Assessing The Knowledge on Premenstrual Syndrome Among Women

Assessing The Knowledge on Premenstrual Syndrome Among Women of Reproductive Age (15-45) Years in Nursing Science Department, Enugu State University, Enugu

ABSTRACT

The study assessed the knowledge on premenstrual syndrome among women of reproductive age (15-45) years in Nursing Science Department, Enugu State University, Enugu. To this effect, three objectives guided the study to assess the knowledge of premenstrual syndrome among women of reproductive age (15-45yrs), to determine the impact of premenstrual syndrome on the health and academic performance of women of reproductive age (15-45) years and to identify the age range that are mostly affected with Premenstrual sydrome among women of reproductive age (15-45) years in Nursing Science Department, Enugu State University. Related literature was reviewed and summarized. A descriptive research designs was used for the study. The study population comprised of 108 female student (100-200level). A self-structured questionnaire validated by the project supervisor was used to collect the needed data. The data collected were analyzed with the use of frequency distribution tables and charts. The result of the study showed that majority of the women of reproductive age (15-24years) are aware of premenstrual syndrome, majority 82.4% said it has negative impact on their health and academics performance and the age range of women of reproductive age that experience this syndrome falls between 15-24years. Based on the findings, it was recommended that public health nurse educate Women of reproductive age on what premenstrual syndrome are, its signs and symptoms and the management strategies to adopt in other to reduce its negative impact on their health.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Menstruation is associated with some problems which may impact the health of the person, and it may be before or after its commencement while in some cases, it have no associated problems. However, menstruation is typically a universal event during a woman’s reproductive life, and it causes a lot of concern when it is not seen monthly by this group. It shows that the female has matured to womanhood. When some symptoms occur before the menstruation it is known as premenstrual symptoms and when multiple symptoms occur repeatedly in a cyclic fashion, it is known as premenstrual syndrome.

Premenstrual symptoms associated with premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) may impair the overall physical health of a woman as well as interpersonal relationships, daily routine, and work productivity (Dean and Borenstein, 2006). This severe form of PMS has been termed “Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)” and is usually marked by severe depression, irritability and tension before menstruation. These symptoms are more severe than those seen with premenstrual syndrome (Lindberg, 2008).

Premenstrual symptoms are the cycle changes that a woman perceives as troublesome or problematic which escalate before menstruation, whereas Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) is a diagnostic term used for the cyclic recurrence of psychological and/or physical symptoms within the luteal phase (7-14 days before the onset of menstruation) and then disappears after the menstrual period cycle (Davis, 2009). PMS is not always considered as pathological unless the woman starts suffering from feelings, which are out of control in their behaviours, which may affect their relationship with others especially with the intimate partner (Davis, 2009).

The exact etiology of the Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) are not clearly understood but have been attributed to hormonal changes, neurotransmitters (especially serotonin regulation), prostaglandins, diet, drugs and women’s lifestyle (Bailey and Cohen, 2008).

PMS treatment is based on relieving symptoms. Treatment begins with a thorough assessment of the woman’s symptoms and their impact on her daily life. Treatment options for PMS involves both non-pharmacologic (such as diet modification, vitamin supplements, exercises) and pharmacologic approach (such as the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, oral contraceptives and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents) (Indusekhar, Usman and O’Brien, 2007).

Knowledge is familiarity, awareness or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions or skills which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering or learning. Gaining knowledge has been regarded as an important goal towards improving an individual’s health status. It also helps to gain a means of controlling feelings and powerlessness. Conversely, a lack of knowledge can attribute to a variety of responses including anxiety and self care deficit (Marven and Escobedo, 2008).

 Statement of the Problem

Symptoms experienced by women premenstrually vary, but most of them experience some symptoms that signal that menstruation is approaching. Severe PMS symptoms have negative impact on academic and social performances of the women of reproductive age. PMS has been studied and evaluated extensively in the West and only a handful amount of research studies have been conducted on the experience of Enugu women. Today most of the research studies among women of reproductive age (15-45yrs) have focused on nutritional problems, anemia, obesity, menstrual hygiene and menstruation.  Very little information is available on Premenstrual Syndrome.

Also, the researcher during her academic and clinical experience in her study have come across students being absent from school predominantly during menstruation and also felt that heightened mood swings and other negative symptoms which affects the academic and personal life among students could also be attributed to premenstrual syndrome. During professional life too, the researcher felt that premenstrual syndrome (PMS) would equally have an impact on workplace, which may lead to reduction in work efficiency.

Due to these observations, the researcher therefore felt a strong need to take up this study to assess the knowledge of PMS among women of reproductive age (15-45years) in Nursing Science Department Presco Campus, ESUT.

 Purpose/Objectives of the Study

The purpose of this study is to assess the knowledge on Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) among women of reproductive age (15-45yrs) in Nursing Science Department, Enugu State University, Enugu.

It is thus designed specifically to:

  1. To assess the knowledge of premenstrual syndrome among women of reproductive age (15-45yrs) in Nursing Science Department, Enugu State University, Enugu.
  2. To determine the impact of premenstrual syndrome on the health and academic performance of women of reproductive age (15-45) years in Nursing Science Department, Enugu State University, Enugu.
  3. To identify the age range that are mostly affected with PMS among women of reproductive age (15-45) years in Nursing Science Department, Enugu State University.

 Significance of the Study

This study is expected to help the researcher acquire detailed knowledge of the topic under study, help the researcher to educate the women of reproductive age (15-45yrs) on what premenstrual syndrome is all about and how best to cope with it, be a guide for other researchers, help health workers especially nurses and advanced practitioners who are frequently the first line of contact with women of reproductive age via a campus health clinic, adopt better methods of educating and providing resources for women on campus, thus contributing to early identification and intervention for women negatively impacted by their premenstrual symptom experience, and equally assist the ministry of health embark on awareness campaign to educate and provide resources to the women of reproductive age (15-45yrs) in all rural areas on how best to manage and cope with premenstrual syndrome.

Being a nursing research, this study will add to the available literature which other researchers will use to buttress their study on the similar topic and it will add to the growth and development of the study and also the nursing profession.

Research Questions

  1. What do women of reproductive age (15-45) years in Nursing Science Department, Enugu State University, Enugu understands as premenstrual syndrome?
  2. What are the impacts of premenstrual syndrome on the health and academic performance of women of reproductive age (15-45) years in Nursing Science Department, Enugu State University, Enugu?
  3. What are the age range that are mostly affected with PMS among women of reproductive age (15-45) years in Nursing Science Department, ESUT?

 Scope of the Study

This research is carried out among women of reproductive age (15-45) years in Nursing Science Department, Enugu State University, Enugu to assess their knowledge of premenstrual syndrome and its impact on their health.

 Operational Definition of Terms

Understanding the purpose of this study requires clarification of common terminology associated with this topic. The following list of terms was used throughout:

  • Knowledge of reproductive mothers: The sum of what women of reproductive age know about PMS.
  • Premenstrual Symptoms: A cyclic physical or emotional changes (signs) that make up premenstrual syndrome which a woman perceives as troublesome or problematic and that escalates before menstruation and subsides after menstruation begins.
  • Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): A diagnostic term used for the physical and emotional symptom that occurs repeatedly in a cyclic fashion preceding menstruation (7-14 days before the onset of menstruation) and then disappears after the menstrual period.
  • Women of Reproductive Age: Female human who gives birth to children during the age of 15 to 45 years
  • Impact of premenstrual syndrome (PMS): Is the effect of premenstrual syndrome on the health of women of reproductive age (15-45) years.

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