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GEOLOGY OF CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA

Project Topic: Geology of Cross River State, Nigeria – a Case of Ugep and its Environs in Yakurr Local Government Area


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 LOCATION, EXTENT AND ACCESSIBILITY

The study area is a political unit of Yakurr Local Government Area in Cross River State which falls within Cross River Central. The area lies between latitude 5o45’N and 5o50’N and longitude 8o03’E and 8o08’E, which include villages like; Adim, Ebom, Idomi, Ntankpo and Ugep. It is bounded in the north by neighbouring villages like Ekori and Ediba, with Cross River which is the major river in the northern part of the mapped area. The Eastern part is bounded by Nkpani village, to the west is Ijom town, and to the South are Idomi and Adim. The study area is made accessible by three major road networks; the Abakaliki/Afikpo Road diversion in Abomege through Abomege/Ediba Road to Ugep, Calabar/ Biase road to Ugep and Ikom/Obubra Road to Ugep. There are other footpaths and minor routes that made the accessibility into the rural paths possible. Read More »

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PREVALENCE OF Β-THALASSAAEMIA TRAIT AMONG NIGERIANS

Project Topic: Prevalence of Β-Thalassaaemia Trait among Nigerians- Case of Abakaliki, Ebonyi State


ABSTRACT

Beta-thalassaemia is a group of inherited blood disorder caused by reduced or absent synthesis of beta-chains of haemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anaemia to clinically asymptomatic cases. This study which aims at determination of the prevalence of Beta-thalassaemia trait in inhabitants of Abakaliki between the age of 16-45years was carried out based on estimation of red cell indices using packed cell volume and haemoglobin values of the subjects and also on quantification of HbF using Betke method. Venous blood sample of 100 subjects comprising 50 males and 50 females who met the required selection criteria were collected. Positive diagnosis is made by low MCH, MCV and normal MCHC with elevated HbF above 1.7%. The result analysis shows MCH values of the subjects to range between 20-34 picogram, their MCV ranges from 60-98fentolitre while their MCHC is overlapping within lower limit of the normal range. Their HbF values ranges from 0.4-8.75% seven subjects i.e 3 males and 4 females out of the 100 had low MCH, MCV, and normal MCHC with elevated HbF above 1.7% thus giving a 7% out of the total population study. The significant of the study was determined at a P>0.05 using Chi-square test and was found to be insignificant. Although still insignificant in the population, this study also projects the importance of detection of beta-thalassaemia as a differential diagnosis in patients with hypochromic microcytic anaemia and shows negative results to iron studies in order to avoid wrong diagnosis. Also,there is a possibility of an increase in the prevalence of beta-thalassaemia in this area of study if there is continued ignorance of pre-marital and prenatal screening among pregnant women that have thalassaemic partners. Read More »

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FACTORS AGAINST MIDWIVES’ QUALITY HEALTH CARE DELIVERY

Project Topic: Factors against Midwives’ Health Assessment Practice in Quality Care Delivery to both Hospitalized and Out Patients in Presbyterian Joint Hospital (PJH), Uburu


Abstract

The ability to assess patients is one of the most important skills of nursing, regardless of the practice setting. This study was undertaken to examine the factors hindering nurses’ practice of health assessment of patients in Presbyterian Joint Hospital (P.J.H), Uburu. Related literature were reviewed and summarized. Descriptive research design was adopted to elicit baseline information in the respondents’ natural setting. The sample for the study is 60 nurses of PJH drawn by proportionate purposive sampling allocation out of 150 target population. Questionnaire was used to collect data from the 60 respondents. Instrument was validated by the project supervisor on fact and content. Reliability of the instrument was ensured. Data collected were analyzed by using descriptive statistics of frequency distribution tables, bar charts and percentages. From the findings, majority of the respondents practised health assessment mostly during admission while others carry out health assessment throughout hospitalization and when it is necessary. Lack of instruments, shortage of nursing staff, patients’ non- compliance and language barriers were difficulties nurses encountered during health assessment of patients. Recommendations were made for the appropriate practice of health assessment to improve quality of care given to patients. Pertinent among which include:- inculcating health assessment in the routine nursing schedule so that deviation from normal could be easily identified and provision of adequate equipment/ instrument for easy health assessment. Read More »

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GEOLOGY AND HYDROGEOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF SURFACE WATER RESOURCES

Project Topic: GEOLOGY AND HYDROGEOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF SURFACE WATER RESOURCES IN AFIKPO (EBONYI STATE) AND ENVIRONS


CHAPTER ONE

  INTRODUCTION

1.0 General Introduction

Water is an essential part of the ecological system. Geographically, water covers about 70% of the entire area of the Earth s surface and it is naturally found in streams, oceans, seas, rivers, ponds, lakes, springs and underground (Ogunji, 2004). Biologically, water makes up a large proportion of the total body fluid system of living things. An average water consumptions rate of ten liters per person per day has been recommended for small rural communities (UNICEF, 1988). This value is very small compared to World Health Organization (WHO) standard of at least twenty liters per day per person. Despite this, WHO in 1989 that only 61% of urban dwellers in developing countries have excess to safe water supply sources.  It is also estimated that 1.2 billion people around the world lack access to safe water and close to 2.5 billion not provided with adequate anitation (Third World Water Forum, 2003). In Nigeria, about eight percent 80% of the total population live in rural areas, and less than 50% have access to portable water. The pollutant sources have either been from inappropriate refuse disposal, salt water invasion or contaminants from the host rock (Egboka and Uma, 1985). This is pertinent as water during its movement and storage in aquifer tends to dissolve mineral their host rocks. Higher concentration of these constituent above acceptable standard stands to make the water harmful for certain type of use. Read More »

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THOMAS AQUINAS’ THEORY OF NATURAL LAW

Project Topic: Thomas Aquinas’ Theory of Natural Law: A Standard for Human Positive Law


CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

The concept of natural law occupied a central position in the moral theory of Thomas Aquinas. Thomas Aquinas’ treatise on natural law is contained in the first part of the second part of his “Summa Theologica” where he treated law. The Ethics of Thomas Aquinas closely followed the eudamonological ethics of Aristotle; Aquinas built upon Aristotle’s theory. Just like Aristotle, Thomas saw morality as a quest for happiness. According to him, happiness is closely connected with a person’s end or purpose. He further argued that human nature has both its source and ultimate end in God. For Thomas, God who created man provided him with the means of arriving at his end. This means through which man arrived at his end, is what Thomas called Natural Law. Read More »

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FREE-SPACE CHANNEL: TRANSMITTING SATELLITE SIGNALS

FREE-SPACE CHANNEL: A MEDIUM FOR TRANSMITTING SATELLITE SIGNALS


This project explains free-space channel as a medium for transmitting satellite signals. The losses encountered during the transmission of satellite signals in space are also treated. Free-space channel is a communications channel. In free space, communications is being done using visible light, infrared waves, ultraviolet light, and radio waves. The sending of radio waves from one place to another has nothing to do with the presence or absence of an atmosphere between the two. This project goes into detail to treat the free-space channel to show how it can be properly harnessed. Read More »

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PALM KERNEL SHELL WASTE RECYCLED CONCRETE ROAD

Project Topic: PALM KERNEL SHELL WASTE RECYCLED CONCRETE ROAD AS CHEAP AND ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY FREEWAY ON VERY POOR SUBGRADES


Introduction

Freeways (rural roads) are transportation amenities for movement of goods and people in automobiles at desirable speeds in the country side between cities, towns and suburbs. This thesis presents palm kernel shell wastes as coarse aggregates for the provision of firm pavements that are environmental friendly, structural efficient and also cost effective roads in the rural as well as coastal areas where aggregates are not available and palm kernel waste dumps increases daily with resulting environmental pollution challenges Read More »

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FREEDOM AND LAW IN THOMAS AQUINAS

Project Topic: THE NOTION OF FREEDOM AND LAW IN THOMAS AQUINAS


INTRODUCTION

  1. Statement of the Problem

Man in his very nature is a free being. He is endowed with the gift of freewill. However, that man is free does not imply freedom to the absolute degree, he is not absolutely free. One man’s freedom ends where that of the other begins. This would not have been the case if the law is not there. Therefore, law helps to keep the infringement of people’s freedom in check.

Despite all these, the struggle for freedom in essence, is people’s struggle to be able to satisfy their individual needs. Therefore, mankind continually moves towards the advancement and always on the road to the realization of freedom.

To maintain order, man tries to adhere to the laws guiding him. This makes man moral. And as it were, first thing in morality is the inherent freedom in man. Everybody pursues freedom. Freedom makes man a human person. Poets write about freedom, government officials promise and proclaim it; some people nearly loose their precious lives to win this freedom for themselves and for others. But what actually is this freedom?

This work considered in the light of St Thomas Aquinas deals on Freedom and Law. It is neither a deterministic nor purely indeterministic solution to the problem of freedom and law; it is an appraisal, arrived by reconciling the positions of freedom and law. As regards Aquinas’ proximate ends, man enjoys freedom of judgment and of choice, that is, of judging freely of the things to be done and not to be done.

Man’s experience of his own behaviors and decisions includes an awareness of his own freedom, of his own ability to decide for himself, to deliberate about what to do in various situations (bearing in mind not to trespass another’s boundary), and to come to his own conclusion about what to believe and what to do.

Nevertheless, man’s deliberation on what to do necessarily involves the dictates of the law; not to “infringe on once freedom in a quest to achieve his own freedom.” It then becomes quite pertinent to understand fully what freedom is before delving into law. This is because they are like the two sides of the same coin, as we shall see. And this was what resulted to my treating freedom first before law in this work. Aquinas conceives law as an ordinance of reason promulgated by one who has the community’s interest at heart. In order for us to act well as human beings, our actions should proceed from reason of what we are about to do. According to Mary Clark:

Man, if perfect in virtue is the best of animals, but if he becomes separated from law and morality, he is the worst of animals. For man, unlike other animals, has the weapons of reason with which to exploit his best desire and cruelty![1]

Man is by nature a social animal, and every rational being would testify to the fact that a society of whatever level which does not establish and apply freedom and law to its subjects, is comparatively similar to a train full of people, heading towards the Atlantic ocean. Law connotes some sort of regulations that govern our actions and affairs. It involves something more than mere reprobation.

Just as all men see that there are good acts and bad acts so also they acknowledge some kind of compulsion to do the good and avoid the evil. In the same manner, having observed certain development caused by man in many societies, a medieval theologian and philosopher, St. Thomas Aquinas, took it upon himself and deemed it necessary to render a good example by stressing the significance of, and as well advocating the existence of freedom and law.

  1. Purpose of Study

In the face of the contemporary clamour for true freedom, this work could be said to be both necessary and timely. This is corroborated by the fact that the natural law makes it intrinsic for every person to seek after freedom. This work is, therefore, a thought-pattern, which seeks to unravel the authenticity and credibility of this claim that the search for freedom is ontological to man. Taking the Thomistic viewpoint as a case study, this work will assess every argument for and against the law and freedom, after making a historical survey of the meaning of the notion of freedom.

  1. Scope of Study

In this thesis, we shall unveil the Thomistic notion of law and freedom as outlined in chapters three. We shall also try to consult other authorities who have written or spoken on this very issue. However, this thesis may not exhaust the whole notion of freedom and law as Aquinas understood it, but can suffice as a mere appraisal of the notion

  1. Method of Study

Because of the nature and the purpose of this work, its major methodology will be critical analysis. However, I will also employ exposition, history and interpretation in order to give this work a reasonable approach.

  1. Division of Work

In the first chapter, we shall examine in details the general notion of freedom. The second chapter deals with the term ‘law’ in general and equally the Thomistic notion of law. Chapter three deals with the two major sub-headings of this thesis, that is, freedom and law and juxtaposed with morality. Finally, chapter four deals with the Thomistic approach to the implications of freedom and law and the appraisal of Aquinas notion of law through critical evaluation and conclusion.

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Topic: THE NOTION OF FREEDOM AND LAW IN THOMAS AQUINAS

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MAN, A WOLF TO MAN

Project Topic: MAN, A WOLF TO MAN: A SURVEY OF THOMAS HOBBES’ POLITICAL PRINCIPLES IN RELATION TO NIGERIAN SITUATION


CHAPTER ONE

 Introduction

The nature of man is such that rationality forms his essence and distinguishes him from other animals. Thomas Hobbes’ state of nature, however, paints a picture of the denial of man’s rationality. There is a devaluation of the state of man and this awakened the interest of certain thinkers, Hobbes inclusive, and they set out to restructure and establish this lost dignity of human person.

However, philosophers have proposed and adopted numerous political and philosophical theories for the respect of human dignity and for the well being of man in his natural state. Philosophers like Hobbes, John Locke, David Hume, and Jean Jacque Rousseau concentrated on man in his state of nature. Thomas Hobbes’ political theory of “Homo homini lupus” (man, a wolf to man) is what this essay concentrates and explores in relation to Nigeria political situation.

In Nigeria, so many events and attitudes of our leaders have pictured neglects and insults on the intelligence of the human person in the society. At a close observation of our country Nigeria, a person notices traces of moral decadence on the varied sectors of the government. That a land blessed with both natural and human resources with rich cultural heritage has lost this dignity and has been stripped naked by our so called leaders. The most unfortunate situation is the collapse of academics in Nigeria where it is noticed that schools are shut for months, and no one cares about the lasting consequences of this on the developing young people and the future society. The condition has attracted remarks both from within and outside the country. Nigeria has been referred to as a “failed state” or “an abysmally corrupt entity”. The story about Nigeria has always been that of woes. Read More »

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THE NIGERIAN MILITARY IN EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT

Project Topic: CHALLENGES OF THE NIGERIAN MILITARY IN AUGMENTING CIVIL TRANSPORT IN EMERGENCIES


SUMMARY

CHALLENGES OF THE NIGERIAN MILITARY IN AUGMENTING CIVIL TRANSPORT IN EMERGENCIES: Education and sensitization of the general citizenry is a main aspect of a dependable emergency management system. Such education is in the areas of information on the locations prone to disaster, when, where and how to respond in cases of emergencies as well as how to contact the relevant professionals in disaster management. The education also includes training and simulated disaster situations. The Nigerian Army’s incident in Jalingo in 2005 and Sokoto in 2010 showed that the general populace is yet to key into the paradigm procedure in overseeing emergencies. In both cases, there was no ordered control of victims of the disaster either by themselves or relevant disaster management agencies. The situation created disorder and resulted in people getting in the way of emergency response workers. The Nigerian Media organizations have a responsibility in sensitizing, Read More »

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