Prevalence of Protein Energy Malnutrition among Women

Prevalence of Protein Energy Malnutrition among Women of Child Bearing Age (14-49) Years in Kpirikpiri Area of Abakaliki District, Ebonyi State

ABSTRACT

Women of child bearing age are vulnerable to food storage in Abakaliki district and this ultimately affects their nutritional status. Research on these women remains largely unexploited in many parts of the world especially in Nigeria. The study sought to establish the prevalence of protein energy malnutrition and associated factors among women of child bearing age (14-49 years) in Kpirikpiri area of Abakaliki district, In Ebonyi State. This was a cross sectional survey of 335 randomly selected women from three communities. Anthropometric measurements of height, weight and mid upper arm circumference were taken. Nutrient intake data was collected using a 24hour recall questionnaire. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic information. Data was analyzed using statistical package for social scientists of 16.0 version. T Test, Chi-square and logistic regression were employed in the analysis. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results revealed that the mean age of mother was 29.9+ 6.3year. Protein, Energy, vitamin A, iron and zinc intake were low, vitamin C and fesolate intake were high. Body mass index records that 39 (12.2%) were underweight, 54(16%) were overweight, 49(15.9%) were obese. Only 120 (35.8%) of the households eat a diversified diet. Age, marital status, educational level, occupation, and income level contribute to under nutrition. In conclusion, enhancing diversified diets should be encouraged. Awareness on proper nutrition should be done through health education to the community. Read More »

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Perception of Women toward the Use of Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT)

Perception of Women of Child Bearing Age (15-45years) Attending Mile 4 Hospital Abakaliki Health Care Unit toward the Use of Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT)

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to ascertain the perception of women of child bearing age (15-45years) attending Mile 4 Hospital Abakaliki Health Care unit towards the   use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT). The purpose of this study is to determine: the level of knowledge of oral rehydration therapy (ORT), the perception of the subjects towards ORT, the level of practice of ORT, other methods adopted in managing diarrhea, factors that affect the practice of ORT. Literatures on the topic were reviewed. The descriptive study method was used for this study and sample size was 120 subjects. The result shows that the perception of the subject were influenced by their level of knowledge which has significant relationship to the educational level, parity, which was related to their level of exposure to childhood diseases. Based on the finding of the study, I therefore, recommend the health awareness should be made on the use of ORT, it’s usage and functions , health workers should ensure that mothers immunize their child against the killer diseases. This could be achieved by making available the ORT to the health centers and training of health workers who create awareness. Read More »

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Pedagogical Constraint to the Teaching of Economics

Pedagogical Constraint to the Teaching of Economics in Secondary Schools in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State

Abstract

 This study focused on the Pedagogical constraint to teaching of Economics in Secondary schools in Ikwo local government area of Ebonyi state. To carry out this study, Five research questions were formulated. Descriptive survey design was used. From the population of 335 teachers in fifteen (15) secondary schools in Ikwo local government area of Ebonyi state, 200 teachers were sampled with the use of simple random sampling technique. The data were collected with the use a of questionnaire. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the research questions. The study found out that teacher’s qualification, Poor use of teaching methods, lack of Instructional Materials, lack of evaluation technique and Motivation of Teachers were factors militating against the teaching of Economics in secondary schools. Based on the findings, it was recommended that Government and Non-governmental Organization should provide sufficient instructional materials to schools because of its importance in teaching and learning of Economics in secondary schools. Read More »

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Oral Hygienic Practices among Primary School Children

Oral Hygienic Practices among Primary School Children (Aged 6-12 Years) in Nkalagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

Good oral hygiene results in mouth that looks and smell healthy. Maintaining good oral hygiene is one of the most important things one can do for one’s teeth and gums. Healthy teeth not only enable one to look and feel good, they make it possible to eat and speak properly. Good oral health is important to one’s overall well-being. As it is known fact that a healthy man is a wealthy man similarly a health child is wealth and joy not only to the family or community but also to its nation at large. Studies show that poor oral health care in children can lead to impaired school performance, poor social relationship, pains and infection (Livny, 2008).

The incidence of dental disease in children has increased from early 1970’s until of late (National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2004). While there have been steady improvement in the oral health of children over the last 20years, many young children still suffer from dental decay. This leads to pain, halitosis, dental caries, sleepless nights and sometimes major dental treatment including extraction of teeth under general anesthetic. (Curtis, Jeanne, 2007). About 53 percent of all primary school children seen by the school dental service have signs of dental decay (Dental health service Victoria, 2004). Read More »

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Nursing Assessment and Management of Pain

Nursing Assessment and Management of Pain in Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Pain is a universal condition that cuts across different ages, gender and economic status. Although everybody experiences pain, the nature of experience, the psychological context or meaning and response is unique to the individual. Different authors defined pain but the most acceptable definition is by International Association for the Study of Pains (2011) which stated that pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. Pain is an important signal that communicates potential or actual tissue damage and as such becomes an unpleasant protective friend that causes attention to be given to threatened organ/tissue damage before the problems become irremediable.

Pain assessment and management is very important in health care service because pain is a condition which brings most individuals to health institution. Assessment and management of pain is very important that the American pain society (APS) labeled pain as the fifth vital signs and emphasized its significance and to increase the awareness among health care professionals (American Pain Society, 2006). Bruehi, (2009) stated that pain is a source of misery in people’s lives, as well as the cause of much time spent off work (Madsen, 2009). It causes great human suffering, hence proficiency in assessing and managing pain is a hall mark to quality nursing care. An expert assessor of pain has to be aware of the subjective nature of pain, hence for clinical practices the best definition of pain is by Meldrum (2011), (Smeltzer, C.S. et al 2008) which stated that pain is whatever the experiencing person says it is, exists when the experiencing person says it exists . That is why Smeltzer, (2008) pointed out that patient is the best authority in validation (assessment) of pain in support of Mccaffery’s definition. American Pain Society (2006) refers to pain assessment as the fifth vital signs. Read More »

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Knowledge of Teenage Pregnancy among Women

Knowledge of Teenage Pregnancy among Women of Mgbalukwu Community in Izzi Local Government Area in Ebonyi State

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Adolescent pregnancy is a major contributor to maternal and child mortality and to the viscous cycle of ill-health and poverty. The global strategy for women and children health launched by the United Nations secretary General in 2010, stressed the importance of addressing the health and welfare of adolescents girls in order to achieve the fifth (5th ) millennium developmental goal on maternal mortality reduction.

According to Cater, Felice and Rosoff (2005), adolescent period is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood. Adolescence is a distinct and important biological and social stage of development which starts with puberty. Pregnancy occurring in a girl aged between 10-19 years is termed adolescent or teenage pregnancy whether married or unmarried. Adolescent pregnancy continue to be a complex and challenging issues for families, health workers, educators, government, societies and adolescents themselves. Read More »

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Knowledge and Attitude of Married Couples towards Family Planning

Knowledge and Attitude of Married Couples towards Family Planning in Amike and Onicha Local Government Area in Ebonyi State

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Married couples and adolescents are the country’s most valuable asset because of their role in procreation idealism and fresh views. However, due to their size and characteristics married couples occupy an exciting but potentially meaningful position (center for Health Science Training Research and Development). (CHESTRAD,2007) married couples comprises about two fifth of the world’s population, which is equivalent to 1.3 billon married persons and about 87% of these married couples lives in the developing countries “United Nation population fund Agency” (UNPFA,2003).

According to the National population commission estimates of the year 2000, population of Nigeria is about 119 million. Of this figure approximately 22% (26million) are youth and married couples aged 25 to 30years (Action Health incorporated, 2002). A vast majority of these adult individuals are going through their reproductive years with very limited access to family planning and reproductive health information. Read More »

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Knowledge and Attitude of Parents towards Child Adoption

Knowledge and Attitude of Parents towards Child Adoption in Abakaliki Urban

ABSTRACT

Adoption could be defined as the official transfer through the legal system of all the parental rights that a biological parent has to a child, along with an assumption by the adopting parents of all the parental rights of the biological parents that are being terminated and is been assumed by the adoptive parents, including the responsibility for the care and supervision of the child, its nurturing and training. Descriptive survey research design was used to elicit baseline information from the respondents’ natural settings. The sample for the comprised 100 parents FETHA 1 drawn from 200 subject of the target population using incidental sampling techniques. Structured question was the main instrument used for data collection. The instrument was validated and its reliability established. Data collection were analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency and percentage. The result showed that 100% of respondents have heard about child adoption, there is a fairly high positive attitude of parents in Abakaliki urban about child adoption (50.3%) and finally identified factors that influence child adoption in Abakaliki urban include maintenance of family linage (46%), hopeful of getting a child(56%), stigmatization (3.6%), culture (86%), education (84%) and religion (90%). In line with the findings, these pertinent recommendations were made. Adopted children should not be stigmatized and should be provided for physically, emotionally, spiritually, socially, mentally and occupationally. Read More »

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Influence of Human and Material Resources on Teaching and Learning

Influence of Human and Material Resources on Teaching and Learning of Economics in Ebonyi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the study

The unsatisfactory situation observed in the performance of Economics students in Ebonyi local government area is generating a lot of concern to the government and the society at large. Critical analysis on the performance of economics students in senior school certificate examination is nothing to write home about. It is common these days to find out on the release of the senior secondary school examination result, for instance, that only relatively few students are qualified for studying economics in the tertiary institution of learning or for gainfully employment in the labour market. This situation calls for provision of necessary human and material resources to facilitate teaching and learning. The availability of human and material resources in schools often makes the differences between success and failure among schools and students performance.

Education is the only solution to our backwardness, serious attention should be paid when acknowledging that education is an effective medium which culture, norms and aspiration of society are transmitted to the young members of the society so as to retain identity and in perpetuity, Okwe (2004). According to Onwa (2001) in every school whether at primary, secondary or tertiary level of education, there are men and materials who run the day to day activities of the school to obtain a set of desire. These men and materials constitute the resource base of school as a whole. Read More »

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Influence of Climate Change on Family’s Well-Being

Influence of Climate Change on Family’s Well-Being in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Climate is derived from an Ancient Greek word “klima” meaning inclination. It is commonly defined as the weather averaged over a long period (IPCC, 2007). According to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Climate is the long-term pattern of weather in a particular area with an average period of 30 years. It is measured by assessing the patterns of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a particular region over long periods of time. Climate is different from weather, in that weather only describes the short-term conditions of these variables in a given region. A region’s climate is generated by the climate system, which has five components: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere.

The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain, and altitude, as well as nearby water bodies and their currents. Some ocean currents redistribute heat between land and water on a more regional scale. The density and type of vegetation coverage affects solar heat absorption, water retention, and rainfall on a regional level. Alterations in the quantity of atmospheric greenhouse gases determine the amount of solar energy retained by the planet, leading to global warming or global cooling. It is the above listed factors that lead to variation in global or regional climates over time known as Climates change.

The expression of the term “climate change” according to many people means the alteration of the world’s climate as a result of human activities through fossil fuel burning, clearing forests and other practices that increase the concentration of Green-house Gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. This is in line with the official  definition by the United Nations  Framework Convention on Climate change which states that climate change is the change that can  be attributed “directly or indirectly to human activities that  alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods; (UNFCCC, 2012). This is to say that climate change is not a measure of some days and month’s effect of the climate but it is the measure of a long effect of climate on the atmosphere. Read More »

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