Assessment of the Use of Improvisation in Teaching Chemistry

Assessment of the Use of Improvisation in Teaching Chemistry in Enugu Educational Zone



Background of the study

        Chemistry is one of the disciplines that make up the physical sciences. As a physical science, it pertains to the world of matter and energy, its study and natural philosophy specifically. It is that branch of science that deals with how substances are made, how they combine with each other under controlled environmental condition such as temperature, pressure, surface area and the use of other substances (Mogbo, 2006).

        Okebukola (2004) stated that students were denied the opportunity of participating in the much talked about neutralization reaction (whereby an acid reacts with a base to form salt and water only). Mani (2003) disclosed that the opportunity for discovery – inquiry learning and open-ended problem solving experiences were few that Chemistry lessons were teacher centered, that teachers were not emphasizing the higher order cognitive process skills, that pupils test scores betrayed a preference for instructions through telling and showing. In his own view, Igwilo (2000) stated that the only option left for the classroom teacher in this regard is the application of effective improvisation of instructional materials as often as possible. Read More »

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Fibre – Ration on the Mechanical Properties of Natural Fibre Composite

Effect of Ration on the Mechanical Properties of Natural Fibre Composite (Polymer in Use HDPE)


The effect of ratio on the mechanical properties of Usoro (natural) Fiber composite had been studied. The ratio of the fiber to the HDPE was varied in order to obtain the best ratio that will improve the mechanical properties (tensile strength, compressive strength and shear strength) of the fiber composite. The fibers were pretreated with acetic anhydrous (6%) for 50mins in order to improve its interfacial properties. The pretreated fibers were characterized. The Usoro fiber composite was produced by mixing the thoroughly the HDPE and the fiber followed by hot press moulding process. The produced Fiber composite were characterized for their tensile strength, compressive strength and the shear strength. From the results, after linear fit of force – extension curve and stress – strain curve, the value strengths of 1:3 fiber composite was highest (5.31N/m2) and its correlation coefficient (R2) was 97%. The force constant (277) and MOE (455) of the fiber composite was high which described it as composite that has high stiffness. A further study on the effect of pressure on the mechanical properties of the composite was recommended. Read More »

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The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Nigeria Economy

The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Nigeria Economy



If the labour force is not healthy, almost every sector of an economy will not perform well as expected; health is capital productive assets and an engine of economic growth in an economy. AIDS was first recognized in 1981 among homosexuals in United States of America, while the virus HIV was identified in 1983. HIV/AIDS was first recognized in Nigeria in 1985 and reported at an International AIDS Conference in 1986. Therefore, there is a need to examine the impact of HIV/AIDS on the Nigeria economy. The research work showed a significant impact of HIV/AIDS on the Nigeria economy with the dependent variable Real Gross Domestic Product (RGDP), and independent variables, Recurrent Government Expenditure on Health (RGEH), Recurrent Government Expenditure on Education (RGEE), Inflation (INF), and Exchange Rate (EXR), using Regression analysis, Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method and Chow Breakpoint Test in verifying the relationship between the variables. Conclusively, it is advisable for Nigerian government to be more forward in the fight against HIV/AIDS, so as to make better improvement in her economy. This pandemic should also be seriously and whole-heartedly dealt with, and should be taken as national phenomenon. Read More »

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Road – Causes of Road Pavement Failure

Road – Investigation into the Causes of Road Pavement Failure, along New-Market Express Road.



Road- It is the objective of this research work to provide the basic and fundamental instruction on the causes of road pavement failure-using Enugu New -Market express road as a case study. The road which has been constructed for a long time now has over the years undergone countless pavement deterioration. This has consequently led to the dissatisfaction derived by the road users, which ranges from rough riding surface, unlimited motor accidents etc. To arrest this aging problem, there was need to carry out both field investigation and lab tests on the soil. Having a substantial knowledge on highway engineering the causes and effects of the failure were easily identified. The foundation failure of the road pavement observed are cause by excess ground water penetrated into the base, sub-base course geotechnical properties of the soil were also responsible for the failure of the road pavement such as Inadequate compaction, water infiltration through edge break, Lack of adequate drainage and unsuitable soil. For better comprehension f this project work it was necessary to start by discussing briefly on the types of road pavement and types of failures. However emphases were made on the failure found on the road pavement under investigation. Various test are carried out on soil samples collected failed areas of the road such as CBR test, Sieve analysis test, Natural moisture content, Atterberg limits, Specific gravity and Compaction test. The laboratory test conducted and the procedures involved were elaborately discussed. This was followed by the interpretation of the test results.
Finally, conclusion and recommendations by the student researcher as regards the project were made. Read More »

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Formulation, Production and Characterisation of Automotive Paints

Formulation, Production and Characterisation of Automotive Paints


The production of high quality automotive paint from available raw materials was undertaken in which many research labs and factories were visited. The formulation and production were carried out and the characterisation tests corresponded to NIS 574: 2008 standards (specification for automobile refinish paints). Two samples of paint were used, these are the automotive refinish paint and the contemporary paint sample sourced from the market. Quality control tests (characterisation) were conducted side by side for both samples. These were carried out to establish the product’s (automotive refinish paint) quality and competitiveness against what was obtainable. After the analysis it was found that the adhesion property of the automotive refinish and the contemporary paint were 48% and 46%, their specific gravity were found to be 1.12 and 0.9, their dry film thickness were 38µm and 32µm, their gloss at 20o sheen were 92% and 87%, their spreading rate were 18m2/l and 17m2/l, their fineness to grind were 0.7µm and 0.9µm and their percentage Non Volatile Matter were 60 and 50, their viscous properties were 140 and 130 seconds and their drying times for both surface and hard dry were 30mins, 6hrs and 45mins, 7hrs 30mins respectively for both samples. Another most important property of this paint is its pigment volume concentration which showed a characteristic value of 19.03%, meaning that the paint produced is very glossy after application. Also from the cost evaluation, it was shown that the cost of production of the automotive refinish paint (flex) and the clear coat were N598.85 and N425.02 respectively, which shows an economical value. Finally, from the above analytical result and given the favourable application and mechanical properties the paint produced was of a high quality and can compare with any of its kind. Read More »

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Palm Kernel Oil Pre-Processing Method- Yield, Characteristics of Palm Kernel Oil Biodiesel

Effect of Palm Kernel Oil Pre-Processing Method on the Yield and Characteristics of Palm Kernel Oil Biodiesel


This research work on the effect of palm kernel oil pre-processing method on the yield and characteristics of palm kernel oil biodiesel. Trans-esterification were carried out using the palm kernel oils extracted from the un-boiled fermented palm fruits and boiled palm fruits feedstock samples. The optimum processing conditions were found to be 65oC reaction temperature, mass ratio of methanol to oil, 6 1, stirring rate of 650rpm, 1.0% catalyst (w/w) at reaction time of 2 hours.

These conditions gave biodiesel yields of 91.46% by weight and 84.52% by weight for the boiled and fermented feed stocks respectively. The results of their physico- chemical properties compared favorably with standard specifications. The effects of pre-processing steps and conditions to the biodiesel yield and quality were critically analyzed. On the basis of these findings, this work recommend the use of palm kernel oil from boiled palm fruits in the production of palm kernel oil biodiesel. Read More »

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Alkaline Pretreatment of Lignocelluoosic Biomass to Produce Bioethanol

Optimization of Alkaline Pretreatment of Lignocelluoosic Biomass to Produce Bioethanol


Pretreated of sugarcane baggase using Na0H for the bioethanol production was optimized. The process variables studied were time, temperature, Na0H concentration and substrate concentration. Two level and four factorial design were developed using Design expert software. The experiment was carried out based on the experimental design matrix.

The sugarcane baggase were dried and alkali solution added according to the design matrix. The sample were then washed and dried before using it in fermentation process.

The responses of the predicted and observed sugar content were recorded. Standard statistical software design expert (8.02) was applied in the plotting of various graphs and generation of the ANOVA table from which a quadratic model of sugar content were developed from the model equation c which is the Na0H concentration were observed to have greatest effect and of highest significance. The substrate concentration according to the model has no significance effect on the yield of sugar. Also, the interaction effect of Na0H concentration Vs time had the highest effects among other interactions as indicated in the model equation. An optimum yield of 348.082mg/l at desirability of 0.953 were recorded at optimum conditions of 900C, 120mins, 2.5% Na0H concentration and substrate concentration of 1:10. The alcoholic content of the pretreated sugarcane baggasse were recorded to be 13% after fermentation for 7 days. Read More »

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Information Communications Technology (ICT)- Effect on Human Resources Development

The effect of Information Communications Technology on Human Resources Development




Technology has been at the heart of human progress and has been a key feature of human Identity and Progress right from the days of the Printing Press and Penecillin.Nwosu (2000) opines that at the economic level, globalization is the Process of denationalizing local and global markets and reshaping their political and legal landscapes. With the expansion of the “free market principal” trade is being internationalized as investors disregard national bureaucratic obstacles.

Ajaja (2002) stated that, the Nigerian Economy, like other globalized economies, is refashioning itself into a Knowledge-based society. This refashioning is based on the development of Information Communications Technology (ICT) related industries. The development of the ICT industry in Nigeria has played a vital role in the spread of so-called high profit and risk-taking “venture businesses” based on new technologies. This mind –boggling economic growth of the ICT industry in Nigeria will exert a great deal of pressure on both the employment and labour markets.

ICT stands for “Information and Communication Technologies.” ICT refers to technologies that provide access to information through telecommunications. It is similar to Information Technology (IT), but focuses primarily on communication technologies. This includes the Internet, wireless networks, cell phones, and other communication mediums. Read More »

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Inter-Communal Conflict: Challenges to Sustainable Development

Challenges of Inter-Communal Conflict to Sustainable Development in Oruku/Umuode Community of Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State



1.1 Background of the Study

Conflict, generally is a reality of social relations. Conflicts at any level arise from divergences of interests, desires, goals and values aspirations in the competition for resources to meet imposing demands on social life in a defined socio-physical environment (Otite, 2001). As a matter of fact, Man in a socio-physical environment lives in continuous process of dependence and interdependence which often produces contradictions and conflicts.

Communal conflicts constitute one of the major recurring problems bedeviling the sociopolitical landscape of Africa (Olaoba, 2002). To be sure, communal conflicts are not new, particularly in sociocultural complex societies defined by a high number of ethnic nationalities and language groups such as Nigeria. Pre-colonial and colonial Nigeria experienced inter-kingdom dynastic feuds, and inter-community conflicts (Ogban-Iyam, 2005). Many contemporary Nigeria communities have experienced several cases of communal conflicts. Some of the notable examples include the Tiv-Jukun Wukari conflict in Taraba State(1999-2001); Itsekiri-Urhobo Warri crisis, (1999-2000); the Ife-Modakeke crisis (1999-2000) and Ezzah-Ezzillo crisis of Ebonyi State (Otite and Albert, 1999; Imobighe, . Bassey and Asuni, 2002; Ubi, 2001; Omatayo, 2005; Best 2007). In this present times, globalization, population explosion, and climate change converge to increase the demand for land, water, forest products and mineral resources within territories inhabited by minorities in Nigeria, these groups are forced to find new ways to cope with different types of conflict at once. All over the world, conflicts occur because society is made up of people with differing interests and values (Olaoba, 2002). In most societies, conflicts occur when parties in a state of independence perceives divergent views or believe that their aspirations or goals cannot be achieved simultaneously. Therefore, it is only natural that where there is inequality in access to the control of natural resources and political power for instance, there would be discontent, opposition and controversy. One of the common features of these conflicts has to do with their confrontational and violent dimension which led to the loss of lives and property of people who hitherto lived together in relative harmony.

The consequences of inter communal conflict are Unimaginable for a country like Nigeria, where there is high level of light arms proliferation. These conflicts have led to the destruction of lives and property and also brought untold sorrow on the people in the last fifty six years of our nationhood. Today, there is a tragic scarcity of sophisticated human resources and charismatic leaders at all levels in every geo-political configuration as a result of loss of lives in these violent inter communal conflicts.

Oruku/Umuodes conflict which started on Christmas Day, 25th December 1990 as a result of political tussle has brought loss of lives and properties, and hardship to the two communities (Agbo, 2013). More than two houses were set ablaze and hundreds made homeless. This conflict has affect the state of infrastructure in the two communities and also their neighboring communities. There is lack of connecting bridges across many rivers in the area and it poses the greatest challenge for the people. For instance someone who resides at Umuode, Nkerefi, Mburubu, Nome, Nara, Ogbuakwa, who wants to travel to the council headquarter at Amangunze, would first get to Enugu, a distance of 30 kilometres and from there board a bus to Amangunze, to cover another 30 kilometres, before getting to his or her destination.

Against this background, the researcher intends to investigate the challenges inter communal conflict between Oruku and Umuode of Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State pose to sustainable development of the communities.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The implications and costs of the conflict in Nigeria are multi dimensional. This includes loss of revenue, lives and properties and discouragement of potential investors.

First, loss of revenue, government losses sizeable Chunk of revenue wherever there are crises between these communities. For instance, tax charges and rates on varied items by local governments cannot be collected during violent crises, implying loss of revenue for development purposes.

Another implication of the conflict is the loss of lives and properties. This conflict always results to violence resulting in a number of causalities. Loss of human lives has implications for the communities’ and the nation’s economy as the killings have effects on the agile workforce. As reported by Ezza Ezzillo Crisis of Ebonyi, people homes were de –roofed and set ablaze, the Ezzillo market was razed to the ground.

Consequently the conflict discourages investment growth in the communities and environs. No investor will be encouraged to invest in an unstable economy like warring communities. The presence of relative peace, security and stability is a cardinal motivational factor for investors.

In Nigeria, conflict has caused untold hardship on the people of conflicting communities. The conflict even spread to their neighbouring communities where some of their people live in exile. This conflict has seriously impeded sustainable development in the communities and their neighbours as well.

1.3 Research Questions

Against this background, therefore an effort is made in this study to examine conflict, the factors escalating it and how it affects sustainable development in Oruku/Umuode communities with the help of the following research questions:

  1. Did chieftaincy tussle and land disputes lead to the rise of Oruku/Umuode conflict?
  2. Did the resolution mechanisms adopted by Enugu State Government, the church, the court and town union escalate Oruku/Umuode conflict?
  3. Did Oruku/Umuode conflict pose challenges to sustainable development in the communities?
  4. How can Oruku/ Umuode conflict be stopped or prevented?

1.4 Objectives of the Study

The rationale behind this study is to look at the destructive nature of conflict and its effects and consequences on the society in general using Oruku/Umuode conflict as a case study. This study also aims to discover factors that gave rise to Oruku/Umuode conflict and recommend the best way to resolve the conflict. To realize these, this study pursues the following objectives:

  1. To discover if chieftaincy tussle and land dispute lead to the rise of Oruku/Umuode conflict.
  2. To investigate if the resolution mechanisms adopted by Enugu State Government, the church, the court and town union escalated Oruku/Umuode conflict.
  3. To ascertain if Oruku/Umuode conflict posed challenges to sustainable development in the communities.
  4. To profer plausible solutions/possibleways of stopping and or preventing Oruku/Umuode conflict.

1.4 Significance of the Study

This study is of utmost importance as it will benefit researchers, Oruku and Umuode communities, Nkanu East Local Government Area, Enugu State and Nigeria at large in the following ways. The significance of this study is here categorized into theoretical and practical:

Theoretical Significance

This study serves as a literature in conflict studies for students and researchers as well. It adds to already existing knowledge in peace and conflict management.

Practical Significance

  1. This study gives the people of Oruku and Umuode a guide on how to bury the hatchet and bring lasting peace and sustainable development to their communities.
  2. This study will help Nkanu East Local Government to manage conflict in not only the case community but other communities in the area. This will consequently prevent loss of lives, properties and other resources.
  3. This study serves as an insight into the causes, consequences and resolution of intra communal conflict in Enugu State and Nigeria at large. This will help the government at every level in prevention and management of conflict.
  4. Furthermore, this study will equip the government and other Non Governmental Organisations (NGO) with added information on the level of destruction and hardship the conflict has brought on the two communities and how to rehabilitate them.

1.6 Definition of Terms

  1. Conflict

A relation between two or more parties who believe they have incompatible goals (Otite, 2001). It is a situation where two or more people perceive themselves as being in a state of incompatibility with each side trying to outdo the other. It could be over resources, values, psychological needs or inadequate information. In this study conflict refers to misunderstanding between parties which leads to loss of human and material resources.

  1. Inter communal conflict

Inter communal conflict ranges from chronic levels of conflict and violence within societies, such as crime or domestic abuse, conflict between groups and across societies, and inter-state conflict in the global state system (Agbo, 2013). Inter communal conflict can range in degrees of aggression and violence from genocide and ethnic cleansing to discrimination and systematic abuse of particular groups by governments and social actors. In this study inter communal conflict refers to conflict between to communities, Oruku and Umuode.

  1. Intra communal conflict

This is conflict between persons or groups of persons in a community (Otite, 2001). In this study intra communal conflict is refers to conflict among the people of Oruku or Umuode.

  1. Conflict resolution

This is an act of finding an answer or solution to a conflict, problem, etc (Olaoba, 2002).

—This article is incomplete———–This article is incomplete———— It was extracted from a well articulated quality Project, Research Work/Material

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Challenges of Inter-Communal Conflict to Sustainable Development in Oruku/Umuode Community of Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State

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Effects of Instructional Material in the Teaching and Learning

Effects of Instructional Material in the Teaching and Learning in Primary School in Enugu East Local Government Area, Enugu State.



The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of instructional materials in the teaching and learning in primary schools in Enugu-East Local Government Area of Enugu State. The study was guided by four research questions. The design was descriptive survey. The study was carried out in Ujodo Development Centre in Enugu-East Local Government Area. The population covered all the public primary schools in Ujodo Development Centre with a population of 500 teachers. One hundred and twenty teachers (120) were selected using simple random sampling techniques as the sample of the study. A questionnaire on Effect of Instructional Material in Teaching and Learning in Primary Schools (EIMTLPS) was developed and validated. The reliability was established using Pearson Product Moment which yielded 0.80. The data collected were analyzed with the use of simple percentage. Findings indicated only Chalkboards are commonly found or available in all schools in Enugu-East. The findings also showed that technological instructional materials such as computer (visual and audiovisual), radio (audio) are lacked in schools. The study recommended that the State and Local Government should implement fully her intervention programme on instructional materials provision. Read More »

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