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Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Among Quarry Workers


Project Topic: Estimation of Total and Free Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) among Quarry Workers at Ezza Umuoghara Quarry Site ln Eza North Local Government, Ebonyi State

1.0          Introduction

Quarries have been very important in environmental development and also serve a means of employment and source of income. A quarry is a type of open pit mine from which minerals are extracted. They are used for extracting building materials such as dimension stone. They are usually shallower than other types of open pit mines (Kumaggi et al., 1978).

Stone or rock quarrying is a multistage process by which rock or stone is extracted from the ground and crushed to produce aggregates (granites and many other  minerals) which is then screened into required size for immediate use or for further processing such as coating with sidemen to make bituminous macadam (bitimae) or asphalt (Terpordei et al., 2002) .

Thus, it is this process stone or rock quarrying that crystalline silica quarter can be produced, which is said to have a significant impact on the environment, workers or people living near by possibly due to the increase circulation of dust (Raymond et al., 2010). Read More »

Posted in Department of Medical Lab. Science, Faculty of Natural Science, Medical / Health Sciences | Tagged , , | Leave a comment

Justice in Plato’s Political Philosophy

Project Topic: The Concept of Justice in Plato’s Political Philosophy vis-a-vis Nigerian Situation


  1. Notion of Justice

1.1       Meaning of Justice?

The word justice comes from the Latin word “Justitia” or “Justus” meaning equitableness, unprejudiced, adjudication of conflicting interest on the basis of legal or moral principle, lawfulness; what is rightful due. In fact, it is simply the way in which each person gets what belongs to him. This is why the yardstick for measuring the worth of any human society is the level of justice and fair play in that society.[1]

In giving credence to this view P. J. Proudhon rightly attests that:

Justice under various names governs the world -nature and humanity, science and conscience, Logic and morals, political economic, politics, history, literature, and art. Justice is that which is most primitive in the human soul, most fundament in society, most sacred among ideas, and what the masses demand with great ardour. It is the essence of religions and at the same time the form of reason, the sacred object of faith, the beginning, middle, and end of knowledge. What can be imagined stronger, more complete than Justice?[2] Read More »

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Effect of Colonialism on Nigeria’s Political System

Project Topic: Effect of Colonialism on Nigeria’s Political System



The pitiable state of the Democratic system in Nigeria has raised a lot of questions and dust to political scientists, sociologist and philosopher. Questions like what is the cause of this terrible political system we have in this country? What relevance is our education since it cannot have any influence on our political system nor is Nigeria still suffering from the effect of colonialism? Questions like these and others that led us into a philosophical investigation into both the problems of Nigeria’s political system and the effects of colonization on Nigeria system of politics, and of what relevance is education or literacy going to be in the elimination of such problems.

The political system said to be practiced in Nigeria is Democracy, which we know is best, understood in words of Abraham Lincoln as the government of the people, for the people and by the people. But in Nigeria’s case it seems to be the contrary because Democracy in Nigeria appears to be impoverishing and exploiting the citizenries of this country.

However, the dormant and unfunctional nature Nigeria’s educational system seem to complicate issues; so this work is geared towards discovering the basic problems of Nigeria’s Democracy and how we can re-activate our educational and moral probity from being a dormant entity into an active entity which would have some influence on our Democratic system of governance. Read More »

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Extra-Sensory Perception (ESP) In African Cultural Context

An Inquiry Into The Idea Of Extra-Sensory Perception (ESP) In African Cultural Context In The Light Of William James’ Pragmatic Notion Of Truth



1.1     Historical Background And Development Of Extra-Sensory Perception

We must hold open door to the possibility that the ways of knowing may be multiple and that each of these ways may be entitled to be dominated by the term ‘knowledge’…traditionally, epistemology has tended to confine itself to sense perception and intellectual cognition. The latter narrowly conceived. But this does not appear sufficient. Knowledge is an event by which human consciousness emerges in the light of being. We cannot prescribe in advance how being is to be revealed.[1]       

How do we know?” is the epistemological question that has spurred interminable disagreement among philosophers down the ages beginning from the Greek skepticism, to the idealism of Plato, realism of Aristotle, moving through the neo-Platonism, to its climax in rationalism and empiricism. The contention is whether the senses or reason should be accorded primary status in acquiring knowledge. The empiricists agree that our knowledge comes essentially through the senses and this is represented in this scholastic axiom: Nihil est intellectu quod non prius fuerit in sensuthere is nothing in the intellect which was not first in the senses. Even spiritual realities such as God are knowable by the human intellect only because the foundation of such concepts existed in what is in the senses and could be derived from sense knowledge by a process of reasoning and analogy. The Rationalists hold that reason is the essential source of knowledge. However, Immanuel Kant, harmonizing the two opinions (views) says that knowledge is the synthesis of the epistemic contributions of both the senses and reason, with the senses being the starting point in the process of acquiring knowledge. Read More »

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The Immortality Of The Soul In Plato

Philosophy and Religion Project Topic: The Immortality Of The Soul In Plato


Man is a being faced with numerous difficulties, problems, foes and so on. Perhaps the worst and the most dreaded of these foes is death. It has been tagged an arch-enemy of man, the destroyer of man, non-respecter of person, and has a host of other negative connotative words and names. Around the world and in many religions and cultures, people have sought to explain and demystify death, but with minute success.

At the bottom of all our phobias and neurosis lies a fear of death. This is so, probably because of the uncertainty surrounding death. Such things as: whether the experience will be painful or dehumanizing in some way? Whether there will be extension of life after death; whether death is the end. Even not being able to see the beloved once again in this earthly existence is enough puzzlement. All these are problematic realities which face and confront one as one encounters death or the death of a beloved one.

These were the dilemma in which Socrates’ friends and followers found themselves. Socrates, a teacher, a lovable friend, a just man, and an inculcator of morals; faced with option of death was irreconcilable, by his followers or friends. Phaedo expressed his emotion thus; “I felt an absolutely incomprehensible emotion a sort of curious blend of pleasure and pain combined as my mind took it that in a little while, my friend was going to die”. How can it happen, that the loved one will not be seen again in “saecula saeculorum”. Xanthippe, Socrates’ wife could not bear it, and she broke out thus, “Oh Socrates, this is the last time that you and your friends will be able to talk together”. They were afraid that he will be gone and gone forever. Read More »

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The Impact Of Marketing Concepts In Nigeria


The Impact Of Marketing Concepts In Nigeria Banking Industry A Study Of Enterprise Bank Ltd Abakaliki Branch



Earlier in 1986, the structural adjustment programme (SAP) and with the deregulation that came with it, customer satisfaction did not mean much to the banks. Precisely, bank customers bear whatever services the bank offered to them.

Chukwu (2000) observed, “Banks were not mindful of the need to improve their service quality as the financial service sector to Nigeria remained bankers’ market”. Customers matched their needs against the services provided by the banks. It was such that they were not particularly bordered if the services were rejected by the customer. Banks appeared to have access to excess liquidity. The competition in the industry that followed caused the bank manger to sit up.

Because of competition which came into the sector, it became imperative or the banks to be courteous and efficient in their services the survival of banks under aggressive competitive setting compelled banks to invest in human resources, modern technology and the development of new products, services and concepts to meet the never challenging needs of their various groups of customers. With the aggressive competition in banking industry today, of its apparent necessity. There have been growing interest in applying marketing strategies to the field of banking in recent times in order to retain your potential customers and make new ones”. Read More »

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Problems Of Examination Malpractice And It’s Effects On The Academic Performances

Problems Of Examination Malpractice And It’s Effects On The Academic Performances Of Secondary School Students In Cross River State




Examination Malpractice: Education in the general sense covers the whole of an individual from birth till death or from cradle to grade, which shows that education is as old as man on earth. The formal school system is greatly influenced in its result on the lives of all who pass through it. In Nigeria before the 1840’s there was in existence a system of education which was broadly traditional, occupationally oriented and informal apprenticeship system. This type of education as at that time was relevant to the needs of the society. The advent and influence of the Christian Missionary activities affected a change from the informal system of education to the western oriented type of education. Preference was no longer for hardwork but acquisition of certificate. However, education is the greatest investment a nation can make for the quick development of its economy, political sociological and human resources. The development of any nation depends on education. The progress of students in education is usually tested by means of examination. According to Ezeocha (1985), Examination is regarded as all form of measurement and education test taken as institutional arrangement to determine the quality of knowledge or ability possessed by candidates as an affirmation or progress towards desired learning goals. If the purpose of examination can be argued to that of social goal, then, any action, intention or intentions aimed at frustrating this purpose is in effect anti-social and hence constitute a social problem. Examinations play vital roles not only in our educational system but also in the society as a whole. The society demands from its member’s adversity of specialized functions. In the Nigerian school system, various forms of examinations are noticed. These are the Entrance Examinations, the Terminal and Promotion Examinations, the Senior School Certificate Examination and the degree or diploma examinations. Students are required to pass any form of examinations they partake in. but these days, students now find various means of achieving success in these examinations and one of such ways is by cheating in examination through leakage in examination papers. Recently, in 2007 Senior School Certificate Examination, there were leakages of examination papers in some parts of Obudu Local Government Area of Cross River State, which led to the cancellation of Mathematics, Literature-in English, Physics and Chemistry. According to Chibuike (1995), a lot of educationists and well meaning Nigerians raised alarm in the mass-media, and magazines that there has been the greatest fall in the standard of education in Nigerian Secondary Schools. Examination Malpractices is a problem to society especially in our secondary schools where our future leaders are trained. As stressed by Ani (1999), Examination Malpractice is rated as one of the greatest problems that undermine the foundation of educational practice in Nigeria today. The magnitude of the problem and the danger posed by this phenomenon has been identified by eminent institutions, examination bodies and educational administrators. They see this problem as a national disease that requires surgical operation. They also attribute this fallen standard of education to Examination Malpractices by the students and teachers. Ani (1996) pointed out that the standard of education in Nigeria has fallen to a deplorable condition.  


The occurrence of Examination Malpractice at any level of educational stratum possess the greatest threat to the validity and reliability of any examination and consequently to the authenticity and recognition of certificate issued. A salient observer of the Secondary School System in Obudu Local Government Area must have noticed the prevailing Examination Malpractice. This exercise has precipitated regrettable appalling consequences, leading to loss of dignity, reputable and pride in the students, parents, and the society at large. The menace of this trend has adversely affected all facet of life ranging from the economic system to the socio-political system of this nation. Due to this ugly practice, the parents have no pride on their wards, and government has little or no qualified and reliable graduates to work with. Students themselves have no regard and value. As a result of this uncontrollable development in school system, the philosophy behind the administration of examination tends to be undermined. Examination Malpractice is such a deliberate act that has raised difficulty in the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of both the practicing students and teachers. This makes nonsense of our certainty and as such the products of our schools are not reliable. To be more precise, parents get wrong information about the actual learning abilities of their children. This research therefore investigates the problems of Examination Malpractice and its effects on the academic performances of secondary school students in Obudu Local Government Area of Cross River State.   PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The main purpose of the study is to investigate the problems of Examination malpractice and its effects on academic performances of secondary school students in Obudu Local Government Area of cross River State. Specifically, the study seeks to investigate:

  1. The effects of Examination Malpractice on the academic performances of Secondary School Students in Obudu Local Government Area.
  2. The effective use of qualified teaching staffs (teachers) in preventing Examination Malpractice in Secondary Schools in Obudu Local Government Area.
  3. The roles the school councilors have played so far in trying to curb this Examination Malpractice in various Secondary Schools in Obudu Local Government Area.
  4. The effectiveness of the use of well trained examiners in controlling Examination Malpractice in various Secondary Schools in Obudu Local Government Area.
  5. The necessary measures that will be applied by the Government in curbing this menace. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
  6. The study will also be of immense benefit to the students themselves. The principal and teachers will equally benefit from the study since they will no more be blamed of not being able to equip the students before the examination. It will also offer them a prepare directives on how to control Examination Malpractices in their various schools. Finally, those who will engage in similar research in the future will find this work a very useful guide.
  7.           The Governments will as well benefit from this study because they will now know that there is problem in the educational sector and then fight it out. It will also offer people who are not within the school system for example, parents and guardians, an opportunity to scan through the results of their wards and further advise them better.
  8. This study no doubt, will be of immense value and assistance to understand the problem of Examination Malpractice and its effects on academic performance of Secondary School Students in Obudu Local Government Area. It is hoped that the outcome of this study will not only equip the chief executive of Examination Malpractice, but will see the members of the Nigerian public who will be the victim of this malpractice when it boomerangs, the traumatic experience.

—This article is incomplete———–This article is incomplete———— It was extracted from a well articulated quality Project, Research Work/Material


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Perception of School Guidance and Counselors on the Efficacy of Guidance Service in reducing Behaviour Problems in Secondary Schools

Factors Affectiong the Motivation of Teachers in Secondary Schools


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An Assessment of Methods of Teaching Computer Courses to Computer Science Students

An Assessment of Methods of Teaching Computer Courses to Computer Science Students

What Is Computer Science

I am a computer scientist. It is probably fair to say that most people know what computers are, but not many are aware of what computer science is all about. This is partly due to the fact that computer science is a very young discipline. On this age, I will attempt to explain my view of computer science. Read More »

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