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Geohelminths in School Children

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Geohelminths in School Children in Ezeagu Local Government Area of Enugu State




1.1.   Background to the study

Geohelminths or soil-transmitted helminths, form one of the most important groups of infectious agents and are the cause of serious global health problems; more than a billion people are currently infected by at least one species of this group of pathogens and are common infectious diseases of childhood in tropical regions (WHO; 2005). Geohelminth infections are considered to cause considerable morbidity in endemic areas through effects on growth, nutrition and cognition disturbing school performance (Beasley et al., 2000). At a global level, the most important geohelminths are roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworms (Trichuris trichiura), and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale). It is estimated that these above named parasites have infected 1.2 billion people, 800 million people, and 740 million people respectively (WHO; 2005). In Brazil only it is estimated that 41.7 million people are infected with A. lumbricoides, and 18.9 million with T. trichiura while 32.3 million are infected with hookworms. (Beasley et al., 2000).

Geohelminths are more frequently found among children living in poor sanitary conditions, and their influence on morbidity and mortality is more severe on the malnourished populations (Crompton, 1993). Most studies suggest that approximately 70% of the worm population is hosted by 15% of the human host population. These few heavily infected individuals are at a higher risk of disease and are also the prime source of environmental contamination (Despommier et al., 2005). Insufficient hygiene, pitiable health care systems and facilities and social unresponsiveness make this condition worse. Nevertheless, geohelminth control is frequently ignored, especially in highly worm-infested nations. Read More »

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Health Effects of the Monogenean Parasites of Fish in Ebonyi River




1.1.  Background to the study

Monogeneans are a class of parasitic flatworms that are commonly found on fishes and lower aquatic invertebrates. The majority of monogeneans are browsers that move about freely on the fish’s body surface feeding on mucus and epithelial cells of the skin and gills (Bakke et al., 2002) however, a few adult monogeneans will remain attached to a single location on the host permanently. Several monogenean species attack the body cavity, rectal cavity, ureter, even the blood vascular system (Bakke et al., 2007). There are between 4,000 and 5,000 species of monogeneans that have been described. Monogeneans are seen in fishes living in fresh and salt water in a wide range of water temperatures.

Morbidity and mortality epidemics caused by excessive parasite loads are not uncommon in captive fishes and in wild fishes also. Fishes on captive are usually held in more crowded conditions than fishes in the natural habitat. The practice allows hatching monogeneans to find host fish easily (Buchmann et al., 1997). In addition, stressors found in the captive environment such as aggressive behavior by tank mates, poor water quality and poor nutrition may impact the ability of the fish’s immune system to respond to the presence of the parasites (Ellis and Watanabe 1993). Although monogeneans are commonly found on wild fish but they rarely result to disease or death in free-ranging populations since under natural conditions they are usually not there in high numbers on individual fish. Nevertheless, any variation that results in crowding of wild fish, example drought and water diversion can boost the density of parasites on wild fish and therefore result in disease. Furthermore, release of monogenean-infested fishes to the natural environment can have potentially devastating effects (Fischthal and Allison 1994; Grutter et al., 2002). One example is the movement of resistant Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from Sweden that is suspected to be the source of Gyrodactylus salaris that caused heavy losses of susceptible salmon in Norwegian rivers. Further example is the introduction of stellate infested with monogenean sturgeon Acipenser stellatus from the Caspian Sea into Lake Aral that decimated the ship sturgeon Acipenser nudiventris population, it was susceptible to the monogenean.

1.2       Aim and Objectives Read More »

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SIWES Industrial Training (IT) Report for IT at Holy Family Hospital  Lagos




1.1   BRIEF HISTORY OF ISWES           

SIWES was established by ITF in the year 1973 to serve the problem of lack of adequate practical skills preparatory for employment in industries by Nigeria graduates of tertiary institutions. SIWES teaches students the industrial based skills necessary for a smooth transition from the classroom to the world of work. SIWES renders students of tertiary institutions the chance of being familiarized and exposed to the needed experience in handling machinery and equipment which are usually not available in the educational institutions. Taking part in SIWES has become a compulsory pre-condition for the award of diploma and degree certificates in exact disciplines in most institutions of higher learning in Nigeria, in accord with the education policy of government Operators, the ITF, the coordinating agencies (NUC, NCCE, NBTE), employers of labour and the institutions.

Funding- the federal government of Nigeria funds the Beneficiaries- undergraduate students of the following: Agriculture, Engineering, Technology, Environmental Sciences, Sciences, Education, Medical Science and pure and applied sciences. Duration four or six months as the case may be depending on the duration and course of study in the university and one year for polytechnics and colleges of education.


  1. Provide an avenue for students in the Nigerian universities to acquire industrial skills and experience in their course of study.
  2. Expose students to work methods and techniques in handling equipment and machinery that may not be available in the university.
  3. Provide students with opportunity to apply their theoretical knowledge in real work situation.
  4. Make the transition from university to the world of work easier.
  5. Prepare students for work situation they are likely to meet after graduation.
  6. Enlist and strengthen employer involvement in the entire educational process of preparing university graduates for employment industry.

1.3.      Brief history of the organization.    

Holy family hospital was founded in the year 1991. It was formed out of vast experience of Dr. Moses Ikegbu after spending several years in the medical institution and considered it necessary to set up a place for medical assistance.

Holy family hospital is located at 1 ijegun road satellite town, lagos state. It is renowned for its healthcare service which specializes in general health care, medical counseling and gynaecology.

Organogram of Holy Family Hospital, Lagos


—This article is not complete———–This article is not complete———— This article was extracted from a well articulated quality Project, Research Work/Material

Topic: SIWES Industrial Training (IT) Report-  Holy Family Hospital, Lagos

To get the full report pay a token of 3,000 naira to the following account




ACCOUNT NUMBER: 4831029253


Immediately after the payment send your name, topic of interest, e-mail address, teller number and location to the following phone number: 07035282233

The full report will immediately be forwarded to you.


Refer other SIWES IT Reports



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Age and Prostate Disorder –A Case of Abakaliki, Ebonyi State


CHAPTER ONE                                 


The prostate (from Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally “one who stands before”, “protector”, “guardian”) is a compound tubuloalveolarexocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals (Romer and Parsons, 1977). It differs considerably among species anatomically, chemically, and physiologically .The prostate is a gland located at the base of a man’s bladder, behind the pubic bone and in front of the rectum. Read More »

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The Nutritional Value of Brycinus Species from Otuocha River




1.1Background of the study

Today we live in a poverty, malnutrition and hunger prevalent world. It has been estimated that 14 percent of the global population or 852 million people are going hungry.

Micronutrients deficiencies or hidden hunger in one form or the other are affecting more than 2billion people worldwide; 5.5 million children dying of hunger and malnutrition related causes.

The Millennium Development Goals adopted by the world’s government in 2000 set a target at reducing the hungry and malnourished population by 2015. However, hunger and malnutrition still remain the most devastating problems facing the poor in developing countries and we have a long way to go towards eliminating hunger (Conquerand Holub, 2002).

Fish and fisheries can play an important role in addressing hunger and poverty. Fish are rich sources of protein, essential fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. Fagade (1992) opined that fish flesh is about the best source of animal protein, better digested than beef and poultry; contains mineral salts and its oil is mainly poly-unsaturated fatty acids with anti-cholesterol factor. He concluded that regular consumption of fish is beneficial to human body. Some other authors noted that increased consumption of fish reduces the risks, abates rheumatoid arthritis, decreases the risk of bowel cancer and reduces insulin-resistance in skeletal muscles (Anon, 2001; Conquerand Holub, 2002).

Brycinus is a ray-finned fish genus in the family Alestiidae. Like other “African characids” were before included in the Characidae but are actually somewhat more distantly related Characiformes. Similar to some other Alestiidae, they are called robber tetras due to their bold and rather carnivorous behavior. They are not uncommonly kept as aquarium fishes, also in their requirements similar to the South American tetras of the Characidae. Unlike these, Brycinus are not well-suited to accompany delicate fishes however, and are better kept with dwarf cichlids and similar small but robust companion.(Alexakis, 1989). Read More »

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SIWES Industrial Training (IT) Report, JUHEL Nig. Ltd., Enugu



1.0                                                     INTRODUCTION


SIWES was established by ITF in the year 1973 to serve the problem of lack of adequate practical skills preparatory for employment in industries by Nigeria tertiary institutions graduates. The scheme educates students on industrial based skills essential for a smooth transition from the classroom to the world of work. Students of tertiary institutions is given the opportunity of being familiarized and exposed to the needed experience in handling machinery and equipment which are usually not available in the educational institutions. Partaking in SIWES industrial training has become a crucial pre-condition for the award of diploma and degree certificates in specific disciplines in most institutions of higher learning in Nigeria in line with the government education policies. The Operators are; the ITF, the coordinating agencies (NUC, NCCE, NBTE), employers of labour and various institutions.

Funding- the federal government of Nigeria Beneficiaries are undergraduate students of the following disciplines: Natural Sciences, Engineering and Technology, Education, Agriculture, Medical Science, Environmental, and pure and applied sciences. Duration is four months and one year for polytechnics and colleges of education respectively, and of course, six months for the universities.


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Microbial Contaminants of Barbers’ Clippers and It’s Public Health Effect

Microbial Contaminants of Barbers’ Clippers and It’s Public Health Effect in Abakaliki Metropolis


The assessment of clippers which is made up of blade assemblies used repeatedly with or without sterilization by barbers during barbering operations has always been crucial with reference to public health importance. This study focused on the identification of the microorganisms that contaminates electric hair clippers used by barbers in public barbing saloons, with the aim of ascertaining their public health implications. Swabs were made of all the hair clippers used in the saloons (before and after disinfection) and cultured in Nutrient Agar (NA) and MacConkey Agar (MCA), for isolation of bacteria and in Saboraud’s Dextrose Agar (SDA), for growth of fungi. The study revealed Malassezia and Trichophyton species as consistent fungi species while staphylococcus Streptococcus and Bacillus species were common bacteria consistently isolated from barbing clippers before and after the use of disinfectant (Jik, Izal, Dethol, Kerosene, Fuel, methylated spirit and others), which are the disinfectant commonly used by babers in Abakaliki town. Malassezia and Trichophyton occurred respectively, which is evident of infectious scalp diseases and significant infectious dermatophytes. Of all the used disinfectants, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) showed more antiseptic properties on all isolates with a zone of inhibition of 12mm (Malassezia), 14mm (Trichophyton), 42mm (Staphylococcus), 40mm (Streptococcus) and 30mm (Bacillus) while fuel and kerosene were least in antiseptic properties and showed zero of inhibition for all the isolates. The result therefore showed that Hydrogen peroxide is suitable for barbing operations and could be an alternative to high level disinfection. Read More »

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Prevalence Of Eggs And Cyst Of Parasites Under The Finger Nails Of Primary School Children




  •                                                     INTRODUCTION


In tropical countries, parasitic infections remain a serious public health problem, in view of the high prevalence of protozoan and helminth infections.( Dada-Adegbola et al.,2005)) The World Health Organization has estimated that helminth infections affect around 2 billion people, among whom 5-10% are children under 24 months of age (Katz and Taylor 2001). Helminth infections may lead to malnutrition, anemia, and disturbed appetite (Adeyeba and Akinladi, 2002) and may ultimately result in retarded physical and cognitive development in children (Aisen et al., 2002). A study in North Sumatra reported a prevalence of ascariasis of 76.7% among primary school pupils (Akogun and Badaki, 1998). The factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections in tropical countries include poverty, illiteracy, poor hygiene, poorly organized clean water supply, and hot and humid environmental conditions. Protozoa and helminthic parasites are responsible for the prevalence of diseases capable of affecting an individual’s health. Intestinal parasitic infections (IPI) are global health problems causing clinical illness in 450 million inhabitants, particularly children and women of reproductive age in developing countries (Anosike et al., 2005). IPI, and helminths in particular, are associated with increased risks for nutritional anemia, proteinenergy malnutrition, growth retardation in children, poor increase in body weight in pregnancy, intrauterine growth retardation, and low birth weight (Bethony et al., 2006). Children infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) have poor educational level and performance at school and a high level of truancy, thus impacting on their future earnings and

Productivity (Cheesbrough, 2000). The most important STHs are the common roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), the whipworm (Trichuris trichiura) and the hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale), which currently are a group of neglected tropical diseases. (Chukwuma et al., 2009)

Children of all ages can develop parasitic diseases such as giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis from swallowing contaminated water during swimming, playing, and other activities in contaminated recreational water (e.g. pools, fountains, lakes, rivers and streams, etc.). Pets and other animals can be a potential sources of parasites that can affect children. Toxoplasmosis is spread by ingesting soil or litter-box contents with infectious cat feces. Children can also be born with this infection if their mother was infected during pregnancy. Several parasitic diseases occur occasionally in the United States and more frequently in developing countries. They include strongyloidiasis, caused by a worm infection that is of particular danger for children with an impaired immune system. It is acquired when larvae (immature worms) in soil contaminated with infected human feces come into contact with and penetrate the skin. They also include visceral toxocariasis, spread when children ingest soil contaminated with dog or cat feces containing the eggs of cat or dog roundworms, and cutaneous larva migrans, transmitted when children walk barefoot on soil contaminated with cat or dog hookworm larvae that penetrate their skin.

Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) diseases (“helminth” means parasitic worm) are of major importance in developing countries. They are caused by infection with roundworm, hookworm or whipworm, and can include diarrhea, abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, anemia, and retarded growth and cognitive development. Children become infected by ingesting roundworm and whipworm eggs that have matured in soil contaminated by human feces, or by walking barefoot in contaminated soil where human hookworm eggs have hatched, producing larvae that penetrate the skin. Schistosomiasis, another major parasitic disease among children in some developing countries, can also cause impaired growth and development and can lead to severe health problems later in life. It is caused by a helminth that spends part of its life cycle in certain types of snail and penetrates the skin of people when they stand or swim in water where the snails live. The helminth causing onchocerciasis (“river blindness”) is transmitted by the bite of a type of blackfly that breeds near flowing water. It can cause itching and impaired vision in children, and lead to blindness in adulthood. Children are infected with the helminth causing lymphatic filariasis though mosquito bites. Damage to the lymphatic system in children is mostly asymptomatic, but can become symptomatic by puberty and lead to swollen arms and legs and an enlarged, fluid-filled scrotum in adulthood.

Children with poor personal hygiene could be potential sources of infections of many intestinal helminths and protozoa.


Intestinal parasites are found everywhere, such as in fingernail dirt, in areas abounding in flies and cockroaches, and in contaminated foods. Children who harbor and excrete intestinal parasites may cause fecal contamination of foods via their fingers and finally to healthy individuals through handshake. Compared to other parts of the hand, the area beneath fingernails harbors the most microorganisms and is most difficult to clean (MacPherson, 1999).

Therefore, fingernails could be a source of infectious parasitic diseases if hygiene is not maintained.


  • Determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites from fingernail dirt among children in Abakaliki Local Government Area.
  • To identify the factors associated with infestation of the parasites.
  • To investigate the sex difference in infection among the children
  • To assess the age difference in the infection rate among the children.



         A parasite survives by hijacking another organism, robbing it of nutrients and thanking it by leaving behind toxic waste.  Obviously, we would be much happier without having these pintsized freeloaders around.  Children with parasitic infections are usually undernourished and weak. Numerous protozoans inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of humans. This list includes representatives from many diverse protozoan groups. The majoritiy of protozoa are non-pathogenic commensals, or their presence only result in mild disease and also the pathogenic forms (Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Blastocystis hominis). Some of these organisms can cause severe disease under certain circumstances such as severe acute diarrhoea which may lead to chronic diarrhoea, nutritional disorders, dysentery and potentially lethal systemic disease. G. intestinalis is the most prevalent parasitic cause of diarrhoea in the developed world, and this infection is also very common in developing countries. Amoebiasis is the third leading cause of death from parasitic diseases worldwide, with its greatest impact on the people of developing countries.

The world Health Organization (WHO) estimates that approximately 50 million people worldwide suffer from invasive amoebic infection each year, resulting in 40-100 thousand deaths annually (WHO, 1997 and Petri et al., 2000). Cryptosporidiosis is becoming most prevalent in both developed and developing countries among patients with AIDS and among children aged less than five years. Several outbreaks of diarrhoeal diseases caused by C. cayetanensis have been reported during the last decade (Herwaldt et al., 2000). Spread of these protozoan parasites in developing countries mostly occurs through faecal contamination as a result of poor sewage and poor quality of water. Parasitic infections are governed by behavioural, biological, environmental, socioeconomic and health systems factors. Local conditions, including access to and quality of domestic and village infrastructure, economic factors such as disposable income, employment and occupation, and social factors such as education, influence the risk of infection, disease transmission and associated morbidity and mortality. Food and water-borne outbreaks of these protozoan parasites have occurred, and the infectious cyst form of the parasites is relatively resistant to chlorine (Okhuysen and white, 1999).

2.1.   Types of Parasite
Parasites include an amazing cast of characters that can end up taking residence in our bodies.  There are four different groups to choose from: roundworms, single celled protozoa, tapeworms and flukes.
2.1.1. Helminths

Helminth is a general term meaning worm. The helminths are invertebrates characterized by elongated, flat or round bodies. In medically oriented schemes the flatworms or platyhelminths (platy from the Greek root meaning “flat”) include flukes and tapeworms. Roundworms are nematodes (nemato from the Greek root meaning “thread”). These groups are subdivided for convenience according to the host organ in which they reside, e.g., lung flukes, extraintestinal tapeworms, and intestinal roundworms. This chapter deals with the structure and development of the three major groups of helminths.

Helminths develop through egg, larval (juvenile), and adult stages. Knowledge of the different stages in relation to their growth and development is the basis for understanding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of helminth diseases, as well as for the diagnosis and treatment of patients harboring these parasites. Platyhelminths and nematodes that infect humans have similar anatomic features that reflect common physiologic requirements and functions. The outer covering of helminths is the cuticle or tegument. Prominent external structures of flukes and cestodes are acetabula (suckers) or bothria (false suckers). Male nematodes of several species possess accessory sex organs that are external modifications of the cuticle. Internally, the alimentary, excretory, and reproductive systems can be identified by an experienced observer. Tapeworms are unique in lacking an alimentary canal. This lack means that nutrients must be absorbed through the tegument. The blood flukes and nematodes are bisexual. All other flukes and tapeworm species that infect humans are hermaphroditic.

With few exceptions, adult flukes, cestodes, and nematodes produce eggs that are passed in excretions or secretions of the host. The various stages and their unique characteristics will be reviewed in more detail as each major group of helminths is considered. Flukes (Trematodes)

A dorsoventrally flattened body, bilateral symmetry, and a definite anterior end are features of platyhelminths in general and of trematodes specifically. Flukes are leaf-shaped, ranging in length from a few millimeters to 7 to 8 cm. The tegument is morphologically and physiologically complex. Flukes possess an oral sucker around the mouth and a ventral sucker or acetabulum that can be used to adhere to host tissues. A body cavity is lacking. Organs are embedded in

Nursing project Topics and Materials


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Dyes are substances, which impact more or less permanent colour to other materials. They have in no small measure helped to reveal hidden histological and cytological facts. Owing to their importance they have become a focal point in scientific discoveries pertaining to tissues and cells. The use of dyes dates from centuries back. .According to Barker (1970), its origin must have arisen accidentally as a result of staining from berries or other plant parts, and therefore the deliberate use of these plants to produce colours probably followed soon after. Gerald (1979) stated that madder and indigo were first known in India from around 2500 BC while around 3000 BC dyeing has being an established craft in China.  Banerjee and Mukherjee (1981) mentioned some of these dyes as santalin and santarubin which are dyes contained in the camwood (Baphia nitida). Most natural dyes are of the mordant type which requires a fixing agent such as acetic acid or alum .

Nigeria and of course other countries depend so much on products manufactured by the developed countries, hence they are branded consumers countries. Nigeria is much dependent on developed countries for supply of hospital and laboratory consumables. Various Nigeria governments have been spending millions of naira and foreign currency on the purchase of dyes or biological stains from overseas. It is so appalling that no single biological stain used in laboratories is made in Nigeria, not even a foreign company in Nigeria Read More »

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                                                   CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                              INTRODUCTION                

 Plasmodium falciparum, the etiologic agent of malaria and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the causative agent of  acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), are co-endemic in many tropical and sub-tropical countries with the potential risk for  improved clinical, parasitological and hematological complications (Gregory et al., 2010). Malaria and HIV infections are the lead cause of morbidity and mortality in this region. Together they account for over 4 million deaths each year. Both infections affect those in poverty and contribute to poverty by hindering sustainable development (WHO, 2008).

                    Plasmodium falciparum malaria causes about 300-500 million clinical cases annually, of which 90% occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Approximately, more than one million deaths occur each year, primarily among children under five years of age (UNAIDS/ WHO, 2004). Apart from young children, also heavily affected are pregnant women, with resultant effects on maternal health, birth outcome and increased mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in HIV positive mothers with placental malaria (UNAIDS/WHO, 2004). Sub-Saharan Africa is also a home to an estimated 25 million adults and children living with HIV/AIDS. Worldwide, 33 million people are living with HIV/AIDS (UNAID/WHO, 2004). In 2007, an estimated 2.1 million deaths were due to HIV infections, of which 1.6 million occurred in sub- Saharan Africa and over 1.9 million individuals mainly children were newly infected (WHO,2008). Given the overlap of their geographic distribution and resultant rates of co-infection, interactions between these two diseases pose major public health problems (WHO, 2008). Read More »

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