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Socio-Economic Determinants of Adolescent Sexual Behaviour

A Survey on the Socio-Economic Determinants of Adolescent Sexual Behaviour in Umuchima Community, Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyti State



This study is basically about servely on Socio-Economic Determinants of Adolescent Sexual Behaviour in Umuchima Community Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The study aids at highlighting the influences of economic adversity. Peer group pressure and the mass media on adolescent sexuality. The respondent to the study were all the SSI to SSII students in Comprehensive Secondary School Uburu and Technical Secondary School all in Ohaozara local government area. The study revealed that adolescent sexual behaviour is influenced by economic adversity and peer group pressure; the mass media have little significance associated with adolescent sexual behaviour. Based on the findings, the researcher recommended that there is need for the government to uplift to economic and financial status of the adolescents and their parents as well as guardians, the youths should be educationally empowered so as to banish associated with peer persuasion and superstitious beliefs that leads to youths to an unintended sex. Read More »

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History of Mfom People from the Earliest Times To 1900

A History of Mfom People from the Earliest Times To 1900



            One of the key factors that tend to make the Nigeria social setting rather complicated is the heterogeneous grouping of its people. It is also important to understand that as one move from one area to the other within the country one will begin to see how people do things in different ways due to their ethnic, linguistic and cultural divisions. In places like Akwa-Ibom, Bayelsa and even Cross River here, for example, one can see this language cluster, within a very small geographical area or location. It is key to also understand that here in Nigeria, for example, research shows that there are about 500 languages in the country. This indeed means that there are atleast about 250 ethnic groups as well as many cultural groups in the country. And just as these people differ linguistically, so also is to their general way of life.

Each tribe speaking its own separate mother tongue which may have a culture or way of life that is different from every other tribe. These divisions of language and culture are formidable barriers to good relations.

This has eventually led to the problem of “tribalism” which government after government within the nation has tried to solve with little success, but organizations like the church refuse to recognize it as a problem. However, this difference not withstanding Nigeria tends to be people oriented. This is particularly true when one comes into any of the ethnic groups, at that level, it then becomes “homogeneous in terms of social structure, way of communication and cultural identification.

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Kant’s Ethics and the Resolution of Immorality Crisis in Nigeria

A Critical Evaluation of Kant’s Ethics and the Resolution of Immorality Crisis in Nigeria


Lust after material things have taken over the rightful moral act living in Nigeria. Morality no longer act the way it should, because most Nigerians, if not all, now believes in immorality or immoral life, because they now think that morality do not benefit much more than immorality and with reasonable and provable evidence, one can be multimillion and criminal now have their way out even in the law court of justice without justice will prevailing. Now due to the high rent of immorality among Nigerians and moral vice like ingenuinity practice of justice, selfishness, bribery and corruption and indelible aspect of Nigeria electoral process which also had affected us on development and leadership. Only way out of these damage caused by immorality consciences, I advices for all of us to embedded on moral teaching and educating Nigerians on new moral act like recommending Kant’s ethics on moral theory which could be at help in quenching the thirst for immorality crisis within Nigeria also Kant’s concept of the universalization principle when adopted in the behaviors and attitude of Nigerians will help in prick our conscience and make us realize that we should always show respect to the sanctity of human life. Read More »

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Methods of Contraception among Christian and Muslem Women

A Comparative Study on Methods of Contraception among Christian and Muslem Women in Army Barracks in Nkwagu Abakaliki, Ebonyi State


Family planning is of utmost importance in a woman’s life. Effective contraceptive practices have the potential not only to improve the lives of the women, men and children involved but also to be of benefit to couples, families and community. However, several obstacles to contraceptives’ use such as husbands’ approval, income, educational level, age, parity, myths and misconceptions, accessibility and availability of family planning services contribute to non-use of contraceptive methods.  Religion is also of paramount importance in determining which contraceptive method is used. This study sought to compare methods of contraception among the Christian and Moslem women in Army barracks Nkwagu Abakaliki Ebonyi State. Six research questions guided the study literatures were reviewed and summarized. The design adopted was descriptive survey. From the population, 720 pregnant women, Taro Yamane formula for sample and sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 372(192 christians and 180 moslems). Stratified sampling technique and simple random technique were use to select the subjects using a four-sectioned questionnaire. Data were analysed using frequency tables and percentages. Analysis revealed that a significant difference in methods of contraception among the Christian and Moslem exist with a p value of 0.0001<0.05. Additionally, husbands’ approval/decision, income, educational status, age and parity significantly influenced choice of contraception among these women. Based on the findings of the study, it is therefore, recommended that members of the health team should intensify all efforts to educate women about family planning. Knowledge about family planning should be largely diffused to the public using mass media such as posters, pamphlets, television, newspapers, radios, magazines and books such that will efficiently help with the spread of family planning education directly towards the general public and groups where family planning conditions need great improvement. Seminars and workshops should be organized by both government and non­governmental organization (NGOs) to create more awareness and encourage mothers on family planning. Husbands should be advised to support and encourage .their wives on family planning. Government should make family planning centres within the reach of individuals as this also contributes to the use of family planning methods. Read More »

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Documentation in Minimizing the Effect of Language Endangerment


The Use of Documentation in Minimizing the Effect of Language Endangerment: A Case Study of Igbo Language



This work examines the state of endangerment among our African languages, using Igbo language as a case study. It raises alarm on the need for documentation, to preserve the unadulterated form of our Igbo language. It examines cases of revival achieved by the means of documentation and provided certain methods through which this can be achieved. it is already an established fact that Language endangerment is common with the undocumented languages, the process is not a sudden one rather a gradual process. One of the most interesting part of this research is the unveiling of the fact that the Igbo language facing risk of endangerment is not all about language documentation but also the case of group loyalty. From the journey so far, it is worthy to note that language endangerment can be totally erased with effective transmission of the language from parents to their children and their by reduce or erase the preference to the “Whiteman’s tongue”. More so the Nigerian language teachers should be trained in our indigenous language and where necessary, they should be retrained and also trained to use modern technologies, especially in internet facilities. Read More »

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International Trade on Nigeria’s Economy

Impact of International Trade on Nigeria’s Economy (1982 – 2013)



1.1 Background to the Study

Predominantly, in our world today, nothing can be done without an exchange of some value for value which involves money, ideas, product and technology. As a result of this there is direct effect on the economy of any nation, either positively or negatively. Trade can be traced back to the need for exchange, which evolved from the barter system to the money system. Trade in Nigeria, however, became popular with the advent of the colonial rule that brought in their wares and made Nigerians their middle men (Nicks, 2008). By this, Nigerians understood the need for trade both domestically and internationally.

Foreign trade can be defined as trade across the frontiers, that is, with the rest of the world. It has been argued that it plays a prominent role in promoting economic growth and productivity. Debate has been on-going since several decades ago. Historical validation has revealed that internationally active countries tend to be more productive than countries which only produce for the domestic market.

International trade has been an area of concern to policy makers and economists. Its importance lies on the ability to obtain goods which cannot be produced in the country or which can only be produced at greater expenses. Also it enables a nation to sell its domestically produced goods to other countries of the world. The performance of a given economy in terms of growth rates of output and per capita income has not only been based on the domestic production and consumption activities but also on international transaction of goods and services. The classical and neo-classical economists attached so much importance to international trade in a country‘s development that they regarded it as an engine of growth (Jhingan 2006). Read More »

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Interest Rate and Private Sector Investment on Nigeria Economic Growth

The Impact of Interest Rate and Private Sector Investment on Nigeria Economic Growth (1981-2012)




1.1 Background of the Study

The interest rate policy in Nigeria as it affects private sector investment is perhaps one of the most controversial of all financial policies. The reason for this may not be farfetched because interest rate policy has direct bearing on many other economic variables like investment decision. Interest rates play a crucial role in the efficient allocation of resources aimed at facilitating growth and development of an economy and as a demand management technique for achieving both internal and external balance.

For many years now, Nigeria’s Central Bank of Nigeria Monetary Policy Rate (MPR), otherwise known as the benchmark interest rate has been at double digit. In 2012 it was largely at 12 per cent. By the time deposit money banks charge their own lending rates to prospective customers wanting to loan money, it’s usually between 15 – 20 per cent and more. This has made nonsense of government’s effort at stimulating the real sector of the economy. Even the aviation, textile and entertainment intervention funds set aside by government to revitalize these ailing sectors have been difficult to access by the target beneficiaries. Banks, apart from charging high interest rates on loans, also add all manner of administrative or miscellaneous charges which make the burden of borrowing unbearable. What are obtained in many other developing countries are low interest rates of between 5-8 per cent with a moratorium. What cheap loans do for entrepreneurs are that it makes take off and expansion of business relatively easy for the investors. With that, the cost of doing business is reduced and they in turn will be able to provide cheaper services and goods. Invariably the consumers get a better deal from the producer. Read More »

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Effective Financial Management in Local Government System

The Impact of Effective Financial Management in Local Government System in Ebonyi State



Background to the Study

A well-functioning local government administration must establish a sound public financial management and delivers quality public services consistent with citizen preferences and fosters private market-led growth while managing fiscal resources prudently to alleviate poverty and the achievement of `the Millennium Development Goals. This important new series aims to advance those objectives by disseminating conceptual guidance and lessons from practices and by facilitating learning from one another’s experiences on ideas and practices that promote responsive public governance.

Fundamentally, this chapter covers the introductory part that provides the background of the study for better understanding of local government financial management. The problem of the study is clearly stated as well as the purpose of the study is defined, followed by the main research questions that guide the study.  As a matter of arriving at conclusive end of the study. The significance and scope of the study is also disclosed. The terminologies used are well defined for clarity purpose and to have insight of the study. However, the study is organized according to the prescribed procedures of administrative sciences. Read More »

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Interest Rate on Investment in Nigeria

Impact of Interest Rate on Investment in Nigeria -An Econometric Analysis (1986-2013)



This study examined the impact of interest rate on investment decision of Nigeria over the time series period of 1986- 2013. The empirical analysis that was carried out to achieve the objectives mentioned above were diagnostic tests such as unit root, co-integration, Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) and granger causality test ordinary least square (OLS), using annual time series data from CBN statistical bulletin (volume 24). Regressed Domestic Investment (DINV) as dependant variables against Interest rate  (INT) , Inflation rate (INF),  and exchange rate (EXR) as the independent variables  The result of our unit root showed that the  all the variables employed were  stationary at first difference and also the result shows a long run equilibrium relationship between the variables in the model. Similarly, the OLS result revealed that there is a positive significant impact of interest rate on Investment decision of Nigeria, the joint F-test at 5% level of significance. Based on the findings above, the study recommends that monetary authorities should make policies which would help to improve the saving culture of the people such as increase in the interest rate which would lure the people to deposit their money in banks thereby increasing the supply of loanable funds. This would lead to a fall in interest rate and eventually rise in investment.




1.1       Background of the Study

Interest rate policy in Nigeria is a major instrument of monetary policy with regards to the role it play in the mobilization of financial resources aimed at promoting economic growth and development. Interest rate is the price paid for the use of money. It is the opportunity cost of borrowing money from a lender. It can also be seen as the return being paid to the provider of financial resources. It is an important economic price. This is because whether seen from the point of view of cost of capital or from the perspective of opportunity cost of funds, interest rate has fundamental implications for the economy either impacting on the cost of capital or influencing the availability of credit, by increasing savings (Acha & Acha 2011).

Since the time of Adam Smith and Karl Marx, investment has been deemed to be both the engine of economic activity and the primary cause of economic malaise. Investment is the change in capital stock during a period. It is the accumulation of newly produced physical entities, such as factories, machinery, houses and goods inventories. Consequently, unlike capital, investment is a flow term and not a stock term. This means that investment is measured over a period of time. Investment plays a very important role in economic growth in a country. Countries rely on investment to solve economic problems such as poverty, unemployment etc. (Muhammad 2004). As such determinants of level of investment become paramount in an economy.

An understanding of the nature of interest rate behavior is critical and crucial in designing policies to promote economic growth. Its importance is hinged on its equilibrating influence on supply and demand in the financial sector. Banks as intermediaries move fund from surplus of the economy to deficit units by accepting deposits and channeling them into ending activities. The extent to which this could be done depend upon the rate of interest and level of development of financial sector as well as the saving and investment habit of the people. Hence, the availability of investible funds is therefore necessary for all investment in economy which eventually translates to economic growth and development (Uremadu, 2006).

Oresotu (1992) explains that the basic functions of interest rates in an economy in which individual economic agents take decisions as to whether they should borrow, invest, save and/or consume, are summarized by International Monetary Fund (IMF) under three aspect; namely:

  1. Interest rates as return on financial assets serve as incentive to savers, making them defer present consumption to a future date
  2. Interest rates being a component of cost of capital affect the demand for and allocation of loanable funds; and
  3. The domestic interest rate in conjunction with the rate of return on foreign financial assts and goods are hedged against inflation.

The behavior of interest rates, to a large extent, determines the investment activities and hence economic growth of a country. Investment depends upon the rate of interest involved in getting funds from the market by investors, while economic growth to a large extent depends on the level of investment. If interest rate is high, investment is at low level and when interest rate falls, investment will rise.

The effect of real interest rates on investment spending was posited in an investment equation by Jorgenson (1963) in his paper capital theory and investment behavior. He derived the stock of capital as a function of real output and the opportunity cost of capital. In this approach, a representative firm maximizes the present value of its future cash flows. The desired capital stock is directly related to output and inversely related to the cost of capital a decrease in the real interest rate lowers the opportunity cost of capital and, therefore, raises the desired capital stock and investment spending.

The need to promote an interest rate that will ensure increase in investment and consequently enhancing economic growth cannot be over emphasized. Despite rates, lending rates, Treasury bill rate, interbank rate and Minimum rediscount rate are all examples of interest rates.

1.2 Statement of Problem

            Prior to SAP in 1986, interest rate in Nigeria was generally fixed by the CBN with periodic adjustments depending on the government sectoral priorities. The monetary authority in promoting investment in key sectors in the economy (Agricultural, Manufacturing etc.) charged special interest rates on loans taken by these sectors so as to encourage the growth in the output of the sectors for a possible improvement in economic growth (Udoka, 2000). The prevailing rates of interest were regulated by government through the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) so as to guide the economy towards economic growth through these key sectors.  The period is considered as a financial repression period (government regulations, laws, and other non-market restrictions preventing financial intermediaries from functioning at full capacity) as explained by Mckinnon & Shaw (1973), and was characterized by a highly regulated monetary policy environment in which policies of directed credits, interest rate ceiling and restrictive monetary expansion were the rule rather than exception (Soyibo and Olayiwola, 2000).

Although the interest rate instruments remain fixed, there were increases. The deposit rate increased from 4% in 1975 to 9.5% in 1986, while the lending rate rose from 6 to 10.5% within the same period. However, the low rates of interest that prevailed could not be sustained. The low and demand for credit soon exceeded the supply of funds while essential sectors of the economy were starved of funds (Obute, Asor and Idoko 2012).

On 31st July 1987, the CBN deregulated interest rate. Interest rate became market driven where the forces of demand and supply determined interest rate level. This came about as a result of economic shocks of the 1980s and the financial repression which manifested through indiscriminate distortions of financial prices interest rate inclusive, reduced the real rate of growth. The position of the deregulated interest are among other things was to enhance the provision of sufficient funds for investors, especially manufacturers who were considered prime agents and by implication promoters of economic growth so as to stimulate exports, correct price distortion.

In a policy reversal 1994, measures of regulation of rate management was re-introduced. A claim of variation and high rate under the regulation of interest rate led to the reversal. Deposits rate were set at 12% to 15% per annum while a ceiling of 21% per annum was fixed for lending. A minor modification to allow for flexibility was seen in 1995, in which flexible interest rate were bank deposits and lending rate were determined by forces of supply and demand for fund (Udoka & Anyingang, 2012), (Omole & Falokun, 1999). Since 2004, the monetary policy committee of the Central bank of Nigeria fixed the rates depending on performance of the economy. In 2013, the lending rate was 17.10% while the monetary policy rate was 12% while saving rate 2.39% (CBN, 2012).

The role and effect of interest rate is possible due to the link between the financial sector and real sector of the economy, for instance, the lending rate which translates into cost of capital has direct implications for investment. High lending rate discourages borrowing for investment. Also, high saving rate encourages savings which means more lendable funds for investments. As such the directional flow of interest rate has a linkage to the investment in an economy. This relationship calls for the need to examine the impact of interest rate on investment in Nigeria, hence the need for this research work.

1.4 Research Questions

In view of the perceived challenges in this research work, we intend to provide answers to the under listed questions:

  1. To what extent does determinant of interest rate impact on investment in Nigeria?
  2. What is the causal link between interest rate and investment in Nigeria?

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to examine the impact of interest rate on investment in Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to;

  1. Examine the determinants of interest rate and how they impact on investment in Nigeria
  2. Investigate the causal relationship between interest rate and investment in Nigeria.

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were tested

  1. Ho: There is no significant relationship between interest rate and its determinants on investment in Nigeria.
  2. Ho: There is no causal relationship between interest rate and its determinants on investment in Nigeria

1.6 Significance of the Study

This work is mainly for academic purpose. However, it will be of great importance to many researchers who would want to embark on any research on interest rate and investment decision. Also this piece of research work would go a very long way in assisting any person or group of persons who would wish to know the place of interest rate and investment decision in Nigeria. Though for academic purpose, this work would be of great important of anybody who would want to embark on investment.

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study focuses on the impact of interest rate on investment decision in Nigeria starting from 1986-2013 using annual time series data. Upon the assertion that every pros have some cons, this study cannot be exception. Some hitches and setback were encountered in the process. First among the list is data unavailability. For this reason, investment variable would be provided by Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF). Secondly, time and financial construct cannot be left out in the list setback and hitches.

The cost of sourcing materials from the internet is exorbitant because of epileptic and erratic power supply of the Enugu Electricity Distribution Company (EEDC).Thus, the cyber café power their systems with power generating sets which increases their cost of production which they eventually pass to us (the consumers of their services). Despite all these hitches and setbacks mentioned above, this research work would have been a perfect work.


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Impact of Interest Rate on Investment in Nigeria -An Econometric Analysis (1986-2013)

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Economic Globalization On Nigeria’s Economic Growth

Impact Of Economic Globalization On Nigeria’s Economic Growth

(1985 – 2013)




Globalization plays a pivoted role in the Nigeria economy. This work is geared towards x-raying role of globalization in economic growth of the nation. The study x-rays the challenges confronting globalization in the nation. The purpose of this research work is to evaluate the impact of Economic Globalization on Nigeria Economic Growth.  From the work carried out, secondary data was adopted. The study employ simple regression econometric techniques using the OLS method to estimate the relationship between economic growth proxies and proxy of Globalization from the analysis conducted so far using the variables. There is a positive relationship between export and GDP so that an increase in export will bring an increase in economic growth. The existence of Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) long run co-integration equilibrium provides for short-term frustrations. ECM contains the error coefficient estimates. The ECM result, given the value of the coefficient of determinations, that the independent variable on the model significantly explains changes in the gross domestic product of Nigeria. The 58% changes in the gross domestic product can be attributed to the independent variable, the adjusted R-squared conforms to the goodness of 52%. The computed Durbin Watson statistics (DW) is 1.936803, at 5% level of significance. It shows the absence of auto correlation which makes the estimate unbiased. F-statistic is less than 0.05 which shows that the entire influence is statistically insignificant. Read More »

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