1.0       Introduction

Throughout the different historical philosophical epochs, man has undergone strings of torture, suppression, oppression, dehumanization, relegation, subjugation, degradation, humiliation and all sorts of discrimination from his fellow man; thus man becomes a wolf to man. Sequel to this, man has subjected his fellow man to perennial servitude, thus, depriving him of his inalienable fundamental human rights. As a matter of fact, man should not be subjected to slavery due to his dignity as human. Since slavery dehumanizes and creates inequality among human beings and based on this, Thomas Jefferson declared unequivocally:

“We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal and that they are endowed with certain inalienable rights among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness”.[1]

Slavery as an institution is heinous and appalling. Fagothey states that “slavery as a historical institution looked on slaves as property, as animated tools, to be bought and sold. There can hardly be anything more degrading to personal dignity than this revolting practice”.[2] Human personality should be respected because God created man in his image, dignity, worth and sacredness of the human person comes directly from God. On this note Rev. Fr. John Odey remarked that: Read More »

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Diabetes mellitus and its complications

 Project Topic: Diabetes mellitus and its complications


Diabetes mellitus and its complications:  Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorder in which a person has high blood sugar either because the body does not produce enough insulin or because cells do not respond to the insulin. There are three main types of diabetes. Symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, constant hunger weight loss, blurred vision etc, complications includes hypo/hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, hypertension, neuropathy, nephropathy etc. insulin therapy is used for the treatment of diabetes by administration of exogenous insulin. Islet cell transplantation is a procedure which effectively controls blood glucose level for diabetic patients. A number of plants have been described as a traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Vitamine D supplementation has been found to lower the incidence of type I diabetes. Several classes of oral hypoglycemic agents like sulfonyhreas, biguanides and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are available for the treatment of type 11 diabetes. Targeted drug delivery for the treatment of diabetes using nanotechnology is one of the recent advances in nanomedicine. Read More »

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  1.0  Introduction

:  The importance of omega-3 fatty acids in health promotion and disease prevention cannot be over stated. The three most nutritional important Omega-3 fatty acids are alpha linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). One key reason as to why Omega-3 fish oil has such a powerful effect on fat and carbohydrate metabolism is that insulin levels secretions can be changes by fish oil or Omega-3 PUFAS thereof (Sundar et al; 2003) protein effect of fish oil intake on the development of insulin resistance has been reported in prospective epidermological studies (Fesken et al; 1995) Consequently it has been observed that diabetes and it complications are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the U.S and contribute substantially to health care cost (Centre of disease control and prevention 2008). Therefore diabetes is a disease of carbohydrate metabolism whose hallmark is high blood sugar. Diabetes mellitus is thus defined as a group of metabolic disorder characterized by elevation of blood glucose concentration and is associated with increased prevalence of macrovascular complications. TYPE-1- Diabetes mellitus reflects lacks of insulin the hormone that controls blood sugar; This result from cellular mediated autoimmune destruction of pancreatic B-cells of islets of Langerhans and results in loss of insulin production (Shivananda et al; 2005). Therefore damage to pancreatic B-cells due to the release of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) and interlenkin-1(IL-1) produced by infiltrating macrophages, lymphocytes, and monocyte leads to the development of type-1 diabetes mellitus (DM) Read More »

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 This is a descriptive cross sectional study of the population of healthcare workers in FETHA to ascertain their knowledge, attitude and preventive measures against Lassa Fever infection. The study population was 300 respondents out of (1175) healthcare workers in FETHA. The study population comprised the medical doctors, the nurses, the medical laboratory scientists, pharmacists, health attendants, community health extension workers (CHEWS) and physiotherapists. The study also cut across the entire departments in the teaching hospital. The data collected are displayed in tables, and analyzed with the analyzing software (epi info 2005 version). Amongst 300 respondents, % have heard of lassa fever while % knew that lassa fever infection is caused by lassa virus. % have no idea of the causative agent while few said that it is caused by bacteria, fungi and others. % respondent knew that lassa fever is transmitted through contact whereas % said it is through aerosol. Among the 300 respondents, 197(65.89%) admitted to have seen lassa fever patients, while 103(33.1%) said they have not seen lassa fever patient. Among the 197 respondents who admitted to have seen lassa fever patients, 140 (71%) have been involved in the management of the patients.  (%) of the respondents said that lassa fever can be prevented, they stated that Read More »

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Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Among Quarry Workers


Project Topic: Estimation of Total and Free Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) among Quarry Workers at Ezza Umuoghara Quarry Site ln Eza North Local Government, Ebonyi State

1.0          Introduction

Quarries have been very important in environmental development and also serve a means of employment and source of income. A quarry is a type of open pit mine from which minerals are extracted. They are used for extracting building materials such as dimension stone. They are usually shallower than other types of open pit mines (Kumaggi et al., 1978).

Stone or rock quarrying is a multistage process by which rock or stone is extracted from the ground and crushed to produce aggregates (granites and many other  minerals) which is then screened into required size for immediate use or for further processing such as coating with sidemen to make bituminous macadam (bitimae) or asphalt (Terpordei et al., 2002) .

Thus, it is this process stone or rock quarrying that crystalline silica quarter can be produced, which is said to have a significant impact on the environment, workers or people living near by possibly due to the increase circulation of dust (Raymond et al., 2010). Read More »

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Justice in Plato’s Political Philosophy

Project Topic: The Concept of Justice in Plato’s Political Philosophy vis-a-vis Nigerian Situation


  1. Notion of Justice

1.1       Meaning of Justice?

The word justice comes from the Latin word “Justitia” or “Justus” meaning equitableness, unprejudiced, adjudication of conflicting interest on the basis of legal or moral principle, lawfulness; what is rightful due. In fact, it is simply the way in which each person gets what belongs to him. This is why the yardstick for measuring the worth of any human society is the level of justice and fair play in that society.[1]

In giving credence to this view P. J. Proudhon rightly attests that:

Justice under various names governs the world -nature and humanity, science and conscience, Logic and morals, political economic, politics, history, literature, and art. Justice is that which is most primitive in the human soul, most fundament in society, most sacred among ideas, and what the masses demand with great ardour. It is the essence of religions and at the same time the form of reason, the sacred object of faith, the beginning, middle, and end of knowledge. What can be imagined stronger, more complete than Justice?[2] Read More »

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Effect of Colonialism on Nigeria’s Political System

Project Topic: Effect of Colonialism on Nigeria’s Political System



The pitiable state of the Democratic system in Nigeria has raised a lot of questions and dust to political scientists, sociologist and philosopher. Questions like what is the cause of this terrible political system we have in this country? What relevance is our education since it cannot have any influence on our political system nor is Nigeria still suffering from the effect of colonialism? Questions like these and others that led us into a philosophical investigation into both the problems of Nigeria’s political system and the effects of colonization on Nigeria system of politics, and of what relevance is education or literacy going to be in the elimination of such problems.

The political system said to be practiced in Nigeria is Democracy, which we know is best, understood in words of Abraham Lincoln as the government of the people, for the people and by the people. But in Nigeria’s case it seems to be the contrary because Democracy in Nigeria appears to be impoverishing and exploiting the citizenries of this country.

However, the dormant and unfunctional nature Nigeria’s educational system seem to complicate issues; so this work is geared towards discovering the basic problems of Nigeria’s Democracy and how we can re-activate our educational and moral probity from being a dormant entity into an active entity which would have some influence on our Democratic system of governance. Read More »

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Extra-Sensory Perception (ESP) In African Cultural Context

An Inquiry Into The Idea Of Extra-Sensory Perception (ESP) In African Cultural Context In The Light Of William James’ Pragmatic Notion Of Truth



1.1     Historical Background And Development Of Extra-Sensory Perception

We must hold open door to the possibility that the ways of knowing may be multiple and that each of these ways may be entitled to be dominated by the term ‘knowledge’…traditionally, epistemology has tended to confine itself to sense perception and intellectual cognition. The latter narrowly conceived. But this does not appear sufficient. Knowledge is an event by which human consciousness emerges in the light of being. We cannot prescribe in advance how being is to be revealed.[1]       

How do we know?” is the epistemological question that has spurred interminable disagreement among philosophers down the ages beginning from the Greek skepticism, to the idealism of Plato, realism of Aristotle, moving through the neo-Platonism, to its climax in rationalism and empiricism. The contention is whether the senses or reason should be accorded primary status in acquiring knowledge. The empiricists agree that our knowledge comes essentially through the senses and this is represented in this scholastic axiom: Nihil est intellectu quod non prius fuerit in sensuthere is nothing in the intellect which was not first in the senses. Even spiritual realities such as God are knowable by the human intellect only because the foundation of such concepts existed in what is in the senses and could be derived from sense knowledge by a process of reasoning and analogy. The Rationalists hold that reason is the essential source of knowledge. However, Immanuel Kant, harmonizing the two opinions (views) says that knowledge is the synthesis of the epistemic contributions of both the senses and reason, with the senses being the starting point in the process of acquiring knowledge. Read More »

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The Immortality Of The Soul In Plato

Philosophy and Religion Project Topic: The Immortality Of The Soul In Plato


Man is a being faced with numerous difficulties, problems, foes and so on. Perhaps the worst and the most dreaded of these foes is death. It has been tagged an arch-enemy of man, the destroyer of man, non-respecter of person, and has a host of other negative connotative words and names. Around the world and in many religions and cultures, people have sought to explain and demystify death, but with minute success.

At the bottom of all our phobias and neurosis lies a fear of death. This is so, probably because of the uncertainty surrounding death. Such things as: whether the experience will be painful or dehumanizing in some way? Whether there will be extension of life after death; whether death is the end. Even not being able to see the beloved once again in this earthly existence is enough puzzlement. All these are problematic realities which face and confront one as one encounters death or the death of a beloved one.

These were the dilemma in which Socrates’ friends and followers found themselves. Socrates, a teacher, a lovable friend, a just man, and an inculcator of morals; faced with option of death was irreconcilable, by his followers or friends. Phaedo expressed his emotion thus; “I felt an absolutely incomprehensible emotion a sort of curious blend of pleasure and pain combined as my mind took it that in a little while, my friend was going to die”. How can it happen, that the loved one will not be seen again in “saecula saeculorum”. Xanthippe, Socrates’ wife could not bear it, and she broke out thus, “Oh Socrates, this is the last time that you and your friends will be able to talk together”. They were afraid that he will be gone and gone forever. Read More »

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The Impact Of Marketing Concepts In Nigeria


The Impact Of Marketing Concepts In Nigeria Banking Industry A Study Of Enterprise Bank Ltd Abakaliki Branch



Earlier in 1986, the structural adjustment programme (SAP) and with the deregulation that came with it, customer satisfaction did not mean much to the banks. Precisely, bank customers bear whatever services the bank offered to them.

Chukwu (2000) observed, “Banks were not mindful of the need to improve their service quality as the financial service sector to Nigeria remained bankers’ market”. Customers matched their needs against the services provided by the banks. It was such that they were not particularly bordered if the services were rejected by the customer. Banks appeared to have access to excess liquidity. The competition in the industry that followed caused the bank manger to sit up.

Because of competition which came into the sector, it became imperative or the banks to be courteous and efficient in their services the survival of banks under aggressive competitive setting compelled banks to invest in human resources, modern technology and the development of new products, services and concepts to meet the never challenging needs of their various groups of customers. With the aggressive competition in banking industry today, of its apparent necessity. There have been growing interest in applying marketing strategies to the field of banking in recent times in order to retain your potential customers and make new ones”. Read More »

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