Challenges Confronting PTA Participation in Secondary School Administration

Challenges Confronting (PTA) Parents-Teachers Association Participation in Secondary School Administration in Ohaukwu  Local Government Area of Ebonyi State

Abstract

 The research examined the challenges confronting Parents Teachers Association participation in secondary school administration in Ohaukwu local government Area of Ebonyi state. Four research questions were formulated to guide the work. By random sampling, a total of 200 teachers and parents were selected for the study. Test-retest method was used to determine the reliability of the instrument, which was 0.99. The questionnaires were distributed to the sampled population in the various secondary schools in Ohaukwu local government area of Ebonyi State. The results were analyzed using mean scores. Recommendations were also made on the possible means of reducing the challenges of P.TA and improving their participation in the administration of secondary schools in Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, the appointment of P.T.A executives and committee members should be based on merit and that school authorities should create good relationships with P.T.A in matters that deal with policies and programmes. P.T.A should create independent bodies that will help in evaluating their activities. There should be strict adherence to the policies and programmes of the association and to the rules and regulations guiding the association. Read More »

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Causes and Consequences of Substance Abuse among Students

Causes and Consequences of Substance Abuse among Secondary School Students

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the causes and consequences of substance abuse among secondary school students. A total 100 participants were used; 50 males and 50 females. 18 items questionnaire were designed to measure the causes and effects of substance abuse on participants. 150 copies of questionnaires were distributed randomly to both male and female among the secondary school students and the result were collected. However, the result based on chi-square statistics shows that there are significant effects of substance abuse among secondary school students. The recommendation were made the practical and theoretical implication of their finding were discussed. Read More »

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Educational Technology for Effective Pedagogy of Biology

Barriers to Educational Technology for Effective Pedagogy of Biology in Senior Secondary Schools in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State

Abstract

This study investigated the barriers to educational technology for effective pedagogy of biology in senior secondary schools in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Five research questions were formulated to guide the study. The population of the study included all the 250 biology teachers in 13 government secondary schools in Onicha Local Government Area. The sample used was one hundred and fifty (150) biology teachers drawn randomly 13 secondary schools. The instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire designed by the researcher. This is a twenty item questionnaire with Cronbach Alpha measure of 0.75. The instrument was validated by 3 experts from the department of Science Education and data analysis was by mean. The findings of this study showed that the barriers to educational technology hindered effective pedagogy of biology. It was revealed that if the barriers are addressed, teachers of biology will be more effective their teachings.  Recommendations were therefore made on how to improve effective pedagogy of biology. Read More »

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Attitude of Female Students towards the Use of Contraceptive Methods

Attitude of Female Students in Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki towards the Use of Contraceptive Methods in Family Planning.

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to look into the attitude of female students in Ebonyi State University towards the use of contraceptive methods in family planning. Survey research method was used and a sample population of 250 female students was studied literatures related to the study were reviewed including a conceptual review and empirical studies. Health Belief Model was discussed in relation to the study and data was collected using questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using percentage, frequency distribution tables and charts. Major findings include that 88% of the female studied have heard about contraceptive methods before the study and 49% heard about it from their peers. 47% of the respondents do not like contraceptive methods as such do not use them showing a negative attitude. The findings factors like cultural beliefs and religion among others affect the way female students look at contraceptive methods .Based on these findings, recommendation s were made encouraging Nurses and other health care provider to intensify efforts to educate the public especially women within reproductive years on the benefits of contraceptive methods. If female students are convinced of how these methods work, they would be more likely to show a positive attitude by accepting and using them. Read More »

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Preventive Measures of Food Poisoning Available For Mothers

Assessment of the Preventive Measures of Food Poisoning Available For Mothers in Ntezi-Aba Abakaliki Local Government Area, Ebonyi State.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of Study

Current food trends reveal that more and more frequently today we buy pre-prepared ready-to eat convenience foods, dine out in restaurants and cafés, prefer fresh over frozen products and have a growing demand for foods of animal origin. While this gives us many new choices in the food we eat, this vast array of foods we have come to expect to be available to us “now” has possibly created a greater risk of bacterial food poisoning (Adeleye et al., 2008). Food borne illnesses are prevalent in all parts of the world, and the toll in terms of human life and suffering is enormous. Contaminated food or poisoning contributes to 1.5 billion cases of diarrhea in human especially children each year, resulting in more than three million premature deaths, according to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2005). Those deaths and illnesses are shared by both developed and developing nations. For example, in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2005) estimates that foodborne diseases cause approximately 76 million illnesses annually among the country’s 290 million residents, as well as 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths. In Asia and Africa, approximately one million children under five years of age die each year from diarrheal diseases after consuming contaminated food and water (Disease Control and Prevention, 2005). Food poisoning results from ingestion of water and wide variety of food contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi), with their toxins and chemicals. Food poisoning must be suspected when an acute illness with gastrointestinal or neurological manifestation affect two or more persons, who have shared a meal during the previous 72 hours. The term as generally used encompasses both food-related infection and food-related intoxication (Tribe, Cowell, Cameron, and Cameron, 2006).  Read More »

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Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Women towards Contraceptive Methods

Assessment of the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Women towards the Use of Contraceptive Methods in Family Planning in Abakaliki Metropolis, Ebonyi State.

Abstract

The present study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of women in Abakaliki metropolis towards the use of contraceptive methods in family planning. Survey research method was used and a sample population of 150 women residing in Abakaliki metropolis was studied literatures related to the study were reviewed including a conceptual review and empirical studies. Health Belief Model was discussed in relation to the study and data was collected using questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using tables, frequency and percentage. Major findings include that 91.67% of the women studied have heard about contraceptive methods before the study and 35.42% heard about it from the radio. 81.69% of the respondents do not like contraceptive methods as such do not use them showing a negative attitude. The findings factors like cultural beliefs and religion among others affect the way women in Abakaliki metropolis look at contraceptive methods. Based on these findings, recommendations were made encouraging Nurses and other health care provider to intensify efforts to educate the public especially women within reproductive years on the benefits of contraceptive methods. If women in Abakaliki metropolis are convinced of how these methods work, they would be more likely to show a positive attitude by accepting and using them. Read More »

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Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Cervical Cancer Screening

Assessment of the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Cervical Cancer Screening Amongst Women Attending Gynecological Clinic in Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki Ebonyi State

Abstract

 Background

Cervical cancers is the 3rd most common cancers in women worldwide with WHO’s most recent worldwide estimates of 275,000 deaths due cervical cancer, and an approximately 83,195 new cases annually, and 35,673 deaths in 2012. Developing countries account for 85% of the estimated burden. There are a multitude of risk factors for cervical cancer among women in Nigeria.

Aim.

The present research was embarked on to understand the knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening amongst women between the ages of 15-45 years attending gynecological clinic in Fetha Ii, Ebonyi State

Methodology

In the present study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, a 14 item self administered questionnaire was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening amongst women attending gynecological clinic at the Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (FETHA 2). The sample size of 70 was used which was drawn from the gynecological clinic in Fetha Ii by means of multistage sampling.

Result

The result of this study showed that as great a number as 77.45% were knowledgeable about cervical cancer. It was found that the greatest percentage (29%) reported that the reason why they had not been screen was because they do not know where to obtain cervical screening and so a greater percentage 79% had never screened for cervical cancer. It was equally revealed that among the ones who undergo screening, a greater percentage 61.53% of the women screen irregularly.

Conclusion

The result of this study has shown that although a greater percent were knowledgeable about cervical cancer a high percentage had never screened for cervical cancer.

Recommendations

Considering the above findings, there is an urgent need to direct attention to reducing the occurrence of cervical cancer among women attending gynecological clinic in Fetha Ii. Formulating laws and ensuring that all women who are sexually active and above 15 years are screened and their results made available to them without any prejudice/condemnation, but with confidentiality. More information, education and communication materials, like picture-pamphlets are to be made available in large numbers by NGOs, health facilities and government at every place a woman can be found i.e. competitive jingles, picto-pamphlets, picto-posters in various dialects which are culturally acceptable should be made available on the mass media at no cost for advertisements. Read More »

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Assessment of Medication Error among Nurses

Assessment of Medication Error among Nurses in Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

The use of drugs for medication and social purposes extends through the course of human history itself. The methods used to identify useful pharmacological agents involve trial and error as well as careful observations. It is also noteworthy that in July 1st 1973, the misuse of drug act came into operation in the U.S. (Stubbs, 2012). This was in line to reduce the amount of death which is likely to be observed as a result of medication errors.

According to Demetionet al., (2008), medication mistakes are unfortunately not rare events. Gerry (2008) stated that almost one in ten inpatients experience medication-related harm. However, many mistakes go unreported as staff often do not realize an error has occurred. Pnee (2008) also defined medication errors as errors in the process of prescribing, dispensing, preparing, administering, monitoring or providing medication advice regardless of whenever any harm has occurred. These errors occur not only in hospital setting but also in doctors’ office, nursing homes, pharmacies, urgent care centers, and in home care. The error can arise from any of the health professionals, the patients or the patient’s relatives in the course of medications. Thus, the approach to improve patients’ safety needs to be that of comprehensive and team work. There is no single solution to these on­going problems but rather many solutions that must be put in place and working properly to decrease the risk of medication errors. In Africa, where almost all the countries seem to be developing, they are highly engulfed by this menace in hospital and other health institutions. Nigeria where the human population is exploding day after day and the standard of living dramatically reducing is not exempted. Read More »

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Breast Cancer among Reproductive Women

Assessment of Level of Awareness and Prevention of Breast Cancer among Reproductive Women (15-45years) Attending Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to assess the level of awareness and prevention of breast cancer among women of reproductive age (15-45years) attending Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi state. Descriptive survey was used in the study and the sample size of 80women of reproductive age was selected using systemic sampling technique. The data was collected using self-administered questionnaires with close ended frequency, table and percentages. The result show t hat there is adequate awareness of breast cancer among the women studied as 80 (100%) of them were fully aware of breast cancer while none show unaware of it. Only 12.5% of women have family history of breast cancer while 37.5% of them do not have, none of them were pregnant below 18years, 50.79% of the women become their first pregnant at 18-25years, 41.27% of the women become their between 18-25years, 41.27% of them between 26-30years, none of them become their between 35years and above, 7.94% of the women become their between 31-35years none of them smoke cigarette while 80(100%) women do not smoke, 27.5% of the women drink alcohol, while 72.5% do not drink alcohol, 11.25% of the women use oral contraceptive while 88.75% do not use. The knowledge on the method used in early detection of breast cancer, among the women studied on 15% of the women knew about pathological examination of breast tissue by using fine needle aspiration cystology while 85% of them do not know, 87.5% of them knew about breast self examination while 12.5% of them do not know, 61.25% of the women knew about clinical breast examination, while 38.75% of them do not know, 11.25% of the women knew about mammography while 88.75% of them do not.  The knowledge on how to perform breast self examination among the women showed that 65.75% of the women knew how to perform, while 36.25% of them do not know, 53.75% of the women practice breast self examination while 46.25% of them do not practice. The duration of performing breast self examination showed that 10% of the women perform theirs daily, 10% of the women perform theirs weekly, 30% of them perform monthly, 3.75% of them perform undefined and 46.25% of them don’t know when to perform it. the study showed breast cancer can be preventable as believed among women of child bearing age, this showed that 78.75% of the women believed that breast cancer is preventable while 21.25% of the women do not. Read More »

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Awareness and Practice of Malaria Prevention Strategies among Pregnant Women

Assessment of Awareness and Practice of Malaria Prevention Strategies among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at Federal Medical Centre Owerri 

ABSTRACT

This research study aimed at determining the awareness and practice of malaria preventive strategies among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at federal medical centre Owerri. Five research objectives guided the study. Related literatures were reviewed and summarized with respect to the research objectives. Descriptive survey research design was used in order to elicit baseline information from the respondents’ at the clinical settings. A total of 120 respondents were used in the study which is made up of only pregnant women that have given birth to at least a child but excluding those that are pregnant just for the first time. A 4 point likert scale was the main instruments for data collected. The instrument was self-constructed by the research were analyzed manually using the likert psychometric scale. Results from the analyzed data showed that: respondents were much aware of malaria in pregnancy and the type of bacteria that cause this endemic disease, they are also aware of the various complications of malaria both on the mother and the unborn child. Among these complications are Anaemia, Hypoglycemia, Acute pulmonary oedema, Immune-suppression etc. on the mother and spontaneous abortion and still birth, placenta insufficiency, intra-uterian growth retardation etc. on the feotus, the various preventive strategies available and barriers to the practice of these preventive strategies. In line with findings, recommendation were made and they include: creation of local examples of excellence to promote good practices towards malaria prevention in pregnancy, communication, engagement and operationalizing the district health plan by local leaders, and integrating information on income generating projects/activities to enable residents fight poverty and its effect on their health by the state Government. Read More »

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