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STUDY AND DESCRIPTION OF LIMESTONE DEPOSIT IN EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

Detailed Study and Description of Limestone Deposit in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

 1.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION

 

Petrography is a branch of petrology that focuses on detailed description of rock, someone who studies petrography is called a petrogarpher. The mineral content and textural relationships within the rock are described in detail, petrographic description start with the field notes at the outcrop and include megascopic description of hand specimen. However the most important tool for the petrogarpher is the petrographic microscope the detailed analysis of the minerals by optical mineralogy in thin section and the micro texture and structure are critical to understanding the origin of the rock. Electron microscope analyses of individual grain as well as a whole rock, chemical analysis by atomic absorption or x-ray fluorescence are used in modern petrographic laboratory. Individual mineral grains from a rock sample may also be analyzed by x-ray diffraction when optical means are insufficient (Chisholm, 1911).

Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed primarily of calcium carbonate in the form of mineral calcite it most commonly form in clean, warm, shallow marine water it is usually an organic sedimentary rock that forms from the accumulation of shell and algal (geology.com, 2005)

1.2 LOCATION, EXTENT AND ACCESSBILITY

The study area lies within latitudes 6˚27’N-6˚32’N and longitudes 7˚47’E-7˚52’E. It covers an area of about 81.9km2. It is located in the southern Benue Trough and the western limb of Abakalilki anticlinorium. The study area encompasses Nkalagu and its environs in Ishielu Local Government of Ebonyi state. It is bordered to the northwest by Enugu state. The major access route to the area is the EnuguAbakaliki expressway. Minor routes includes untarred Nkalagu-Ehamufu road and a network of footpaths in the adjoining villages that help transversing the area, the villages within the study area include Ogodo, Amguwu.

1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

This research was carried out with a view to map the area and to establish detailed description of limestone in the mapped area. It intends to provide reliable information that would help in determining the mineral content and textural relationship within the limestone it may as well serve as a document that could aid further research.

1.4 LIMITATION OF STUDY

This work is limited to Nkalagu and its environs in Ishielu local government area of Ebonyi state, limestone sample were collected from the open pit of NIGERCEM

1.5 PHYSIOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE

The mapped area is lowlying and is part of gently undulating cross river plain. It slopes gently along the strike from a height of 200feet (about61m) above sea level in the south to a height of 250feet (about 75.8m) above sea level in the north. The study area drainage pattern is by intricate and dendritic network of stream. The dendritic drainage is a result of stream channels cutting across the lithologies that almost show uniform resistance to erosion; however lithology is the dominant factor controlling the mapped area as a result of drainage pattern (Inyang, 1975).

1.6 CLIMATE AND VEGETATION

The mapped area falls within the third climatic region of (Inyang, 1975) that is characterized by nine months of rainfall (March-November) and the dry months of the year (December-February). The average rainfall of the area is about 2125mm during the period of intense rainfall and slightly more than 250mm in the driest month (Inyang, 1975). The influence of harmattan is not too severe and it occurs in the middle of dry season, it features cold dry NE trade wind. The climatic condition of the area is moderate having mean annual temperature of the range 27-28˚c.

The climatic type and temperature favours weathering particularly chemical weathering. Physical weathering in most case was noticed to be achieved by root wedging; the mapped area falls within the nine vegetation of the area is forest savanna, the vegetation is dominantly trees, grasses and occasionally shrub, areas covered by shale support more luxuriant vegetation than area covered by sandstone and limestone (Reyment, 1965). Due to the nature of vegetation and climatic condition in the area the inhabitants practice shifting cultivation method of subsistence level of farming.

—This article is not complete———–This article is not complete———— This article was extracted from a well articulated quality Project, Research Work/Material

Topic:

DETAILED STUDY AND DESCRIPTION OF LIMESTONE DEPOSIT IN EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA

 

To get the full report pay a token of 3,000 naira to the following account

BANK: ECOBANK

ACCOUNT NAME: ODUNUKWE RAPHAEL CHIEMEKA

ACCOUNT NUMBER: 4831029253

Immediately after the payment send your name, topic of interest, e-mail address and location to the following phone number: 07035282233

The full report will immediately be forwarded to you.

GOD BLESS

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SIWES INDUSTRIAL TRAINING (IT) REPORT

CHAPTER ONE  

SIWES Industrial Training (IT) ReportEbonyi State Fertilizer and Chemical Company Ltd

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) was introduced into the Nigeria University System in the year 1971. It is well known that there is greater difference between the knowledge obtained in the Labour market or working environment and what students learn in school.

Ebonyi State fertilizer and Chemical Company Ltd is a Company that is involved in the importation and blending of fertilizer. Blending is the dry mixing of fertilizering materials without any liquid in order to obtain compound or mixed fertilizer. Compound fertilizer is the types of fertilizer that contains two or more simple fertilizer such as Nitrogen-phosphate-potash (NPK) fertilizer.

Fertilizer is defined as compound that is chemically manufactured to supply most of the chemical element added to the soil for the growth of plant. Simple fertilizers that are used in the blending of Nitrogen-phosphate-potash (NPK) includes Urea, Diammonium phosphate, muriate potash and calcium carbonate (Limestone).

The company produce various types of fertilizer such as NPK 20:10:10, NPK 15:15:15, NPK 27:13:13 etc. the blending machine is powered by a pay loader and 350Kva generator plant and a compressor that supplies oxygen to the plant.

However I was attached to production department that is concerned with production and operation of the blending machine.

1.1 LOCATION OF THE COMPANY

Ebonyi State Fertilizer and Chemical Company Limited is located at Onu-Ebonyi Izzi in Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The company was established in the year 15th May, 2004 by Ebonyi State Government. The company is made up of staffs that work in various departments such as Administration production, finance/account, mechanical and electrical department. It also consists of the sole administrator that serves as the general manager of the company.

1.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF EBONYI STATE FERTILIZER AND CHEMICAL COMPANY LTD

Ebonyi State fertilizer and Chemical Company Limited, in an agro allied business venture established by the Ebonyi State government in the year and month may 15th 2004. the primary aim of this establishment into boost agricultural practices in the state and also to reduce stress on farmers, on how to get the quality and quantity of the required product, the company also embarks on the production and distributed of NPK fertilizers which is inorganic fertilizer.

The nature of agricultural in Ebonyi State moved the state government on the idea to establish a fertilizer blending plant at Onu-Ebonyi as an agro- input to increase the soil fertility which will improve crop yield. The company is based in the production of NKP fertilizers.

1.4  ORIENTATION

I was received by the sole administrator into the company on 25th June 2012. he went further to introduce me to the industrial base supervisor that assigned me into production department. The following day being 26th I was introduced to the HOD, Administration and HOD Finance/Account and also to their different staffs in the offices; on 27th I was also introduced to the Engineering department; mechanical, chemical and electrical and also I was introduced that day to the production/operation department. On 28th the general orientation continued on visit to the production shop, floor, plant, house, transformer station.

On 29th June, 2012 the manager organized an induction tagged safety and rules governing the company. The sole administrator elucidated the rules and regulation of the company such as;

  1. Full participation to duty
  2. Regularity and punctuality to duty, wearing of all the safety materials in the factory etc

The industry based supervisor also advised us not to allow the combustion triangle to be complete when in the factory especially at the 350KVA generator set room. This means that wherever there is a combustible substance, fire should be absent and oxygen as well. Whenever there is oxygen and fire, there should be no combustible substance. He also advised not to touch any fertilizer material with bare hands. After the orientation I assumed work with the production department.

1.5 SAFETY MEASURES IN THE COMPANY

Safety simply means being free from danger or situations that can cause harm or injury. In the company there are several safety wears such as:-

  1. Overall:- This is used to cover the body to avoid the damage of the skin by the fertilizer materials.
  2. HANDGLOVE:- It is another safety wear used to protect the fingers from chemical
  3. Respirator or nose mask:- It is used to prevent the inhalation of the chemical to avoid respiratory disease.
  4. Goggles:- It is used to cover the eye to prevent dusts from the fertilizing material from entering the eye.
  5. Ear Muff:– It is used to cover the ear to prevent the noise from the blending plant.
  6. BOOT: It is used to protect the legs from chemical especially during manual blending.

WHY SAFETY IS NECESSARY IN THE FACTOR

  1. To avoid hazards, that can cause diseases
  2. to avoid direct contact with fertilizer material
  3. Noise from the blending machine can cause deafness.

The chemical contains fume that is capable of causing respiratory diseases eg. Asthma and Cough etc.

—This article is not complete———–This article is not complete———— This article was extracted from a well articulated quality Project, Research Work/Material

Topic:

SIWES Industrial Training (IT) ReportEbonyi State Fertilizer and Chemical Company Ltd

To get the full report pay a token of 3,000 naira to the following account

BANK: ECOBANK

ACCOUNT NAME: ODUNUKWE RAPHAEL CHIEMEKA

ACCOUNT NUMBER: 4831029253

Immediately after the payment send your name, topic of interest, e-mail address and location to the following phone number: 07035282233

The full report will immediately be forwarded to you.

GOD BLESS

 

 

 

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PHYSICAL MODIFICATION OF SILICA GEL

CHAPTER ONE

Physical Modification of Silica Gel with the Salen Bis(2,2́-Methylidenephenol)Diaminoethane and the Applications

INTRODUCTION

The use of salen-type tetradendate bis-schiff base ligands has found extensive applications in catalysis medicinal and biochemical fields and until recently, their use as analytical reagents was rarely reported (Nwabue and Okafor, 1992). Presently, the use of Schiff base for solid phase extraction has gained prominence as an analytical tool for preconcentration, trace metal ions determination and separation because of advantages in selectivity, sensitivity, efficiency of extraction, ease of determination of the analyte and as a green analytical method (Senevirantne and Cox. 2000). Also the use of silica gel as adsorbent especially immobilized with various organic compounds with metal chelating ability has received great attention (Kim and Yi. 1999). Most of the literature in this subject area concerns immobilization of the Schiff base on the surface of a solid support such as silica gel by chemical modification. So far not much has been reported on the use of physically modified silica gel with Schiff bases for adsorption and solid phase extraction of metal ions from solutions.

The pollution levels of the environment by heavy metals can be estimated by analyzing soil, water, and sediment and marine organisms after a prerequisite separation and/or pre-concentration steps. The removal and recovery of these metals have become very important because of their detrimental effects on our environment. Various treatment methods for the extraction of metal ions from aqueous solution have been in use, these include reduction, electrochemical precipitation, ion exchange, filtration, evaporation, solvent extraction, reverse osmosis, chemical precipitation, sedimentation, electro-dialysis, flocculation, neutralization, adsorption etc (Patterson, 1985; VoleSky et al. 1990). Most of these methods suffer from drawbacks such as high capital and operational cost or the disposal of residual metal sludge.

There is a strong need to provide chemical analysis more quickly and at low cost, and this implies that effort should be given to sample preparation portion of the analysis. This is aimed at reducing cost, providing more reproducible results, decreasing the use of organic solvent, providing cleaner extracts for instrumental measurements and time saving. These improvements are necessitated because greater portion of sample analysis time is spent in sample preparation. Also, most times, it is very important to determine the analytes in trace and ultra trace levels, for this purpose, there are a lot of highly sophisticated technologies that are fast, sensitive but expensive and complicated.

Although analytical chemists use some powerful techniques like atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), graphite carbon mass spectrometry (GC-MS), inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and graphite flame atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), these techniques are combination of two techniques the sample preparation section and the detection tools (Janghan et al. 2005). These techniques are usually insufficient due to matrix interferences and the results obtained maybe erroneous if the limitations of these instrument are not observed because the metal ions may be present in these samples together with other elements. The high cost of these instruments is another factor that limits their use. The best course to obtaining reliable result is to separate and pre-concentrate the metal ions from the matrix constituents and then determine them in isolated state. Application of pre-concentration, results in the concentration of metal ion of interest while its separation from the matrix constituents results in the simplification of the sample matrix and immobilization of the metal ion in a more stable chemical form (Rakesh et al.2003).

Solid phase extraction (SPE), offers better option for the isolation and concentration of target analytes and the clean-up of samples. Combination of SPE with UV spectrophotometric method reaches the limit of detection of these high cost instruments. This gives opportunity to the small laboratories to increase their efficiency since solid phase extraction is cheap and has a lot of advantages instead of having sophisticated instruments which are always expensive and need a lot of services and accessories.

Objective

 

The main purpose of this project work is to study the adsorptive characteristics of silica gel for physical modification with Salen bis(2,2́ -methylidenephenol)diaminoethane and the application of the modified solid phase for extractive separation, pre-concentration and spectrophotometric determination of trace metal ions.

Specific Objective

To optimize the conditions for physical modification of silica gel with Salen bis(2,2́-methylidenephenol)diaminoethane (BMPDE).

To use the Salen BMPDE for physical modification of activated silica gel.

To optimize the conditions for metal ion extraction using the physically modified silica gel.

To study the effects of possible interferences on metal ion extraction using the modified solid phase.

To use the modified solid phase for pre-concentration and spectrophotometric determination of the metal ions.

To apply the developed procedure for analysis trace metals in real sample water. 

Statement of the Problem

Up till the time of this work, only few other works have been reported on the physical modification of silica gel with bis(2,2́-methylidenephenol)diaminoethane and the application of the modified sorbent for extractive separation and spectrophotometric determination of trace metal ions in aqueous samples. This work will therefore study the physical modification of silica gel with the Salen bis(2,2́-methylidenephenol)diaminoethane and the application of the physically modified solid phase for extractive separation and spectrophotometric determination of trace metal ions.  

 

There are several reports on the use of Schiff’s base metal complexes as catalyst in various organic syntheses and in biochemistry for elucidation of the structures of giant molecules such as proteins and DNA (Jacobsen et al. 1991). Few works have however appeared on the application of Salen type Schiff’s bases as reagents for solvent extraction and for physical adsorption on silica gel for spectrophotometric determination of trace metal ions.

—This article is not complete———–This article is not complete———— This article was extracted from a well articulated quality Project, Research Work/Material

Topic:

Physical Modification of Silica Gel with the Salen Bis(2,2́-Methylidenephenol)Diaminoethane and the Applications

To get the full report pay a token of 3,000 naira to the following account

 

BANK: ECOBANK

ACCOUNT NAME: ODUNUKWE RAPHAEL CHIEMEKA

ACCOUNT NUMBER: 4831029253

 

Immediately after the payment send your name, topic of interest, e-mail address and location to the following phone number: 07035282233

The full report will immediately be forwarded to you.

GOD BLESS

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GEOLOGY OF EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

Geology of Ebonyi State, Nigeria – a Case of Nguzu-Edda and its Environs in Afikpo South Local Government Area

INTRODUCTION

The study area Nguzu-Edda and its environs comprises of villages in Afikpo South Local Government of Ebonyi State. Communities within the studied area include; Achara, Amancho, Amoba, Okpocha, Ekoli, Ebunwana, Ugwufiere, Ufueseni, Owutu, Ekeje, Letu, and Nguzu-Edda.

This project work tends to evaluate the fundamental factors influencing the properties of cohesive soils within the study area. These cohesive soils were found largely in Nguzu-Edda and nearby villages around the study area.

 

1.1      LOCATION, EXTENT AND ACCESSIBILITY

The studied area (Nguzu-Edda and its environs) lies geographically within longitude 70 49l E and 70 54l E and latitude 50 45l N and 50 50l N. It covers an area of 2km2 on a scale of 1:25,000. It is situated in the southern part of the Lower Benue Trough and also the southern part of Abakaliki Anticlinorium.

The studied area is made accessible through major access roads which includes Amasiri-Edda road and Abiriba-Nguzu-Edda road. Minor routes to the study area include the Owutu—Nguzu-Edda road, Ebunwana road, Ufueseni road, and a network of footpaths which were useful in locating the various outcrops within the area see Figure1.

The villages within the study area where the outcrop was exposed include; Ndiba, Amaoba, Ama-Ekpe, Amaiyi, Ebunwana, Ekeje, Ekoli, NdiOloughu, Nkawu, Okpocha, Ufueseni

1.2      AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this study are listed below;

  1. a) To carry out detailed geologic mapping of the study area indicating the various lithologies and noting the physical characteristics of the observed lithologies within   the area
  2. b) Determine the geotechnical properties of cohesive soils, and also to investigate the factors influencing cohesive soil properties. This can be deduced from laboratory tests carried out on the samples. Comparison of these test results derived from laboratory experiments may provide empirical knowledge on the properties of these soils.

1.3      PHYSIOGRAPHY AND TOPOGRAPHY

Afikpo is about 164 square kilometers (km2) in size with an undulating topography and an elevation of about 170m above mean sea level. Notably, sandstone forms its ridge and the shale form the valley (Hulme, 1997). The shale unit underlies the bioturbated sandstone. These bioturbated sandstone have high attitude (deeply steeping strike and dips), this is probably because they have less period of exposure to erosion.

  • Drainage

 

        1. As a result of the landform of the study area, these seem to be surface water runoff. The shale underlying the sandstone also makes surface runoff possible as it does not allow for water percolation.
  • Weather and Climate1.3.3   Vegetation

 

      1. The vegetation type of the area is parkland; this is characterized by stunt trees and pockets of derelict woodland and secondary forest consisting of few shrubs with dispersed large trees and climbers (see Figure3).
      2. There are two marked seasons in the study area; the wet and the dry seasons. The wet seasons begins in March and ends in October. The dry seasons begins from October through February. These two seasons are dependent on the two prevailing winds blowing over the country at different times of the year. The dry harmattan wind from the Sahara desert prevails in the dry season ranges from 20oC to 38oC and during the rainy season temperature ranges from 16oC to 28oC. The average monthly temperature ranges from 31mm in January and 270mm in July. The average annual rainfall varies from 1750mm to 2250mm (Hulme,1997)see Figure2.

—This article is not complete———–This article is not complete———— This article was extracted from a well articulated quality Project, Research Work/Material

Topic:

Geology of Ebonyi State, Nigeria – a Case of Nguzu-Edda and its Environs in Afikpo South Local Government Area

 

To get the full report pay a token of 3,000 naira to the following account

 

BANK: ECOBANK

ACCOUNT NAME: ODUNUKWE RAPHAEL CHIEMEKA

ACCOUNT NUMBER: 4831029253

 

Immediately after the payment send your name, topic of interest, e-mail address and location to the following phone number: 07035282233

The full report will immediately be forwarded to you.

GOD BLESS

 

 

 

 

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GEOLOGY OF CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA

Project Topic: Geology of Cross River State, Nigeria – a Case of Ugep and its Environs in Yakurr Local Government Area


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 LOCATION, EXTENT AND ACCESSIBILITY

The study area is a political unit of Yakurr Local Government Area in Cross River State which falls within Cross River Central. The area lies between latitude 5o45’N and 5o50’N and longitude 8o03’E and 8o08’E, which include villages like; Adim, Ebom, Idomi, Ntankpo and Ugep. It is bounded in the north by neighbouring villages like Ekori and Ediba, with Cross River which is the major river in the northern part of the mapped area. The Eastern part is bounded by Nkpani village, to the west is Ijom town, and to the South are Idomi and Adim. The study area is made accessible by three major road networks; the Abakaliki/Afikpo Road diversion in Abomege through Abomege/Ediba Road to Ugep, Calabar/ Biase road to Ugep and Ikom/Obubra Road to Ugep. There are other footpaths and minor routes that made the accessibility into the rural paths possible. Read More »

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PREVALENCE OF Β-THALASSAAEMIA TRAIT AMONG NIGERIANS

Project Topic: Prevalence of Β-Thalassaaemia Trait among Nigerians- Case of Abakaliki, Ebonyi State


ABSTRACT

Beta-thalassaemia is a group of inherited blood disorder caused by reduced or absent synthesis of beta-chains of haemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anaemia to clinically asymptomatic cases. This study which aims at determination of the prevalence of Beta-thalassaemia trait in inhabitants of Abakaliki between the age of 16-45years was carried out based on estimation of red cell indices using packed cell volume and haemoglobin values of the subjects and also on quantification of HbF using Betke method. Venous blood sample of 100 subjects comprising 50 males and 50 females who met the required selection criteria were collected. Positive diagnosis is made by low MCH, MCV and normal MCHC with elevated HbF above 1.7%. The result analysis shows MCH values of the subjects to range between 20-34 picogram, their MCV ranges from 60-98fentolitre while their MCHC is overlapping within lower limit of the normal range. Their HbF values ranges from 0.4-8.75% seven subjects i.e 3 males and 4 females out of the 100 had low MCH, MCV, and normal MCHC with elevated HbF above 1.7% thus giving a 7% out of the total population study. The significant of the study was determined at a P>0.05 using Chi-square test and was found to be insignificant. Although still insignificant in the population, this study also projects the importance of detection of beta-thalassaemia as a differential diagnosis in patients with hypochromic microcytic anaemia and shows negative results to iron studies in order to avoid wrong diagnosis. Also,there is a possibility of an increase in the prevalence of beta-thalassaemia in this area of study if there is continued ignorance of pre-marital and prenatal screening among pregnant women that have thalassaemic partners. Read More »

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FACTORS AGAINST MIDWIVES’ QUALITY HEALTH CARE DELIVERY

Project Topic: Factors against Midwives’ Health Assessment Practice in Quality Care Delivery to both Hospitalized and Out Patients in Presbyterian Joint Hospital (PJH), Uburu


Abstract

The ability to assess patients is one of the most important skills of nursing, regardless of the practice setting. This study was undertaken to examine the factors hindering nurses’ practice of health assessment of patients in Presbyterian Joint Hospital (P.J.H), Uburu. Related literature were reviewed and summarized. Descriptive research design was adopted to elicit baseline information in the respondents’ natural setting. The sample for the study is 60 nurses of PJH drawn by proportionate purposive sampling allocation out of 150 target population. Questionnaire was used to collect data from the 60 respondents. Instrument was validated by the project supervisor on fact and content. Reliability of the instrument was ensured. Data collected were analyzed by using descriptive statistics of frequency distribution tables, bar charts and percentages. From the findings, majority of the respondents practised health assessment mostly during admission while others carry out health assessment throughout hospitalization and when it is necessary. Lack of instruments, shortage of nursing staff, patients’ non- compliance and language barriers were difficulties nurses encountered during health assessment of patients. Recommendations were made for the appropriate practice of health assessment to improve quality of care given to patients. Pertinent among which include:- inculcating health assessment in the routine nursing schedule so that deviation from normal could be easily identified and provision of adequate equipment/ instrument for easy health assessment. Read More »

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GEOLOGY AND HYDROGEOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF SURFACE WATER RESOURCES

Project Topic: GEOLOGY AND HYDROGEOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF SURFACE WATER RESOURCES IN AFIKPO (EBONYI STATE) AND ENVIRONS


CHAPTER ONE

  INTRODUCTION

1.0 General Introduction

Water is an essential part of the ecological system. Geographically, water covers about 70% of the entire area of the Earth s surface and it is naturally found in streams, oceans, seas, rivers, ponds, lakes, springs and underground (Ogunji, 2004). Biologically, water makes up a large proportion of the total body fluid system of living things. An average water consumptions rate of ten liters per person per day has been recommended for small rural communities (UNICEF, 1988). This value is very small compared to World Health Organization (WHO) standard of at least twenty liters per day per person. Despite this, WHO in 1989 that only 61% of urban dwellers in developing countries have excess to safe water supply sources.  It is also estimated that 1.2 billion people around the world lack access to safe water and close to 2.5 billion not provided with adequate anitation (Third World Water Forum, 2003). In Nigeria, about eight percent 80% of the total population live in rural areas, and less than 50% have access to portable water. The pollutant sources have either been from inappropriate refuse disposal, salt water invasion or contaminants from the host rock (Egboka and Uma, 1985). This is pertinent as water during its movement and storage in aquifer tends to dissolve mineral their host rocks. Higher concentration of these constituent above acceptable standard stands to make the water harmful for certain type of use. Read More »

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THOMAS AQUINAS’ THEORY OF NATURAL LAW

Project Topic: Thomas Aquinas’ Theory of Natural Law: A Standard for Human Positive Law


CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

The concept of natural law occupied a central position in the moral theory of Thomas Aquinas. Thomas Aquinas’ treatise on natural law is contained in the first part of the second part of his “Summa Theologica” where he treated law. The Ethics of Thomas Aquinas closely followed the eudamonological ethics of Aristotle; Aquinas built upon Aristotle’s theory. Just like Aristotle, Thomas saw morality as a quest for happiness. According to him, happiness is closely connected with a person’s end or purpose. He further argued that human nature has both its source and ultimate end in God. For Thomas, God who created man provided him with the means of arriving at his end. This means through which man arrived at his end, is what Thomas called Natural Law. Read More »

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FREE-SPACE CHANNEL: TRANSMITTING SATELLITE SIGNALS

FREE-SPACE CHANNEL: A MEDIUM FOR TRANSMITTING SATELLITE SIGNALS


This project explains free-space channel as a medium for transmitting satellite signals. The losses encountered during the transmission of satellite signals in space are also treated. Free-space channel is a communications channel. In free space, communications is being done using visible light, infrared waves, ultraviolet light, and radio waves. The sending of radio waves from one place to another has nothing to do with the presence or absence of an atmosphere between the two. This project goes into detail to treat the free-space channel to show how it can be properly harnessed. Read More »

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