Role of Accounting Information in Achieving Organizational Effectiveness

The Role of Accounting Information in Achieving Organizational Effectiveness (A Case Study of Nigeria Bottling Company Plc, Enugu

Abstract

Information is indispensable for success and survival of any organization. Relating it to business organization, accounting information forms the bulk of information requirement in making decisions, it is obvious that profit or surplus made by organizations, firms, corporation, etc, do not arise as magic. Therefore, how managers know whether their respective organizations are earning enough income, profits or incurring losses? The answer to all these questions is accounting information. However, the researcher has studied how effective the use of accounting information by the accountant in order to help management team for the achievement of organizational effectiveness. To conduct this work, questionnaires were used for generation of data. Chi-square (x2) test was also used in the testing of the hypothesis in line with the objectives of this study. After a thorough analysis of data, it was proved that accounting information aids the management in achieving organizational effectiveness .The achievement of organizational effectiveness depends solely on the nature of accounting system. The quality of accounting personnel assists greatly in the achievement of organizational effectiveness. In view of the above analysis, it was recommended that organizations shall employ competent and qualified accounting staff to head accounting department. Also, seminars, workshops, symposia and training shall be organized from time to time for accountants by accounting professional bodies. Read More »

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Accountant in Poverty Alleviation

The Role of an Accountant in the Poverty Alleviation Programme of the Federal Government (A Case Study of Enugu North Local Government Area).

ABSTRACT

          This project work was on the role of the accountant in poverty alleviation programme of the federal government with particular note on Enugu North local government area. The objectives of the study among others were: To determine the role of the Accountant in the poverty alleviation programme of Enugu North local government area.

          To determine whether the role of the accountant is of relevant in the planning of programmes and policies of the poverty alleviation programme in Enugu North local government area. In view of this an indepth literature, review was carried of related materials, journals, and text books, Beside, data were elicited through the use of Questionnire and oral interview conducted. These data were analysed and presented using statistical technique such as tables and percentages.  The data was used to test the three hypothesis formulated. Based on the data analysed these findings were made: It was discovered that the poverty alleviation programme was geared towards, providing food, security, reducing unemployment and increasing the standard of living of the citizens. Inspite of the rigorious effort by the three tiers government and the huge sum that has been spent so far, the impact is yet to be felt even in Enugu North Local Government Area.

          It was discovered that the local government authorities particularly the poverty alleviation committee have made contentious effort towards mobilization of savings by intermediating between those that have the needed resources (donors) and those that need then (grassroots). In the light of these findings recommendation were also made which include: Enlightment campaign programme aimed at informing and educating the citizens and individuals domiciled within Enugu on the relevance benefit and right attitude towards poverty alleviation programme. Periodic account audit should be carried out semi annually in other to determine the amount and the effect of funds disbursed courtesy of the poverty alleviation programme. There should be proper integration and role definition with particular emphasis on the place of the accountant in other to guarantee maximum result which will invariably lead to a noticeable impact of the programme at the grass root lead.

          The researcher strongly believe that if the measures are taken it will help to create positive impact of poverty alleviation programme at the grass root level.

PROPOSAL

          My project research work is on the role of an accountant in the poverty alleviation programme of the federal government of Nigeria with particular reference in Enugu North Local Government Area.

          These are the areas that I will concentrate while carrying out my project research. To determine whether the role of the accountant is of any relevant in the planning of programmes and policies of the poverty alleviation programme in Enugu North local government areas. In the envisaged study, six hypotheses will be formulated to give direction of the study.

          Data for the study would be sourced from two main sources.

Primary data: Questionnaires and oral interviews will be used to collect information from the respondents.

Secondary data : Journals, magazine and other relevant materials relating to the area of my investigation will be review.

          This project will focus on the activities and the role which the accountant will play in the poverty alleviation programme of the federal government in Enugu North local government area.

          Extensive literature review will be carried out on direct literature and indirect literature on books, journals and past works.

          I will personally administer the questionnaire on the respondents comprising private individuals and the staff of the Enugu North local Government Area.

          The research instrument to be used in this study will be oral interview and questionnaire.  The questionnaire will be structural as to contain both close and open ended question.

          Simple tables, pie-charts and percentages will be used in treatment of data while chi-square will be used to test the hypothesis formulated.

          Finally, the study will hold immense benefit to the economic programmes of the federal government and its citizenry, the entire citizenry of Enugu North Local Government Area, the researcher and readers.

CHAPTER ON

INTRODUCTION

The need to develop micro economic activities that could enhance self reliance as a strategy for reducing poverty became paramount that the three tiers of government (federal, state, and local) came up with various initiatives.  Among these were programmes and policies that aimed at:

  • Stimulating economic growth through the engagement of semi-skilled and unskilled labour in productive activities.
  • Immediate reduction of social vices and tension in the society by removing idle hands from the streets.
  • Engage the unemployed in direct activities as a variable means of reflecting the economy.
  • Improve the environment latest environmental degradation
  • Minimize rural urban drift through the improvement of rural communities.
  • Committing the fund to direct benefit of the participants rather than on services or overheads.

To achieve these, machineries must be put in motion with competent professionals from various fields of endeavour to plan, implement, monitor and control the programmes and policies.  Among these is the role of the accountant.

1.1 PURPOSE OF THE PROBLEM

Among the major problems that have played the socio-political and economic life of developing nations are gross unemployment of her teeming population and poverty.  Among these nations include our country Nigeria.

          Poverty in Nigeria is pervasive.  About 60% of Nigerians live below the poverty line.  Available statistics shows that only 50% of the population have access to safe water.  About 38% of the population do not have access to primary health care, while most Nigerians consume less than one third (1/3) of the minimum required protein and vitamins in take due to low purchasing power.

          These incidences were compounded by over two decades of political instability, macroeconomic policy inconsistencies, low capacity utilization in industries and the massive turn out of school leavers and graduates by institutions of higher learning.

          Suffice it to say that despite these, for three decades after independence, unemployment and poverty were not a national state or local concern in Nigeria as it is today.  However on inception of office in May, 1999, the Obasanjo administration took upon itself the major task of redressing the twin problem of poverty and employment generation.

          To this end therefore, the government with a high sense of commitment made a provision of  #10billion for the creation of two hundred thousand jobs in the year 2000.

          Worthy to mention was the fact that governments desire to eradicate poverty was born out of the conviction that the incidence of poverty and unemployment have assumed a dimension that is socially, economically and politically unacceptable.  To this end therefore, all hands must be on deck including not only the three tiers of government but also professional bodies and competent individuals among these includes the role of the accountant.

          The accountant performs the accounting function which involves the process of identifying, measuring, recording and communicating the economic event of an organization (business or non-business, government of non-government) to the process identification involves selecting those events that are considered as evidence of economic activities relevant to a particular entity.  (Wey Gandt, 1993).

          Once identified, the economic events must be measured in financial terms, that is quaritified innaira.  If the event cannot be quantified in monetary terms, it is not considered part of the organization financial information system.  The measurement function thereby eliminates some significant events because they lack measurability in financial terms.  These and many more are some of the functional roles of the accountant even as it applies to the poverty alleviation programme of the federal government.

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

          The importance of the accountant or the accounting profession can not be over-emphasized.  This stemmed from the fact the success of an organization lies very much on effective and effectual planning, implanting, monitoring and controlling its financial  flow thus, accounting is ingrained and vital to our economic activity.  Its relevance include the whole process of identifying, measuring recording and communicating the economic event of our organization to interested user of the information (Wey Gandt 1993).

          This role, no doubt permeates even to the poverty alleviation programme of the federal government.

          Enugu North Local Government is one of the three tiers of government, whose major task is to guarantee the efficient and effective implementation of the poverty alleviation programme at the grass root level.

          To achieve this therefore, a result oriented planning, implementation, monitoring and controlling of the financial resources must be put in place. The question that comes to mind therefore are:

What role should the accountant play in the implementation of poverty alleviation programme?

Is the role of the accountant of any relevance to the actualization of this programme?

          In other to answer these questions this study will critically evaluate the role of the accountant in the poverty alleviation programme in Enugu North Local Government Area.

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY  

          The objectives of this study among other things include:

To determine the role of the accountant in the poverty alleviation programme of Enugu North Local Government Area.

To determine whether the role of an accountant is of any relevance in the planning of programmes and policies of poverty alleviation in Enugu North Local Government Area.

To determine whether the role of the accountant is of any importance in the implementation of the poverty alleviation programme.

          To determine whether the role of the accountant is of any relevance in monitoring of the strategies of the poverty alleviation programme of Enugu North local Government Area.

To determine whether the role of the accountant will result in the actualization of the objectives of poverty alleviation in Enugu North Local Government Area.

1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

HO:   The role of the accountant is not relevant to the effective planning of the poverty alleviation programme in Enugu North Local Government Area.

HI:  The role of the accountants is relevant to the effective planning of the poverty alleviation programme in Enugu North Local Government Area.

HO2:  The role of the accountant is irrelevant to the successful implementation of the poverty alleviation programme in Enugu North Local Government Area.

H2:  The role of the accountant is relevant to the successful implementation of the poverty alleviation programme in Enugu North Local Government Area.

HO3: The role of the accounted is irrelevant in the monitoring and controlling of the poverty alleviation programme of Enugu North Local Government Area.

H3:  The role of the accountant is relevant in the monitoring and controlling of the poverty alleviation programme of Enugu North Local Government Area.

1.5 SCOPE

This project focused on the activities and the role the accountant played in the poverty alleviation programme of the federal Government in Enugu North Local Government Area. The responsibilities attached to the programme that was established by the federal Government to help the less privileged, the unemployed in the society and so on.  It covers the activities that happened or happening in Enugu North Local Government.

          Area concerning the role of the accountant in the poverty alleviation programme of the federal Government.  The accountant has to discharge his/her civil responsibilities in the programme within the geographical area i.e Enugu North Local Government Area.

1.6 LIMITATION

          Suffice it to say that this study may not be termed comprehensive due to limitations imposed by:

  • Financial constratints

Financial was one of the major contraint that limited the study.  This is consequent of the fact that the researcher’s sources of financial support was not able to adequately take care of her academic financial responsibilities and the project work.

– Time constraint:

          Another major constraint that affected this study was time. This was due to the fact that the study was conducted amidst normal academic studies.  To this end therefore, it was difficult for the researcher to meet up some of the appointments with respondens.

  • Unavailability of materials:

Another major constraint to this study was unavailability of materials.  The poverty alleviation programme is a new economic concept adopted by the federal Government hence, not doubt limited the study as the researcher had difficulties in sourcing out for these materials.

1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Candidly, this study will be of immense benefit to the economic programmes of the federal government and its citizenry.  As details analysis will be carried out on the elevate of the accountant  in the successful planning, implementation and actualization of the objectives of the poverty alleviation programme.

          Secondly, the study will also be of great benefit to the entire citizenry of Enugu North Local Government Area as it will provide move result oriented ways of implementing the policies and programmes of poverty alleviation within the local government.

          Again the study will be of great benefit to both the researcher and the reader as information contained will provided an in-depth understanding and knowledge in the area of investigation which could stir up further enquiry.

1.8 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

Accountant – Professional keeper or verifier of accounts he serves as or

provides explanation as regards to income and expenditure.

Poverty alleviation – Making poorness, scarcity or lack less severe by the

three tiers of government.

Professional _ A person that belongs to or connected with accounting.  He is

skillful, competent and worthy of the profession (accounting).

Policy – Course of action adopted by the government on how to make

poverty less sever.

Grass root – Ordinary people or less privileged ones who need the assistance

of the government to come above this level.

Public Accounting- Accounting records prepared on behalf of the state or in

the public interest.

Planning –  Planning requires management to look ahead and to establish

objectives.  These objectives are desired at maximizing short

term profits and market shares.

Control – Is the process of keeping the firms activities on track.  Here the

management accountant determines whether planned goals are

being met or if there are deviations from target objectives.

—This article is incomplete———–This article is incomplete———— It was extracted from a well articulated quality Project, Research Work/Material

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Critical Evaluation of Privatization and Commercialization Process in Nigeria 

 

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Electronic Banking in Nigeria

The Role Electronic Banking in Nigeria 2001-2012

Abstract

Electronic banking has become an important practice among commercial banks in Nigeria. The introduction of this electronic banking has improved banking efficiency in lending services to customers. It was in line with this that the study aimed at examining the role of Electronic banking in Nigerian from 2001 – 2012. Basically, the study was undertaken to find out whether electronic banking has prospects in Nigerian banks, whether adoption of electronic banking enhances the efficiency of banking service in Nigeria and whether electronic banking improves customer’s relationship. In undertaking this work, extensive literature review was carried out with particular reference to directly related literatures. The population of the study comprised 113 staffs of Unity Bank Plc, Diamond Bank, Access Bank and First Bank Plc, all in Enugu Metropolis. The researcher used Taro-Yamani’s formula to determine the sample size. Data were collected using structured questionnaire. The data collected were presented and analyzed using sample table and percentage while chi-square was used to test the hypothesis formulated for the study. Finally, based on the finding, it was discovered that the four banks studied adopted electronic banking in their operation and the banks have improved in the practice of electronic banking. The researcher also recommended that bank must be focused on items of their needs and using the right technology to achieve their goals, rather than acquiring technological equipment because other banks have it and that the bank must endeavour to train their staff to be able to match the ever advancing technologies. Read More »

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Capital Market as a Source of Public Sector Funding

The Role of Capital Market as a Source of Public Sector Funding

 

Abstract

This research study focuses on the Role of Capital Market as a Source of Public Sector Funding. The major aim of this research is to determine the sources through which the capital market finances the public sectors of the economy.

In the process of carrying out this research, the problem issues were explained through the examination of the background of study. Thereafter, the following research hypotheses were formulated.

  1. H0: Capital Market does not play any role in public sector

H1Capital market plays a significant role in public sector funding.

  1. H0: Capital market is not relevant to public sector

H1Capital market is relevant to public sector funding.

The use of questionnaire was formed by the need to use and rely largely on the primary data during the research process. The data collected were analyzed by means of some statistical tools of data analyses. The statistical tool of analyses included: frequency tables, bar charts, pie charts, percentages and degrees. The chi-square (x) test method was also used to test the hypotheses.

The findings arrived at include:

  • Capital market plays a significant role in public sector
  • That the public sector is aware that they could be financed through the capital market funds yields benefits which by far outweigh the cost of securing the funds.

Source of the problems facing capital market financing was also discussed.

Finally, recommendations and suggestions were made to encourage State and Local Governments to source funds from the capital market. Read More »

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Commercial Banks in Small Scale Business Financing

The Role of Commercial Banks in Small Scale Business Financing (A Study of First Bank of Nigeria Plc)

ABSTRACT

        The topic small scale industries involve a lot of activities like manufacturing, servicing, financing, construction, infrastructure etc. It has consistently made significant contribution to the national economy in terms of general output and so on. These industries also have the problems of raw material, finance, marketing, underutilization of capacity, etc. Cash has become a big problem for small and even big business today. Finance has been the important way to start and run an enterprise because it facilitates the entrepreneur to procure land, labour, material, machine and so on from different parties to run his/her enterprise. The globalization of business has increasingly drawn small and medium enterprise into global value chains through different types of cross-border activities. Many entrepreneurs are recognizing the opportunities that this process offers, and gaining access to global markets where small business can offer a host of business opportunities. New products are developed in the banking industry to meet the ever growing needs of customers. In this research work the researcher choose four of the products Banks offer which are: smart cards, international money transfer, educational scheme and integrated banking network transactions. Data collected through questionnaire are presented in tabular form, percentages and pie chart to analyze them. The research work revealed that the product has been able to satisfy the customers to a very high level; customers patronize banking products like fund transfer. The most prominent reason for their patronage is based on the convenience. The introduction of these banking products has improved the profitability of the bank. Read More »

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Privatization and Commercialization Process in Nigeria

Critical Evaluation of Privatization and Commercialization Process in Nigeria

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In spite of its diminishing size and importance due to privatization, Nigeria’s public enterprise sector is one of the largest in sub-Saharan Africa in terms of both scale and scope as reflected in the absolute numbers of enterprises and the contribution to the gross domestic product. Since the colonial era, public enterprises have assumed increasingly diverse and strategic development roles in the Nigerian economy. And this was accentuated during the oil boom of the 1970s and 1980s, when successive military regimes, buoyed by economic nationalism and massive oil windfalls, developed a large public enterprise sector encompassing a broad spectrum of economic activities. These covered large basic industries (manufacturing, agriculture, services, public utilities and infrastructure). They included telecommunications, power, steel, petrochemicals, fertilizer, vehicle assembly, banks, insurance and hotels (Afeikhena, 2008). Read More »

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Globalisation on Organisational Performance

Impact of Globalisation on Organisational Performance in Selected Manufacturing Organisations in South-East Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

This study is on the Impact of Globalisation on Organisational Performance in Selected Manufacturing Orgnisations in South-East, Nigeria and therefore sought to: ascertain the difference in the mean quantity of goods produced as in the company’s records; determine the difference in the mean rate of sales; examine the impact of technology on the profitability (profit before tax); assess the difference in the mean rate of organisational growth in employee expansion and training; and evaluate the difference in the mean rate of organisational growth in infrastructural facilities (accommodation space, branches etc) of the Manufacturing Organisations in South-East, Nigeria before and after globalisation. A survey design was adopted and conducted in ten (10) manufacturing firms randomly selected from 163 registered manufacturing organisations in South East Nigeria. A sample size of 280 respondents from ten manufacturing firms was determined from the population of 1,226 top managers of the selected organisations using Williams sample size determination method. Data was collected using a five-point/scale Likert questionnaire. The reliabilty was tested using Cronbach alpha with a result of 0.66. The data generated were presented in percentages. Z test was performed to test each hypothesis with alpha set at 0.05. Z test revealed that globalisation has not impacted significantly on the productive performance of the manufacturing firms, Zc = 0.403<Zt = 1.96; α<0.05; that globalisation has not impacted positively on the sales performance of the organisations, Zc = 0.302<Zt =1.96; α<0.05; The result also proved that globalisation has impact on the profit performance of the organisations, Zc =7.75>Zt = 1.96; α<0.05; that globalisation has also impacted positively on employee expansion and training of the manufacturing firms, Zc = 6.1>Zt = 1.96; α<0.05; and that the emergence of globalisation has improved the infrastructure and existing branches of the manufacturing firms before and after globalisation, Zc =6.62>Zt = 1.96 α<0.05; In conclusion, policy has failed to promote the technical capacities or specific knowledge needed to enhance efficiency, in such areas as deregulation, exchange rate, raw materials importation, human capital development etc., which are fundamental to successful industrialization, and that performance in Nigeria’s manufacturing sub-sector depends on critical technological innovaions, good governance and responsible leadership. It is recommended that government should provide enabling business environment for business by formulating smart policies that should promote high-quality education, raise productivity by building modern infrastructure and promoting science and technology to meet their current needs. Read More »

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Personnel Management and Development of Public Sector

Personnel Management and Development of Public Sector in Nigeria (A Study of Water Corporation, Enugu)

 

ABSTRACT

The main thrust of this research work is to determine the importance of personnel management in the development of public sector (A study of Water Corporation, Enugu). This write up is the outcome of an intensive research carried out on the subject under study. It will serve as important indices to anyone who may be interested to know what personnel management and development is all about. The researcher reviewed the background of the study. To this end, the researcher reviewed various literature by different scholars relating to study for a better understanding. The major objectives of this research work are; to determine the importance of personnel management, to find out the extent to which personnel management has contributed to the development of public sector in Nigeria. In so doing, the Enugu State Water Corporation was used as a study. In the course of this study, the researcher made use of survey research. Meanwhile, the use of simple percentage was adopted for the presentation and analysis of data collected. The researcher also discovered some findings and drew conclusion and recommendations based on the findings. Consequently, it is recommended that management should play their role effectively by recruiting competent and qualified workers in the organization in order to enhance the development and growth of public sector in Nigeria. Read More »

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Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Fraud Detection

The Role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), in Fraud Detection in Nigerian Banks. (A Case Study of First Bank of Nigeria Enugu)

 

ABSTRACT

This research work aims at determining the role of information and communication technology in detecting fraud in the Nigerian banking system. The banking institution which has integrity and trust as its hallmark has been exposed to various forms of fraud and various means employed in defrauding banks. Fraud derails the society’s integrity and value among the committee of nations and in effect, affects the level of trust. The banking sector has been the cornerstone of economic and financial mainstay of any nation, hence the need for study of the role and the effectiveness of information and communication technology in fraud detection in the banking industry. First Bank of Nigeria Pie, Enugu metropolis was used as a case study. The research work treated the causes of fraud in Nigerian banks, forms of bank frauds, Effects and consequences of fraud in first bank of Nigeria plc, the information and communication technology and fraud detection in banks and Fraud control measures in banks.

The methodology adopted in this study is the survey research design%. There were interactions with bank staff of various cadres with structured questionnaire to know their own opinion. 400 questionnaires were administered of which 320 were duly completed and returned. Some of the findings from the research work reveal that lack of staff motivation has an effect on the incidence of fraud in Nigerian banks. It also reveals that the introduction of ICT into the banking industry has reduced the incidence of fraud in Nigerian banks. Further findings reveal that the Nigerian banking laws are not adequate for fraud control in banks.

Based on the findings of this study, recommendations made are the adoption of computer aids as tool for fraud prevention and control; banks should employ highly sophisticated security gadgets in their banks, like surveillance TV systems, on —the-spot photographing of customers etc. Proper reviewing of laws relating to fraud should be encouraged and stern penalties that commensurate with any offence committed should be embarked on. Read More »

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Chamber of Commerce in Organizing International Trade Fair in Nigeria

The Impact of Chamber of Commerce in Organizing International Trade Fair in Nigeria (A Study of Enugu State)

Abstract

This work is on the impact of chamber of commerce and industry on the organization of international trade fair in Nigeria. A study of Enugu state. Basically, the study was undertaken to find out whether the chamber of commerce and industry have the necessary skills for organizing international trade fair in Nigeria, whether chamber of commerce and industry have the financial capacity to organize international trade fair, whether chamber of commerce and industry has any significant impact in organizing international trade fair in Nigeria. The researcher in undertaken this work extensive literature review was carried out with particular reference to directly related literature the population of the study comprised of the executive and ordinary member of the chamber. The researcher conducted a census survey since it was possible and convenient to do so and also use Taro yamani’s formula to determine the sample size. Data were collected using structured questionnaire. The data collected were presented and analyzed using simple table and percentage while chi-square was used to test hypothesis formulate for the study. Finally, based on the finding it was discovered that chamber of commerce and industry do not have the necessary skill needed for organizing international trade fair, chamber of commerce and industry do not have the financial capacity to organize international trade fair in Nigeria, chamber of commerce and industry encounters challenges in organizing international trade fair and also chamber of commerce and industry has no significant impact in organizing international trade fair in Nigeria The researcher also recommended that chamber of commerce should at regular interval organize seminars and workshops for their members. They should also plan and execute follow-up activities directed at achieving the set objectives of the international trade fair and that the chamber of commerce should be well funded. Read More »

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