Effect of Rice Husk as Filler in Vinyl Ester Composites

Effect of Rice Husk as Filler in Vinyl Ester Composites

ABSTRACT

The rising global environmental and social concern, high rate of drop of petroleum resources, and new environmental guidelines has necessitated the search for green composite materials, which are ecofriendly. Agricultural waste fibers have significant potential in composite due to their high strength, environmentally friendly nature, low cost, availability and sustainability. The agricultural waste is one of the most important problems that must be resolved for the conservation of global environment. The potential properties of agro waste fibers have sparked a lot of research to use these fibers as a material to replace man-made fibers for safe and environmentally product. In this study, rice husk fiber (RHF) vinylester composites were produced with rice husk as filler and vinylester resin as the matrix. Several weight percentages of filler loadings were used: 5 wt. %, 10 wt. %, 15 wt. % and 20 wt. % in order to gain insights into the effect of filler content on the mechanical properties of the composites. From the findings, the ultimate tensile strength, tensile modulus and hardness of the rice husks filled vinylester resin composites increased with increasing percentage of RHF up to maximum of 10 wt. % fibers. From these results, we can conclude that RHF can be potentially suitable raw material for manufacturing bio-composites products. Read More »

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Qualitative Phytochemical Screening of Jatropha Curcas Latex

Qualitative Phytochemical Screening of Jatropha Curcas Latex

ABSTRACT

Phytochemical constituents of hot water and ethanol extracts of Jatropha curcas latex was investigated using standard chemical methods. The results obtained indicated that the hot water extract of J. curcas latex contains saponins, flavonoids, and glycosides at varying concentrations, while tannins, steroids, phenol, terpenes, proteins, alkaloid and Phlobatanin were not detected. Also, ethanol extract of J. curcas latex contains saponins, steroids, terpenes, alkaloid and glycosides at varying concentrations. The result indicated that saponins were found in very high amount and this suggests why the latex of J. curcas enhances blood clothing when applied to fresh wounds or cuts on the skin since saponins are known to possess the potentials of precipitating and coagulating red blood cells. The result therefore supports the application of J. curcas latex extract in ethno-medicine and will serve as a good source in pharmaceutical productions against some pathogenic microorganisms and also act as an anti-coagulant. Read More »

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Assessment of Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Locally Grown Rice Species

Assessment of Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Locally Grown Rice Species in Abakaliki

 ABSTRACT

The contamination of food substances by heavy metals has predisposed humans and even animals to heavy metal toxicity which is of public health importance. Rice is one of the most widely consumed staples in Abakaliki in particular and Nigeria in general. This study investigated the concentration of five selected heavy metals namely Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb in three major rice species (Mass, R8 and CP/306) obtained from the popular Abakaliki rice mill industry in Ebonyi State. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-7000) was used to measure the concentration of these metals. Results obtained indicated that Cr level was not detectable in all the rice samples while the other metals were detected in different concentrations in the rice species. Cu and Mn were detected in sample ABR1 (Mass specie) and sample ABR3 (CP/306 specie), only Ni (0.103 mg/kg) was detected in sample ABR2 (R8 specie) while Pb was detected in sample ABR2 (0.431 mg/kg) and ABR3 (0.360 mg/kg). The concentration of Cu in ABR1 and ABR3 was found to be 0.0323 mg/kg and 0.0438 mg/kg respectively, Mn occurred in ABR1 and ABR3 in the range of 0.0648 mg/kg and 0.055 mg/kg respectively. Pb occurred highest in all the species while Cu had the least concentration in all the samples. Pb and Mn levels were found to be above the 0.2 mg/kg and 0.01 mg/kg safe limit respectively set by Joint FAO/WHO CODEX committee. To assess the safety of dietary intake, weekly intake of heavy metals contaminated rice, was calculated. The result indicated that the estimated daily intake (EDI) of Ni and Pb were above the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) of 0.035 and 0.025 mg/kg/b.w/day set for Ni and Pb by the Joint FAO/WHO (2011) respectively. Clearly, this implies that the perennial intake of rice species produced in Abakaliki is likely to induce adverse health effects largely from Ni and Pb exposure. Read More »

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Adsorption Characteristics of Modified Plantain Peels

Adsorption Characteristics of Modified Plantain Peels (Musa Paradisiaca) on Lead(Ii) Ions in Aqueous System

 ABSTRACT

Development of adsorbents from agro-waste for uptake of toxicants from aqueous system is attracting attention of researchers because of its added advantages including availability, low cost and environmental friendliness. In this study, the potential of a readily available agro-waste (plantain peel) as adsorbent for Pb2+ in aqueous system was investigated. In the process, dried unripe and ripe plantain peels were separately reduced to powder and then treated with nitric acid to yield adsorbents. The two adsorbent types were characterized for pH, density, particle size and functional groups following standard methods. Thereafter, 250 μm sized particle were used to remove Pb2+ from aqueous solution of lead nitrate at different conditions of temperature (30-50oC), pH (2-10) contact time (30–150 minutes) and initial Pb2+ concentration (2-10ppm). Equilibrium adsorptions were studied at 30oC and experimental results fitted into Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms respectively to probe adsorption characteristics.  Unripe and ripe adsorbent characterization gave the following results respectively; density (0.251 g/cm3 and 0.274 g/cm3), pH (5.39 and 4.91), particle size (250 μm). Chemical characterization by FTIR showed absorbance peaks of amide, alkyl, hydroxyl, aldehyde and carboxylic functional groups. The efficiency of plantain peel adsorbents increased with the contact time, initial concentration and pH but decreased with rise in temperature over the narrow range studied.  The  removal efficiencies  at equilibrium for different initial concentration using 0.5 g adsorbent is reasonably high and ranged from 89% to 96%.  This value competes well with other biosorbents reported in literature. Unripe Plantain peel adsorption characteristics obeyed Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm as experimental data fitted well with high correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.977 and 0.922 respectively. However ripe plantain adsorbent fitted Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.847) but does not fit Freundlich isotherms (R2 = 0.003). For the same process conditions, modified unripe plantain peel is a better adsorbent than modified ripe plantain peel in lead ion adsorption. Read More »

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Analysis of Heavy Metal Content of Selected Boreholes

Analysis of Heavy Metal Content of Selected Boreholes in Ikwo and Abakaliki Local Government Areas of Ebonyi State

ABSTRACT

Public water supplies require periodic monitoring especially underground water such as boreholes in order to continuously ascertain their quality status. In view of the above Water samples from five different boreholes located in Ikwo and Abakaliki Local Government Areas of, Ebonyi State were analyzed for six selected heavy metals using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-7000). Results obtained showed that the mean concentration values of  Fe in all the samples ranged from 0.0919 – 0.2724 mg/l, Mn ranged from 0.0413-0.6894 mg/l while Zn ranged from 0.0097-0.0385 mg/l. Pb was found only sample B2 with a mean concentration (0.4100 mg/l) that was 41 times greater than the WHO maximum limit for Pb in drinking water. The mean concentration of Mn in samples B3 and B4 had exceeded the maximum limit of 0.05 mg/l set by WHO for Mn in drinking water while the mean concentration values of Fe and Zn were still within the WHO limit. However, Cu and Cr were not detected in any of the sample. The overall result indicated that the water samples were relatively contaminated and may require extra treatment to make them potable. Read More »

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Elemental Analysis of Borehole Water Sediments

Elemental Analysis of Borehole Water Sediments in Abakaliki Metropolis

ABSTRACT

In this study, X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) technology was used to evaluate the elemental composition of borehole water sediments from Abakaliki Metropolis, Ebonyi State.  The first sediment was obtained by allowing borehole water samples to stand for 7 days before filtering out (S1), while the second sediment was obtained after boiling the water samples which was allowed to cool before filtering out the residue (S2). The sediments which were sun-dried and later oven dried to a constant weight at 65 oC. Further sample pretreatment and XRF analysis was carried out at the XRF laboratory section of the Centre for Energy Research and Development (CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) model 710H, 7300Si (L), 4861BM/PC. The experimental result indicated that a total of 18 different elements were found in S1 sediment while 14 elements were found in S2 sediment in different Read More »

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Phytochemical and Proximate Analysis of Garlic (Allium Sativum) Bulbs

Phytochemical and Proximate Analysis of Garlic (Allium Sativum) Bulbs

 

 ABSTRACT

Qualitative phytochemical screening, quantitative phytochemical analysis and proximate composition of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum) were determined with a view to assessing its nutritional and medicinal values. The results of phytochemical screening showed that Alkaloids and steroids were present in very high amount (+++) in the aqueous extract while tannins, glycosides, anthraquinones, terpenoids and flavonoids were present in moderate amounts (++) both in the aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts. Saponins was found in small amount in the aqueous extract while anthraquinones, leucoanthocyanins were absent in both the aqueous and ethanol extracts but were found in small amount in the ethyl acetate extract. Coumarin was found only in the ethanol extract. The results of the quantitative phytochemical analysis revealed that that flavonoid composition (5.36 %) was highest followed by saponin (4.10 %) while the composition of tannin was the least (0.107 %). The results of the proximate analysis showed that the bulbs of Allium sativum contain 65. 014 % moisture, 15.056 % carbohydrate, 4.12 % ash, 3.10 % crude fibre, 8.58 % protein and 0.38 % crude fat. The results of proximate analysis revealed that Allium sativum is rich in carbohydrate but low in crude fat contents. The phytochemical screening result revealed that Allium sativum bulbs have good secondary plants metabolites which justify its therapeutic utility.  The high percentage of flavonoid found in the garlic bulbs substantiates the hot sensation and odour of raw garlic. The high percentage of carbohydrate found in the garlic bulbs validates the high calorie of energy derivable from garlic consumption.  Read More »

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CORROSION INHIBITION CHARACTERISTICS OF 4, 4’-BIS-HYDROCHLORIC ACID

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE CORROSION INHIBITION CHARACTERISTICS OF 4, 4’- (1, 2 – ETHANEDIYLDINITRILO)BIS- (2-PENTANONE IN 2.0 M HYDROCHLORIC ACID

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

Industrial revolution that is ever expanding within different parts of the world has several advantages and disadvantages in the quality of environment. Most industries utilize metals or their ores (such as mild steel, aluminum, zinc, and copper) in the fabrication of their installations. In most cases, these metals are exposed to aggressive media and are prone to corrosion (Fouda and Gouda, 2000). Corrosion is an electrochemical process that gradually returns the metal to its natural state in the environment. Corrosion in industries is often activated by processes such as acid wash, etching, prickling and others. Aluminum owes its widespread use after steel, to its excellent corrosion resistance to the air formed film strongly bonded to its surface. This film is relatively stable in aqueous solutions over a pH range of 4–8.5 (Cabot et al., 1991). In such solutions the surface film is insoluble but may be locally attacked by aggressive anions, primarily chlorides. The effect of Cl ions (which can be generated by hydrolysis of HCl) on the corrosion of aluminum and its alloys has been the subject of several studies (Al-Kharafi and Badawy, 1998; Srinivasan and Mital, 1994 and Lin and Chiu, 2005). Read More »

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Family Planning (FP) Methods in Reduction of Maternal Mortality

Use of Family Planning (FP) Methods in Reduction of Maternal Mortality (MM) Among Women of Child-Bearing Age (15 – 49 Years)

ABSTRACT

The study investigated the utilization of family planning among women of child-bearing age (15 – 49 years) in the Federal Teaching Hospital (FETH), Ebonyi State. This research adopts four research questions. Descriptive survey design was adopted for it. A convenience sampling technique of non-probability sample was used to select 60 subjects from the pregnant mothers who attended antenatal clinic at Federal Teaching Hospital (FETH) on the day the data were collected. Results obtained indicated that religious background of the women, significant related to utilization of model family planning services, frequently 60 percentage 100%), educational level of the women is also significantly related to utilization of model family planning services. The level of family income is as well related to the degree of knowledge of the utilization of family planning. Frequency 60, percentage 100%) enlightenment programme, which should involve the religious leaders, is recommended as a vital strategy to prove utilization of model family planning among women of child-bearing age in the study area. Recommended also is the need to improve the literacy status of women by making education free and compulsory for the girl child. Read More »

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Prevalence of Hypertension Among Pregnant Women

Prevalence of Hypertension Among Pregnant Women that Attended Ante Natal Care at Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Ebonyi State Between the Year 2012-2014

ABSTRACT

The study examined the prevalence of hypertension among pregnant women that attended antenatal clinic at federal teaching hospital was studied. A hypertensive condition during pregnancy is considered one of the disorders of pregnancy. A retrospective design was adopted and the sample included all the women that attended antenatal at the area of study from January 2012 to December 2014. Data was collected from previous medical records of the patients, the data analysis was based on the research objectives hence, each of them was analysed on percentile basis using a table. The results shows that of 3888 sample studied 1374(35.3%) was managed for the disorder. In 2012(29.9%), in 2013(33.3%) and in 2014(37.1%). This shows that hypertension is highest in 2014 and lowest in 2012. The major findings include; the rate at which hypertension occur in pregnancy seems to be increasing with year. BMI of 29-30, first pregnancy and late initiation of antenatal care are predisposing factor. The outcome of pregnancy was high number of normal foetal birth there were also cases of caesarean section foetal and maternal death. The researcher therefore recommends increase public health awareness on hypertension in pregnancy as the need for early resumption of antenatal for early dictation and treatment of the disorder. Read More »

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