AGE AND PROSTATE DISORDER

Age and Prostate Disorder –A Case of Abakaliki, Ebonyi State


 

CHAPTER ONE                                 

INTRODUCTION

The prostate (from Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally “one who stands before”, “protector”, “guardian”) is a compound tubuloalveolarexocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals (Romer and Parsons, 1977). It differs considerably among species anatomically, chemically, and physiologically .The prostate is a gland located at the base of a man’s bladder, behind the pubic bone and in front of the rectum. Read More »

Posted in Department of Medical Lab. Science, Department of Nursing Science, Faculty of Natural Science, Medical / Health Sciences | Tagged , | Leave a comment

NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF BRYCINUS SPECIES FROM OTUOCHA RIVER

The Nutritional Value of Brycinus Species from Otuocha River


 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1Background of the study

Today we live in a poverty, malnutrition and hunger prevalent world. It has been estimated that 14 percent of the global population or 852 million people are going hungry.

Micronutrients deficiencies or hidden hunger in one form or the other are affecting more than 2billion people worldwide; 5.5 million children dying of hunger and malnutrition related causes.

The Millennium Development Goals adopted by the world’s government in 2000 set a target at reducing the hungry and malnourished population by 2015. However, hunger and malnutrition still remain the most devastating problems facing the poor in developing countries and we have a long way to go towards eliminating hunger (Conquerand Holub, 2002).

Fish and fisheries can play an important role in addressing hunger and poverty. Fish are rich sources of protein, essential fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. Fagade (1992) opined that fish flesh is about the best source of animal protein, better digested than beef and poultry; contains mineral salts and its oil is mainly poly-unsaturated fatty acids with anti-cholesterol factor. He concluded that regular consumption of fish is beneficial to human body. Some other authors noted that increased consumption of fish reduces the risks, abates rheumatoid arthritis, decreases the risk of bowel cancer and reduces insulin-resistance in skeletal muscles (Anon, 2001; Conquerand Holub, 2002).

Brycinus is a ray-finned fish genus in the family Alestiidae. Like other “African characids” were before included in the Characidae but are actually somewhat more distantly related Characiformes. Similar to some other Alestiidae, they are called robber tetras due to their bold and rather carnivorous behavior. They are not uncommonly kept as aquarium fishes, also in their requirements similar to the South American tetras of the Characidae. Unlike these, Brycinus are not well-suited to accompany delicate fishes however, and are better kept with dwarf cichlids and similar small but robust companion.(Alexakis, 1989). Read More »

Posted in Agriculture, Department of Medical Lab. Science, Faculty of Natural Science, Medical / Health Sciences | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

SIWES INDUSTRIAL TRAINING (IT) REPORT 2

SIWES Industrial Training (IT) Report, JUHEL Nig. Ltd., Enugu


 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                     INTRODUCTION

1.1 BRIEF HISTORY OF SIWES

SIWES was established by ITF in the year 1973 to serve the problem of lack of adequate practical skills preparatory for employment in industries by Nigeria tertiary institutions graduates. The scheme educates students on industrial based skills essential for a smooth transition from the classroom to the world of work. Students of tertiary institutions is given the opportunity of being familiarized and exposed to the needed experience in handling machinery and equipment which are usually not available in the educational institutions. Partaking in SIWES industrial training has become a crucial pre-condition for the award of diploma and degree certificates in specific disciplines in most institutions of higher learning in Nigeria in line with the government education policies. The Operators are; the ITF, the coordinating agencies (NUC, NCCE, NBTE), employers of labour and various institutions.

Funding- the federal government of Nigeria Beneficiaries are undergraduate students of the following disciplines: Natural Sciences, Engineering and Technology, Education, Agriculture, Medical Science, Environmental, and pure and applied sciences. Duration is four months and one year for polytechnics and colleges of education respectively, and of course, six months for the universities.

1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE SCHEME Read More »

Posted in Department of Medical Lab. Science, Engineering, Faculty of Natural Science, Medical / Health Sciences, Uncategorized | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) amongst meat sellers in Nigeria

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterial species named from Greek word translated as “Golden grape-cluster berry”. Staphylococcus aureus is a facultative aerobic gram positive coccal bacterium. It is a member of the flrmicutes and is frequently found in the human respiratory tract and the skin. Although Staphylococcus aureus is not always pathogenic, it is a common cause of skin infections (e.g. boils), respiratory disease (e.g. sinusitis), and food poisoning (Kluytmans J, et al., 1997).

Staphylococcus was first identified in Aberdeen, Scotland (1880) by the surgeon sir Alexande Ogston in pus from a surgical abscess in a knee joint (Ogston, 1984). It is estimated that 20% of the human population are long-term carriers of Staphylococcus aureus which can be found as part of the normal skin flora and in anterior nares of the nasal passage. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common species of staphylococci that cause staphylococcal infection and is a successful pathogen due to combination of nasal carriage and bacterial immune-evasive strategies.

Staphylococcus aureus can cause a range of illness, from minor skin infection, such as pimple, impetigo, boils (furuncles), cellulitis folliculitis, carbuncles, scalded skin syndrome and diseases, to life-threatening disease such a pneumonia, meningitis, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, toxic shock syndrome (TSS), bacteremia and sepsis. Incidence ranges from skin, soft tissue, respiratory, bone, joint endovascular to wound infections.

1.1      JUSTIFICATION

Reduction in antimicrobials use in veterinary medicine may appear as a potential control option for reducing the selective pressure for MRSA colonization in animals, the effectiveness of such a measure remains unknown hence the need for this research work.

1.2      AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The main aim of this research work is to determine the nasal carriage of MRSA amongst meat sellers in Abakaliki. Other objectives include:

  1. Determine the prevalence of MRS A among meat sellers in the area.
  2. To ascertain the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the nares of meat sellers.

 

—This article is not complete———–This article is not complete———— This article was extracted from a well articulated quality Project, Research Work/Material

Topic: Nasal Carriage of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) amongst meat sellers in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State

To get the full report pay a token of 3,000 naira to the following account

 

BANK: ECOBANK

ACCOUNT NAME: ODUNUKWE RAPHAEL CHIEMEKA

ACCOUNT NUMBER: 4831029253

 

Immediately after the payment send your name, topic of interest, e-mail address, teller number and location to the following phone number: 07035282233

The full report will immediately be forwarded to you.

GOD BLESS

 

 

 

Posted in Department of Medical Lab. Science, Department of Nursing Science, Faculty of Natural Science, Medical / Health Sciences | Tagged , , | Leave a comment

PARASITES UNDER THE FINGER NAILS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

Prevalence Of Eggs And Cyst Of Parasites Under The Finger Nails Of Primary School Children

                                                     


  CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1       BACKGROUND TO THE SUDY

In tropical countries, parasitic infections remain a serious public health problem, in view of the high prevalence of protozoan and helminth infections.( Dada-Adegbola et al.,2005)) The World Health Organization has estimated that helminth infections affect around 2 billion people, among whom 5-10% are children under 24 months of age (Katz and Taylor 2001). Helminth infections may lead to malnutrition, anemia, and disturbed appetite (Adeyeba and Akinladi, 2002) and may ultimately result in retarded physical and cognitive development in children (Aisen et al., 2002). A study in North Sumatra reported a prevalence of ascariasis of 76.7% among primary school pupils (Akogun and Badaki, 1998).  The factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections in tropical countries include poverty, illiteracy, poor hygiene, poorly organized clean water supply, and hot and humid environmental conditions. Protozoa and helminthic parasites are responsible for the prevalence of diseases capable of affecting an individual’s health. Intestinal parasitic infections (IPI) are global health problems causing clinical illness in 450 million inhabitants, particularly children and women of reproductive age in developing countries (Anosike et al., 2005). IPI, and helminths in particular, are associated with increased risks for nutritional anemia, proteinenergy malnutrition, growth retardation in children, poor increase in body weight in pregnancy, intrauterine growth retardation, and low birth weight (Bethony et al., 2006). Children infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) have poor educational level and performance at school and a high level of truancy, thus impacting on their future earnings and

Productivity (Cheesbrough, 2000). The most important STHs are the common roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), the whipworm (Trichuris trichiura) and the hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale), which currently are a group of neglected tropical diseases.

…..

….

.

……

1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

  • Determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites from fingernail dirt among children in Abakaliki Local Government Area.
  • To identify the factors associated with infestation of the parasites.
  • To investigate the sex difference in infection among the children
  • To assess the age difference in the infection rate among the children.

—This article is not complete———–This article is not complete———— This article was extracted from a well articulated quality Project, Research Work/Material

Topic: Prevalence of Eggs And Cyst of Parasites Under the Finger Nails of Primary School Children

 

To get the full report pay a token of 3,000 naira to the following account

 

BANK: ECOBANK

ACCOUNT NAME: ODUNUKWE RAPHAEL CHIEMEKA

ACCOUNT NUMBER: 4831029253

 

Immediately after the payment send your name, topic of interest, e-mail address, teller number and location to the following phone number: 07035282233

The full report will immediately be forwarded to you.

GOD BLESS

Posted in Department of Medical Lab. Science, Faculty of Natural Science, Medical / Health Sciences | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

STAINING POTENTIAL OF BAPHIA NITIDA (CAMWOOD) DYE ON BACTERIA CELL AND MALARIA PARASITE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Dyes are substances, which impact more or less permanent colour to other materials. They have in no small measure helped to reveal hidden histological and cytological facts. Owing to their importance they have become a focal point in scientific discoveries pertaining to tissues and cells. The use of dyes dates from centuries back. .According to Barker (1970), its origin must have arisen accidentally as a result of staining from berries or other plant parts, and therefore the deliberate use of these plants to produce colours probably followed soon after. Gerald (1979) stated that madder and indigo were first known in India from around 2500 BC while around 3000 BC dyeing has being an established craft in China.  Banerjee and Mukherjee (1981) mentioned some of these dyes as santalin and santarubin which are dyes contained in the camwood (Baphia nitida). Most natural dyes are of the mordant type which requires a fixing agent such as acetic acid or alum .

Nigeria and of course other countries depend so much on products manufactured by the developed countries, hence they are branded consumers countries. Nigeria is much dependent on developed countries for supply of hospital and laboratory consumables. Various Nigeria governments have been spending millions of naira and foreign currency on the purchase of dyes or biological stains from overseas. It is so appalling that no single biological stain used in laboratories is made in Nigeria, not even a foreign company in Nigeria Read More »

Posted in Department of Medical Lab. Science, Faculty of Natural Science, Medical / Health Sciences | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

IMMUNE-STATUS OF HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS WITH AND WITHOUT P. FALCIPARUM MALARIA (HIV AND MALARIA)

                                                   CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0                                              INTRODUCTION                

 Plasmodium falciparum, the etiologic agent of malaria and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the causative agent of  acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), are co-endemic in many tropical and sub-tropical countries with the potential risk for  improved clinical, parasitological and hematological complications (Gregory et al., 2010). Malaria and HIV infections are the lead cause of morbidity and mortality in this region. Together they account for over 4 million deaths each year. Both infections affect those in poverty and contribute to poverty by hindering sustainable development (WHO, 2008).

                    Plasmodium falciparum malaria causes about 300-500 million clinical cases annually, of which 90% occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Approximately, more than one million deaths occur each year, primarily among children under five years of age (UNAIDS/ WHO, 2004). Apart from young children, also heavily affected are pregnant women, with resultant effects on maternal health, birth outcome and increased mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in HIV positive mothers with placental malaria (UNAIDS/WHO, 2004). Sub-Saharan Africa is also a home to an estimated 25 million adults and children living with HIV/AIDS. Worldwide, 33 million people are living with HIV/AIDS (UNAID/WHO, 2004). In 2007, an estimated 2.1 million deaths were due to HIV infections, of which 1.6 million occurred in sub- Saharan Africa and over 1.9 million individuals mainly children were newly infected (WHO,2008). Given the overlap of their geographic distribution and resultant rates of co-infection, interactions between these two diseases pose major public health problems (WHO, 2008). Read More »

Posted in Department of Medical Lab. Science, Department of Nursing Science, Medical / Health Sciences | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment

DUALITY THEORY IN LINEAR PROGRAMMING AND APPLICATION

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Many people rank the development of linear programming among the most important scientific advances of the mid-twentieth century, and we must agree with this assessment. It’s impact since 1950 till date have been extra-ordinary.Today, it is a standard tool that has saved thousands and millions of naira for companies or even moderate size in industrialized countries of the World and other uses of it is widely spreading to other sectors. Duality theory seeks to find a related solution to a primal problem in linear programming. There one can afford to define duality as “as associated linear program of a linear programming problems such that a solution to the primal linear program also gives a solution to it’s dual”.

Linear programming deals with the problem of allocating limited resources among competing activities in the best possible way. This problem of allocation can arise whenever one must select a level of certain activities that can compete for scarce resources necessarily to perform those activities. The variety of the situations to which this description applies is diverse ranging from the allocation of product facilities to product and allocation of national resources to domestic needs; from portfolio selection to the shipping patterns selection, agricultural planning to the design of radiation therapy, and so on. However, the one common ingredient in each of these situations is the necessity for allocating resources to activities. Read More »

Posted in Engineering, Faculty of Natural Science, Maths and Statistics | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL QUALITIES OF BOREHOLE WATER IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Water is an odorless, colorless, tasteless, transparent liquid that forms the seas, lakes, rivers, and rain fall as well as the basis of the fluids to living organisms (Michael, 2000). Water is a combination of hydrogen and oxygen atoms, with a chemical formula H2O and known to be the most abundant compound (70%) on earth’s surface (Osei, 2005). Moreover, for water to be potable it must be microbiologically safe and in order to realize this, a strategy that will get rid of pathogenic organisms from the source of water supply must be applied. Retra (2002) described water in its pure form as a substance with a pH value of 7.0, a freezing point of 0 C and also a boiling point of 100 C at a pressure of 760mmHg. Water is capable of dissolving other substances more than any other known solvent and therefore, it is called a universal solvent. It is useful to man in a lot of ways, for example, it serves as a source of transportation (in bringing goods from one country to another i.e., seas, oceans and rivers), recreation like sports (Swimming, diving and skating). Water is also used for electricity generation, domestic purpose; bathing, washing, cooking e.t.c. Since the start or recorded history, it has been acknowledged as a potential carrier of germs and diseases (Retra, 2002). Ground water sources, wells, boreholes and springs; that are properly located produce water of a very good quality. The following are micro-organisms associated with water; (Chris, 2004). Water borne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms which are directly transmitted when contaminated water is consumed. Cholera is a good example of water borne disease and it is endemic in some parts of Nigeria. In 1991, more than 16,000 people died throughout the world from half a million cholera cases. Better treatment has reduced the death rate dramatically, but it is still a serious disease (UNPE, 1997).

Diarrhea is the world’s second leading killer of children under the age of five, just below Pneumonia, killing about 1.5million infants a year, more than AIDS and measles put together. In various places, parents are still ignorant of what to do when their children get infected with diarrhea Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Escherichia coli Proteus, Mycobacteria, Shigellasonnei, Klebsiella Salmonella,Cyanobacteria (Chris, 2004). Cholera is a good example of water borne disease and it is endemic in some parts of Nigeria. As earlier Stated, in 1991 alone above 16,000 people died worldwide from half a million cholera cases. Enhanced treatment has reduced the death rate significantly, but it is still a serious disease (UNPE, 1997). Diarrhea diseases are caused by waterborne bacteria, viruses, toxins and parasites. Important factors in controlling the disease includes: i) The availability of health services ii.) Effectively use of prevention strategies (proper sanitation and nutrition): iii) effectively use of vaccines.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVE

 

The aims and objective of the study include the following

 

  • To determine the microbiological and physicochemical quality of borehole water in Nguzu Edda boreholes water in Afikpo South LGA,Nigeria.
  • To determine the biological and chemical standards of the borehole water for consumption.
  • To compare the results discovered with World Health Organisation standards.

—This article is not complete———–This article is not complete———— This article was extracted from a well articulated quality Project, Research Work/Material

Topic: EVALUATION OF THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL QUALITIES OF NGUZU EDDA BOREHOLE WATER IN AFIKPO SOUTH LGA, NIGERIA

To get the full report pay a token of 3,000 naira to the following account

 

BANK: ECOBANK

ACCOUNT NAME: ODUNUKWE RAPHAEL CHIEMEKA

ACCOUNT NUMBER: 4831029253

 

Immediately after the payment send your name, topic of interest, e-mail address, teller number and location to the following phone number: 07035282233

The full report will immediately be forwarded to you.

GOD BLESS

 

 

 

Posted in Department of Medical Lab. Science, Faculty of Natural Science, Medical / Health Sciences | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

CAUSES OF POOR ENROLMENT OF STUDENTS INTO SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Early Christian missionaries brought formal western education to Nigeria. This type of education started from the southern part of Nigeria and later spread to the north. It dates as far back as 1842 (Odo 1996). Odo; Ede; and Ezike (1996) observed that as a result of the Europeans Contact, schools were established with the first secondary school being the Church Missionary Society (C.M.S) Grammar school established by the church missionary society in 1857 at the Badagry area of Lagos. More so, within this period, other missionaries from other missions such as the Wesleyan Methodist mission, Roman Catholic mission, Church of Scotland mission also arrived in Nigeria. These missions did established schools at different locations within the country.

The advantages of western education to Nigeria include the following: it helped in bringing up those who could interpret locations within the country. The Whiteman’s language to our local people as well as our local languages to the Whiteman, it also helped in bringing up those who could read and write both Nigerian, languages and the English language as was being used by the Whiteman. It also led to the production of personnel who represented Nigeria at various levels in government within and outside the country. As a result, the quest for western education in Nigerian became eminent. Parents began to send their children/wards to these schools. Besides developing keen interest in western education, it appeared that there was definite gender disparity in enrolment in most of these schools. Some parents preferred to send their male children to school while they refused to send their female children to school at all. The awareness of the importance of education was not widely spread as a result, others sent their children to school as punishments to bad deeds or because such children were not loved by their parents. Some parents also preferred to engage their children and wards in other non-educational activities. This resulted to some students staying -out of school. Fafunwa in Udu (2005:1) stated that the unwillingness of some parents to send their children and wards to school resulted in such children not attending schools.

What could be the consequences of this parental negative attitude of not sending their children to school on the Nigerian society? It is in line with this that Okpube (2005) stated I the decreasing number in students’ enrolment into the senior secondary school system can cause a great destruction to the Nigerian  society  because  personnel  turn  outs  would  be very low.  This  would   make   it that  Nigeria   will   lack trained   and qualified persons who will forge the society ahead;  only very-few will be able to read and write; majority of the people will be illiterates and uneducated persons; Nigeria would also lack good and qualified representatives in government and in other countries of the world. Read More »

Posted in Education | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment