Reproductive Health Decisions and Responsibilities: Men’s Involvement

Reproductive Health Decisions and Responsibilities: Exploration of the Impact of Men’s Involvement in Abakaliki Local Government Area of Ebonyi State

Abstract

The study dealt on “Reproductive Health Decisions and Responsibilities: Exploration of the impact of Men’s Involvement in Abakaliki Local Government Area of Ebonyi State” Three research questions guided the study. Related literature were reviewed and summarized. The objectives of the study were to explain the relationship between male’s age and their knowledge to participation in reproductive health activities; determine the attitude of males towards participation in reproductive health activities; and discuss the factors that will support male’s participation in reproductive health activities. A review of related literature was done. Descriptive survey research design was used in order to elicit base-line information in the respondents’ natural settings. The sample of the study consisted of 180 adult males that were admitted and seen in Mile Four Hospital, within the study period. Structured questionnaire was the main instrument used for data collection. The instrument was validated by the project supervisor. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency distribution tables and percentages. The results showed among others: that majority of respondents have relatively good knowledge about male involvement in reproductive health as majority of them (42.7% and 37.5%) ticked correctly the meaning of male involvement in reproductive health matters; and this relative good knowledge could be due to their increased age as majority of them (34.4%) are between 36 – 40 years. Yet the good knowledge about male involvement in reproductive health and increase age could not influence positively the men’s participation in reproductive health issues etc. In line with the findings, recommendations were made which include nurses are expected to intensify health education to the general public on the need for men to participate in reproductive health activities such as men’s family planning (e.g. use of condom, periodic abstinence, vasecotomy etc), men’s sexual health (including specific sexual health problems for men e.g. sexually transmitted infections, hepatitis B and C, HIV/AIDS, testicular cancer and prostate cancer) and men’s reproductive health (e.g. men’s infertility which may be due to low sperm count) etc. Read More »

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Perceptions of Women towards Periodic Health Examination

Perceptions of Women of Childbearing Age (15–45 Years) in Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki towards Periodic Health Examination

Abstract

The study examined the Perceptions of women of childbearing age  (15 – 45 years) in Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki About Periodic Health Examination. Four research questions guided the study. Related literature were reviewed and summarized. Descriptive survey, research design was used to elicit base-line information in the respondents’ natural settings. The sample for the study consisted 190 women of childbearing age  15-45years in FETHA I. Structured questionnaire was the main instrument used for data collection. The instrument was validated by four jurors of health allied promotion experts in Nigerian universities and the project supervisor. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency distribution tables, percentages and likert scale. The results showed among others: majority of respondents (75.48%) have good knowledge of periodic health examination (table 4.8), majority of the women have positive attitude towards (80%) who agreed that practice of periodic health check-up should be encouraged (Table 4:15), majority of the respondents do not practise PHE only few respondents (30.06%) agreed they have gone for a periodic health check-up (Table 4.16), and major factors hindering the practice of periodic health examination are time constraints (26.32%) and financial constraints money (21.92%). (Table 4.22). In line with findings, recommendations were made, pertinent among which are:  government should make periodic health examination mandatory starting from 15 years as a tool used in reducing morbidity and mortality; health workers should spread awareness as to the presence of National Health Insurance Scheme aimed at reducing healthcare cost etc. Read More »

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Perception of Pain Control in Labour among Gravid Women

Perception of Pain Control in Labour among Gravid Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki (FETHA I), Ebonyi State

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to ascertain the perceptions of gravid women attending antenatal clinic at Federal Teaching Hospital I, Abakaliki in Ebonyi State on pain control in labour.. three research questions guided the. Nelated literature were reviewed and summarized. A descriptive, cross-sectional study design was utilized.  A sample size of 180 gravid women were randomly selected from the antenatal clinic at Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (FETHA1). Data from a target population of 2000 were collected using questionnaire, analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlational procedures. It was found that majority of the subjects (60.6%) have heard about labour pain control out of which 58.44% were aware of breathing exercise, as a non-pharmacological method and very few, 8.10%, 2.31%, 1.11% and 9.26% knew about injections, entonox, epidurals and spinal anesthesia as pharmacologic methods of pain control in labour. Women in labour do not receive adequate pain control as seen in their rating of labour pain as severely painful (77.5%), while pain relief experience had minimal effect.  A significant relationship between their level of education, their residence, parity and their perception of labour pain control was also established. In view of that, it is being recommended among other things, that awareness creation on the available methods of labour pain control be intensified. Read More »

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Perception of Caesarean Section among Women

Perception of Caesarean Section among Women in Umuoghara Autonomous Community, Ebonyi State

ABSTRACT

 The study assessed perception of caesarean section among women in Umuoghara autonomous community, Ebonyi State. Three research questions guided the study. Related literature were reviewed and summarized. The objectives of the study were to determine the knowledge held by women in Umuoghara autonomous community, Ebonyi State about caesarean section; determine the views of these women about caesarean section and ascertain their attitudes about delivery by caesarean section. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study. The study population comprised 2400 women made up of married, single, divorced, widows Umuoghara community. The sample for the study was 120 women selected through convenience sampling technique. The questionnaire is the only instrument for data collection. Data collected were analyzed with the use of frequency distribution tables and charts. The result of the study revealed that majority of the subjects have good knowledge of caesarean section as shown by all the respondents 120(100%) that agreed to  have heard about caesarean section; 114(95%) out of this could correctly defined caesarean section as a surgical operation on the abdomen and uterus to deliver a baby etc; majority of the women have negative view about caesarean section as shown by all respondents (120, 120 and 108) that agreed with the statement “caesarean section is a denial of womanhood for any woman that undergoes it”; “god has promised women safe vaginal delivery, so CS is a sign of infidelity on the part of a woman or signs of manipulation from wicked people” and; “doctors are always in a hurry to send women for surgery with no obvious danger/reason” respectively. Based on the findings, it was recommended that health personnel especially nurses and doctors should provide all pregnant women and women of child bearing age evidenced based information and support to enable them make informed decisions about mode of delivery especially caesarean section. Read More »

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Perception and Compliance to Universal Precaution among Nurses

Perception and Compliance to Universal Precaution among Nurses in Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki (Fetha I), Ebonyi State

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

Background of the study

Universal precautions are safety measures established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and American Dental Association (ADA). Universal Precautions are standard of infection control practices designed to reduce the risk of transmission of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and other blood borne pathogens among healthcare workers (Centre for Disease Control, 2008).

The nurses are at great risk of getting this infection because of direct contact with the patients. In this era of HIV epidemics, occupational risk is real and significant. Developing countries such as Nigerians, that account for the highest prevalence of HIV infected patients in the world, also records the highest needle prick injuries (Omokhodion, 2008). Needle prick injuries are the commonest occupational health hazard reported from University Teaching Hospital, Jos (Mizuno, Suzuki, Mori, 2007). The World Health Organization (WHO) (2004) estimates that about 2.5% of HIV cases among health care workers and 40% of hepatitis B and C cases among Health Care Workers worldwide are the result of these exposures. Each year as a consequence of occupational exposure, an estimated 66,000 Hepatitis B, 16,000 Hepatitis C and up-to 1,000 HIV infections occur among HCWs (Hudson-Davies, 2007). There is no immunization for HIV and hepatitis C. It therefore becomes important to prevent these infections by preventing exposure hence the need for universal precautions.

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Management of Babies Born of HIV/AIDS Positive Mothers

Management of Babies Born of HIV/AIDS Positive Mothers in Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (FETHA II)

ABSTRACT

The study evaluated management of babies born of HIV and AIDS positive mothers in Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (FETHA II). Four research questions guided the study. Related literatures were reviewed and summarized. The objective of the study were to: find out how babies born of HIV positive and AIDS mothers in FETHA II are being cared for before, during and after birth to prevent them from getting the infection; find out the nurse’s responsibilities in the management of these babies; find out the feeding options for these babies; find out how they are managed when they have contracted the infection.   Descriptive research design was adopted for the study. The study population comprised of 110 health personnel (mainly nurses/midwives and doctors) working in selected wards of FETHA II. The sample for the study was 90 nurses and 20 doctors working in selected wards of FETHA II that render mainly maternal and child health services (i.e. pediatric ward, newborn intensive care unit, children emergency, and maternity ward, antenatal clinic) using multi-stage sampling technique which comprises of stratification and convenience sampling. Questionnaire was the main instrument used for data collection. Data collected were analyzed with the use of frequency distributions tables and percentage. The result of the study revealed that: majority of the respondents manage HIV positive mothers during pregnancy by: doing routine HIV test for all pregnant mothers that book in their facility (100%) (Table 6), checking maternal CD4+ and viral load before administering medication (100%) (Table 8), administering zi­ dovudine, Retrovir (61.8%) (Table 10) at second trimester (86.4%) (Table 7); and during labour and delivery by not administering AZT (zidovudine, retrovir) and nevirapine to the woman (77.3%) (Table 11 and 12), and not giving ARM or amniocentesis to the infected pregnant women etc. Also some recommendations were made and these include that school administrators should also educate students thoroughly on the management of babies born of HIV positive mothers so that it will produce students who are knowledgeable and capable of managing these babies and mothers wherever they find themselves etc. Read More »

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Pressure Sore -Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice among Nurses

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice among Nurses in Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki (FETHA II) About Pressure Sore Prevention and Treatment

Abstract

The study assessed Knowledge, attitudes and practice among nurses in Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki (FETHA II) about pressure sore prevention and treatment. Three research questions guided the study. Related literatures were reviewed and summarized. The objective of the study was to: determine the knowledge of nurses in Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki (FETHA II) about pressure sore; ascertain their attitudes about pressure sore prevention and treatment and determine the practice of nurses in Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki (FETHA II) regarding pressure sore prevention and treatment. Cross-sectional design was adopted for the study. The study population comprised of 500 nurses working in various wards of FETHA II. The sample for the study was 200 nurses selected through convenience sampling technique. The questionnaire is the main instrument for data collection. Data collected were analyzed with the use of frequency distributions tables and charts. The result of the study revealed that nurses working in various wards of FETHA II: have adequate knowledge of pressure sore as shown by 195(97.5%) that defined it correctly as a localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue, usually over a bony prominence, as a result of pressure, or shear (table 6); and 180(90.0%) that correctly identified the sites of the body commonly affected by pressures sore as heels, ankles, elbows, sacrum, hips or buttocks (Figure 1) etc. Based on the findings, it was recommended that continuous update courses, workshops and seminars should be organized for nurses at interval on prevention and treatment of pressure sores; proper supervision of nurses will enhance their good practice of universal precautions etc. Read More »

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Pre-Eclampsia among Pregnant Women

Incidence of Pre-Eclampsia among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Mile Four Hospital Abakaliki between 2010 – 2013

ABSTRACT

The study assessed the incidence of pre-eclampsia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Mile Four Hospital Abakaliki between 2010 – 2013. Five objectives guided the study which includes: to determine the number of pregnant women who presented with preeclampsia in Mile 4 Hospital, Abakaliki between 2011 to 2013; to determine the gestational age at presentation; to ascertain parity as a risk factor for preeclampsia among these women; to determine maternal age as a risk factor for preeclampsia among these women and; to ascertain whether stress is a risk factor for preeclampsia among pregnant women that booked in Mile 4 Hospital, Abakaliki between 2011 to 2013. Related literatures were reviewed and summarized. Retrospective research design was adopted for the study. The sample size of 280 pregnant women that had preeclampsia from 2011 – 2013 were selected from the entire population of one thousand two hundred (10,440) folders of pregnant women that deliver in Mile 4 Hospital, Abakaliki from 2011 – 2013. Purposive sampling technique was used. Checklist is the only instrument used for data collection. Data collected were analyzed with the use of frequency distributions tables. The result of the study revealed that: 3% of the pregnant women, who attended antenatal clinic at Mile 4 Hospital, Abakaliki between 2011 – 2013 had preeclampsia; majority of the pregnant women (36%) suffered it in their second trimester; a good number of these women that suffered preeclampsia during the study period are para 0(35%); majority of the women below 18 years (36%) and 36 years and above (25%) were mostly affected with preeclampsia and; majority of them that engage in work stress like farming and trading were mostly affected with preeclampsia (42%) and (26%) respectively), and those in civil service and house wife were least affected (18%) and (14%) respectively). Based on the findings, it was recommended that nurses are expected to intensify health education to the pregnant women on risk factors for preeclampsia (e.g. stress, extreme maternal age, familial tendency etc), the need for early booking in antenatal clinic so as to enable early detection of at risk women and prompt treatment given to them; nurses should also ensure that the blood pressure of all pregnant women is measured and maintained below 140/90mmHg in every antenatal visit, and that the amount of protein in urine within the normal range and monitoring of fluid balance using Intake and Output (IO) chart to reduce risk of preeclampsia etc. Read More »

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Postpartum Haemorrhage among Women

Incidence of Postpartum Haemorrhage among Women that Delivered at Mile 4 Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State Between 2008- 2012

Abstract

The study assessed the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage among women that delivered at Mile 4 Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State between 2008- 2012. Five research questions guided the study. The objectives are  to: determine the number of women who had postpartum haemorrhage Mile 4 Hospital, Abakaliki between 2008 to 2012; identify the age groups of women that are prone to postpartum haemorrhage in Mile 4 Hospital, Abakaliki between 2008 – 2012; identify the parity that postpartum haemorrhage affects mostly in Mile 4 Hospital, Abakaliki between 2008 – 2012; find out the relationship between severity of postpartum haemorrhage and the type of delivery; find out the mortality rate among mothers who have PPH in Mile 4 Hospital between 2008 – 2012 etc. Related literatures were reviewed and summarized. Retrospective research design was adopted for the study. The study population comprised of folders of all women of reproductive age that delivered at Mile 4 Hospital, Abakaliki between 2008 – 2012 and had haemorrhage after delivery with the total population of three hundred (300). Random sampling technique was used. Checklist is the main instrument used for data collection. Data collected were analyzed with the use of frequency distributions tables, percentages and chart. The result of the study revealed that: the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage was low in the recent year (11.25%) (2012) compared to the former years (25.51%) (2008) (Table 1); the women within the age range of 31-35 years were mainly affected than those below and above it (Table 2) etc. Based on the findings, it was recommended that health care provider particularly the midwives should educate the pregnant women on the importance of booking early and regular antenatal care with the aim that it will help in early detection of at risk mothers and their proper management thus reduces maternal mortality rate due to postpartum hemorrhage etc Read More »

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Home Management of Food Poisoning in Children

Home Management of Food Poisoning in Children among Mothers Attending Infant Welfare Clinic in Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki

Abstract

The study assessed the home management of food poisoning in children among mothers attending infant welfare clinic in Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki (FETHA). Five objectives guided the study which includes to: ascertain the knowledge of mothers attending Infant Welfare Clinic in FETHA about food poisoning, assess the mother’s knowledge of recommended home management measures of food poisoning in children, determine the various types of over the counter drugs used in the home management of food poisoning in children by mothers attending Infant welfare clinic in FETHA, ascertain the various types of herbs use in the home management of food poisoning in children by the mothers and to determine the measures taken by mothers to prevent food poisoning.  Related literature was reviewed and summarized. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study. The sample size consisted of one hundred  (100) mothers who attended infant welfare clinic in Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (FETHA). Convenience sampling technique was used. Questionnaire is the only instrument used for data collection. Data collected were analyzed with the use of frequency distributions tables and percentage. The result of the study revealed that majority of mothers who attended Child Welfare Clinic at FETHA have a good knowledge about food poisoning and its appropriate home management, majority are aware of the recommended home management measures of food poisoning, majority of these mothers manage food poisoning in children using over-the-counter drugs (such as paracetamol, tetracycline and flagyl), herbs (e.g. nchawu leaves, boiled water from mango leaves, paw-paw leaves and guava leaves). Based on the findings, it was recommended that health care provider should further organize health education, workshops, and seminars from time to time such as to maintain and update the mothers’ knowledge on food poisoning, recommended home management measures and the preventive measures of food poisoning etc. Read More »

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