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Impact of Conflict on Organizational Performance

Impact of Conflict on Organizational Performance (A Study of Nigeria Bottling Company (NBC) Ninth Mile, Enugu State


This study examines effect of conflict on organizational performance of beverage companies in Nigeria using Nigeria bottling company as a case study. A sample size of (125) one hundred and twenty-five out of the numerous employees of Nigerian bottling company (NBC) was administered with questionnaires in their plant located at night mile Enugu state. A descriptive and regression analysis with the aid of survey method and sample percentage was used to analyze the relationship between conflict management on organizational performance of Nigeria bottling company (NBC). The result of the study found that there was a significant positive relationship between conflict management and organizational performance (X2c>X2t i.e. 31.573>5.991). It is therefore recommended that management should develop diverse but appropriate strategies to resolve and manage conflicts as they arise before escalating to unmanageable level in the organization. Read More »

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Igbos under Colonial Rule 1905-1960

Igbos under Colonial Rule 1905-1960: A Case of Effium, Ebonyi State



General Introduction

This work is an attempt to explore the various activities of colonial administration in Effium during the colonial rule from 1905 to 1960. It is aimed at finding out the reasons why they came to Effium as at that time and the impact of their coming.  Also, effort will be made to examine the geographical location, migration and settlement of the Effium peoples’ in the pre-colonial era.

Furthermore, the work is a deliberate effort made to ascertain the reasons behind the advent of the colonialists, their occupation in Effium community and the system of administration they used. This work however, will concentrate and examine the socio-cultural effects of colonial rule in Effium. Read More »

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Home Management of Diarrhoea by Mothers

Home Management of Diarrhoea by Mothers in Akpuoga, Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State


Background: Diarrhoea has been considered as a major cause of morbidity and mortality among under-fives especially in rural communities in developing countries. Home management of diarrhoea is one of the major household practices in community integrated management of childhood illness strategy. Most of the diarhoea episode is treated at home by mothers. Therefore the knowledge of mothers in management of diarrhoea is likely related to its morbidity and mortality.

Objectives: The aim of this present study was to evaluate the knowledge of mothers with children under five years old about diarrhoea and its management and to identify the relation of the knowledge content with some of their demographic characteristics.

Materials and method: In this cross-sectional study, mothers who had at least a child aged below five years old were selected by simple random sampling. 410 questionnaires was designed and distributed to them but 371 was fit for analysis to evaluate their knowledge about diarrhoea. Subsequently, the data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test.

Result: The results obtained showed that most of the mothers were 30-39 year old (47.2%). The major source of their knowledge were healthcare provider (64.4%) and media (20.8%). Mothers (63.6%) had good knowledge while (36.4%) had poor knowledge; (60.4%) can manage diarrhoea properly at home while (39.6%) had deficit knowledge on the management of diarrhoea.

Conclusion: Greater percent of mothers that participated in this study had good knowledge about diarrhoea and its home management. However educational programs must be an essential part of health centres programs to disseminate information as it relates its diagnosis and treatment of diarrhoea by mothers at home.

Keywords: diarrhoea, knowledge, mothers. Read More »

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Home Factors Necessary for Laying the Foundation of Values in Youths

Home Factors Necessary for Laying the Foundation of Values in Youths within the Family in Ohaukwu Local Government Area


This study focused on Home Factors necessary for laying the foundation of values in youths within the family in Ohaukwu Local Government Area. The main purpose of the study is to examine the impacts of home factors in laying the foundation of values and to suggest the strategies for improving foundational values in youths within the family. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The population of the study comprises all the 11688 households in the area. A multi stage sampling technique was adopted in selecting 300 respondents. Four research questions were formulated to guide the study. Data was collected with the use of questionnaire. Simple percentage table, mean, standard deviation and chi-square test of goodness fit were used for data analysis. The findings of the study revealed that socio-economic status of parents, parental life styles and emotional climate of the family affects the foundation of values in youths within the family. That youth from low income homes are less prepared for values. The researcher recommended that home factors are necessary in laying the foundation of values in youths, that parents should adopt a good strategies in guiding the youth for proper value inculcation within the family and teach the youths the need to be honest, industrious, respectful, humble and diligent through the use of good modeling and moral stories. The parents should be enlightened on the importance of early value inculcation. Also youth-welfare curriculum should be introduced at the secondary school level to educate the youths who are the potential parents on the importance of good parenting style. Read More »

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Use and Non-Use of Insecticide Mosquito Treated Nets in Households

Factors Associated with Use and Non-Use of Insecticide Mosquito Treated Nets in Households with Children Under 5 Years In Ndubia Izzi, Ebonyi State.


Insecticide – treated nets are the most powerful malaria control tool if used correctly. Yet up to date, utilization is still unacceptable low; and 3 percent of African children are currently sleeping under on ITN, and about 20 percent are sleeping under any kind of net. Worse still, malaria continues to be the leading cause of child mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to investigate the intra-household factors that affect the utilization of ITNs in households with children under five. The study specifically sought to identify the intra-household practices that affect the use of ITNs among the under five; examined the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and beliefs of caregivers towards the usage of ITNs; and lastly analysed the affordability of ITNs by households with children under five years. This study was conducted in four (4) zones from Ndubia Izzi, Ebonyi State which were randomly selected and used a cross sectional design. The study findings show that first; there were intra-household factors that affected utilization of ITNs in households with children under five. These factors that affected utilization include; type of household structure, number of people sleeping in the household, intra-household structure, number of people sleeping in the household, intra-household gender relations, sleeping arrangements, disruption of sleeping patterns due to visitors and cultural rituals and functions. These factors affect consistency in utilization of ITNs and proper deployment. Secondly, knowledge on ITNs was found to be low though general knowledge about mosquito nets was found to be high. Utilization was also affected by poor perceptions, beliefs and attitudes that discourage caregivers from using the ITNs. Thirdly, access to ITNs was very inadequate and unavailable within the study community. The majority of the people being peasants, there were insufficient incomes and therefore ITNs were not a priority given the level of poverty. This study concluded that financial inadequacies at the household level, poor perceptions of caregivers and intra-household dynamics impact negatively on effective utilization of ITNs among the under fives.     Read More »

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Strategies Utilized by Students in Stress Management

Evaluation of the Coping Strategies Utilized by Students of Ebonyi State University Abakaliki in Stress Management


Background: Students are subjected to different kinds of stressors, such as academic pressure with an obligation to succeed, an uncertain future difficulties of integration into the system.

Research methodology: A descriptive study was conducted in Ebonyi State University to evaluate the major sources of stress among students and the coping strategies they apply in its management. Total of 370 students participated in the study. Questionnaire was used to evaluate the major sources of stress for students and the strategies they use in coping with it.

Result: The results revealed that 100% of the students experience stress. Majority of the students 105(28.38%) indicates that academic pressure is the major source of stress for them and the least source of stress for them was dating 14(3.78%). The students were found to cope with stress by using various coping strategies such as “seeking comfort”,“crying”, “smoking”, “sleeping”, “talking it out”, “thinking it though” “drinking” and “dancing/singing”.

Conclusion: it was also discovered that majority of the students tend to use more of healthy coping strategies as compared to unhealthy  ones. “Thinking it through” 82(22.16%) was the most common and “smoking”   9(2.44%) was the least common coping strategy identified by the students of Ebonyi State University Abakaliki.

Recommendation: This study recommends that future study should be carried out on causes of stress among student, and the coping strategies students utilize in its management. Read More »

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Environmental Barriers to the Learning of English Language

Environmental Barriers to the Learning of English Language in Public Secondary Schools in Ebonyi State of Nigeria: A Study of Ezza High School, Amuzu and Izzi High School Ishieke.


This research examined the environmental barriers to the learning of English language in public secondary schools in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. A study of Ezza High school Amuzu and Izzi High school in Ezza south and Ebonyi Local Government Area in Ebonyi state. A descriptive survey design and structured questionnaire advocated by Emile Durkherm (1858-1917) was used for the study. One hundred and ten (110) respondents comprising fifty (50) students, four (4) teachers and one (1) principal from each school were randomly sampled and questionnaire addressing many environmental barriers in the learning of English language were administered. The Likert type scale of four(4) response pattern designed by Dr. Rensis Likert in 1932 was used to rate the responses of the respondents. Data were analyzed using simple percentages. The findings reveal that mother tongue is a barrier to the poor performance of students in the learning of English language. Other environmental barriers include students’ motivation, learning environment, lack of materials, poor method of teaching, poor language policy and planning in Nigeria, unskilled teachers and varieties of English language. On the whole, the performance of students in English language is poor and if the observed facts from this study are not timely tackled; there will be drastic decline in standard of education.    Read More »

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Electoral Violence and the Prospects of Democracy in Nigeria

Electoral Violence and the Prospects of Democracy in Nigeria: A Study of the 2015 Elections in Ebonyi State.


This study was on electoral violence and the prospect of democracy in Nigeria: A study of the 2015 elections in Ebonyi state. It was informed by issues that have arisen from the problems faced by the citizens of Nigeria in general and Ebonyi state in particular as they struggle to build democratic institutions and other aspect of their national development. Here the endemic problem of electoral violence is being unleashed on the people by their kit and kin’s, avowed quest for political power by all means. This study therefore sought to identify and expose these problems, their sources and impact on the people, with a view towards providing solution to them. To achieve these objectives, the primary and secondary data collection method was employed. While the secondary data provided data from existing literature from books, journal and internets, the primary data were sourced from field survey, the questionnaire were analyzed, the findings included among other things that electoral violence exist and affect Ebonyi state democratic development negatively. This violence was caused by various other problems such as poverty, unemployment, illiteracy and communal conflict. To address these problems, this researcher recommended among others that mass political education, government intervention through laws that strengthens our electoral processes and the implementation of sanctions on offenders of electoral violence as part of the solution here.   Read More »

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Effects of Administration of Guidance Programmes in Secondary Schools

Effects of Administration of Guidance Programmes in Secondary Schools in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State Nigeria



Background to the Study

       The greatest legacy any nation can bequeath to her present and future generation is a sound economic, social and political base. This can only be achieved through the provision of qualitative functional education to the citizenry. Tyler, R.W.(1949) explains that the prerogative of the federal government to formulate national educational policies for which various state governments are bound to implement of such educational policies is usually binding on state governments and subsequently forms a feature of state education policies.

National educational policies independence been considered worthwhile, is the new national policies on education which make adequate provision for the introduction of guidance and counseling on the country’s educational system. Guidance can be said as the systematic professional process of helping individual through education on interpretation procedure to gain a better understanding of his own characteristics and potentialities and to relate himself most satisfactory to social and moral values. While counseling can be seen as a help giving to an individual to become aware of himself and the way in which he/she is relating to the world around. Ipaye, T (1983) states that before the introduction of guidance and counseling in Nigeria school system. Guidance and counseling has been in practice in one form or the other since human’s started living together in families and communities. Read More »

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Challenges Confronting PTA Participation in Secondary School Administration

Challenges Confronting (PTA) Parents-Teachers Association Participation in Secondary School Administration in Ohaukwu  Local Government Area of Ebonyi State


 The research examined the challenges confronting Parents Teachers Association participation in secondary school administration in Ohaukwu local government Area of Ebonyi state. Four research questions were formulated to guide the work. By random sampling, a total of 200 teachers and parents were selected for the study. Test-retest method was used to determine the reliability of the instrument, which was 0.99. The questionnaires were distributed to the sampled population in the various secondary schools in Ohaukwu local government area of Ebonyi State. The results were analyzed using mean scores. Recommendations were also made on the possible means of reducing the challenges of P.TA and improving their participation in the administration of secondary schools in Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, the appointment of P.T.A executives and committee members should be based on merit and that school authorities should create good relationships with P.T.A in matters that deal with policies and programmes. P.T.A should create independent bodies that will help in evaluating their activities. There should be strict adherence to the policies and programmes of the association and to the rules and regulations guiding the association. Read More »

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