee carries out all the duties assigned to him by his superior. He under studies the superior for eventual take-over of he apprenticeship system.

Multiple management: One can say that this method is not all that po0ular in Nigeria. Here, a committees or juniors boards rotated among members of management. This method help, in the formulation of police, making decisions and helps their implementation. However, the ex-organization methods include:

Special courses

Membership of professional bodies

Evening programs

Sensitivity programs.

Business games

Membership of committee

Special assignment.

2.7     RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRAINING, DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY

Training and development is one of the most basis of the management functions. The reason is because it involves improvement of the quality of employees which is aimed at determining the organizational mission. Strategies and objective productivity of its own designates how effective and efficient an organization uses its resources, hence productivity is define as the relationship between the output generation form a system and the inputs provided ot created those outputs. According to Aniogoh (1984:89) the relationship between training, development and productivity cannot be overlooked in that productivity is a major objective for most organizations and productivity is equally a way of vie win an organizations effectiveness and efficiency.

They are given more responsibilities, have high degree of technical competency and high degree of production. All these effects of training and development have positive ipact on productivity, this is the inter relationship.

2.8     REASONS FOR TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OF WORKERS PRODUCTIVITY

The important for training and development include according to Ohiri (2002)

  • Increase in Organizational stability and flexibility: by increasing a reservoir of trained employees, organization can sustain its effectiveness in meeting short run variation in environmental conditions.
  • Increase in productivity: Increase in skill and ability automatically result in increment. In both qualities no quantity of employees modern jobs are high technical in nature and call systematic training of the employees.
  • Moral boosting: Possession of needed skills is essential for the employee to satisfy his need such as security, safety and ego satisfaction.
  • Reduced suspension: After the training, employees need little supervision.
  • Reduced Accidents: Proper training of employees is essential for the employee to satisfy his need such as security, safety. So to reduce accident.
  • To avoid Peter principle: For an individuals promotion to be meaningful, such factors as individuals potential to perform effective on the new job must be enhanced by proper training
  • To meet individual inherent growth needs: According to psychologists, individuals have certain needs which it satisfied will lead to motivation and which not satisfied will lead to different degrees of dissatisfaction, and in some cases to psychotic behaviour.
  • To adopt dynamic environment: Organization willingly attempt to maximize the benefit between the job and the individuals employee, that is to say that organization strive of the achieve man-job equilibrium as a result of the dynamic nature of he internal and external environment of the organization.

The impact of Training and Development of Workers Productivity

A       Manager development: One of he effects of training and development is the managers development. If the organization is to live a dynamic existence, attention must be paid to the development of individuals potentials at all levels, so that there will be advancement in their career and eh organization can make he best use of the human and material available.

b       High degree of technical competence: his is the effect of training and development which is as a result of having adequate to training on the specific job one performs when one has degree of technical competence he tries to perform more thus increasing productivity according to Ajougu (1995).

c        High Level of performance: training encrgies an employee to perform better than when not given adequate trained & developed, there is he tendency that his performance on his job will improve.

d       Acquisition of skills: Adequate training leads ot acquisition of skill. When an employee will acquire skills, knowledge, theories and principles that are involved in performing he job and can boast of acquiring skills in that job and practice without fear.

e        Reduction in supervision: When employees are trainined and hey know heir duties and rsoponsibilies they know heeir duties and responsibilities hey need less supervisors.

f        increase in sales and work: Training and development is seen as that which influences he work ability of the employees whch invariable leads ot increase in productivity as a result of efficiency there will definitely be increases in sales.

g       Enhance organization efficiency: Efficiency designates the achievement of organizational set goals with fewer amounts of resources. When employees are adequately trained and hey become high performance with little or no wastage, as a result of the modification and skills acquisition on job.

h       increases Organizational Stability and Legibility: Stability is an organizational ability to sustain its effectiveness despite the lost of some key personnel.

i        Reduction in accident and Wastage: Most accidents are caused due to deficiencies on the plant and machinery so is the case with wastage time, raw materials etc are wasted because employments do not know what to do.

2.9     PROBLEMS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPOMENT

Many of the failure in management programme are attributed to an unsystematic approach of training and development.

In modern industrial world, training always take place in context of particular opportunities and constraints which should influence choices of both the content of training and the method employed in advising on the design of a training scheme, the trainer have ot recognize that factor such as the characteristics of the trainees, the sociaol acceptability and the methods proposed may turn out ot be just as important as determining a theoriticla ideal set of condideal set of conditions of learning.

Some of the major problems of workers training Nigeria include according to Ubeku (1973:105)

a        Superior and subordinate cumbivalence: Most supervisors feel that the training calculation process put them in he position of playing God.

b       Unqualified resources personnel Unqualified resources personnel have cause great problems in training of workers in Nigeria. The achievement is nothing if a lawyer is called to train an electrician as it is in some institution of learning in Nigeria today Njoku C.V and Nwosu A.N. 2010.

c        Problems of equipment: Most of the equipment is very foreign to trainees aid the recipient found them difficult ot understand their operating systems.

d       Lack of adequate funding: Most of the training requirement in Nigeria and the industry of the particular require adequate funding.

e        Training environment: Training ecology is composed of a number of elements such as the organization orientation and induction factors, the rules and the regulations, the attitudes and skills of the supervisors and the moral level of the training group.

f        Emphasis on programmes instead of result: Some executive take pride in the large number of employees enrolled management training and development courses but benefits derived from attending these course but negligible unless they satisfy clearly defined training needs in other words, many companies have generous training budgets with many employees participating in various programmes but make no effort to evaluate the effect of the training on employees performance.

g       Limiting manager development to selected few: sometimes people think that management development requires placing few people with high potentials on a training programmed while ignoring the rest of the employees.

h       Failure of training and development is to achieve enterprise objectives and develop professional managers.

 Solution to problem of Training and Development

There are number of factors that contributed to the success fo an organization, these factors include: capital,, equipment, manpower etc, all these factors are important but the most significant factors is the human factor, since it is the people that will put the other resources to work, it should be viewed as such by management by given or giving it organizational goals and objectives. Manpower training aimed at ensuring that the right person is available for the right job at the right time.

This involves formulating a forward looking plan to ensure that the necessary human effort to make it possible for the survival and growth of the organization, it becomes imperative to develop the employee.

Consequences of lack of training on employees productivity in recent years researchers have found out that there is a difference between having the experience of job and knowing the job for one claim what he or she has the experience does not means that he known everything or is capable of handling all the aspects of the job.

1        High wastage of Input: When workers who area unable to handle a particular job due to lack of training high wastage of inputs like machine, capital, materials resources.

2        Non-Existence of human relations: According to Amah (2006) some managers especially those in approach which is professional areas fail to achieve success in their establishment because hey lack human relations approach which hey may not acquire through formal education.

3        Obsolescent workers or managers who are not trained don’t move with time.

4        Low morale lack of training diminishes the moral of workers.

2.12   SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER

Training and development of workers productivity are very vial in any organization, the purpose of training and development is to achieve enterprise objectives and develop professional managers.

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