Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activities on Dialuim Guineense (Velvet Tamarind)

Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activities on Dialuim Guineense (Velvet Tamarind)

 ABSTRACT

Extraction of the constituents of dialuim guineense was done by batch method using ethanol. The removed mark was screened and indicated the presence of alkaloid, saponin, flavniod and terpenes. The screening for phenol or phenolic compound was negative. The layer chromatrography carried out on this marl in benzene- ethanol- aluminium hydroxide (9:9:1) gave Rf values of 0.35 and 0.28; in butanol-glacial acetic acid (5:1:4) 0.73 and 0.73 and also in ethylacetate-methanol-water (4:5:4). The antibacterial susceptibility tests on gram positive and gram negative bacteria showed great sensitivity on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa but no potency against Streptococcus faecalis and Klbsiella pneumonia with values ranging from 12-19mm.The ultraviolet-visible (uv/vis) spectrum showed absorption in the ultraviolent region while the infrared spectrum showed bands and stretches at 3790.28mm for OH, bands and stretches at.2917.92mm for =C-H, and stretches at 2153.64 for CC and other characteristic finger prints. Read More »

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Extraction and Determination of Vitamin C in Four Commonly Consumed Fruit

Extraction and Determination of Vitamin C in Four Commonly Consumed Fruit

ABSTRACT

Vitamin C is an important water soluble vitamin required for healthy and active life. The extraction and determination of Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of some fruits namely orange, lemon, cucumber and water melon, bought from local market were studied. The ascorbic acid content was determined by volumetric method. Vitamin C content was high in orange, pineapple, and water melon and low in cucumber. The vitamin compositions showed 9.33, 7.40, 5.73 and 3.35 mg/100g sample of oranges, pineapple, water melon and cucumber fruit respectively. Hence consumption of these fruits with high vitamin C content is highly recommended since this vitamin is very essential and plays important role in biochemical metabolism and normal function as well as healthy growth of humans and cannot be synthesized by humans. Read More »

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Mineral Composition of Ripe and Unripe Plantain and Banana Peels

Selected Mineral Composition of Ripe and Unripe Plantain and Banana Peels

ABSTRACT

Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and banana (Musa balbisiana) are a major staple food in the tropics. Their peels are the major by-product of plantain and banana fruits. The assay of the concentrations of Ca, Fe and K in the peels of these plants was studied using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS), after the wet digestion was carried out while P was determined using ultra-violet spectrophotometer. Mineral analysis of these peels showed that unripe plantain peel (UPP) had the highest value of Ca (0.23mg/g), K (0.47mg/g), P (0.06mg/g), and Fe (2.61mg/g), than the other varieties of the peel. Also, the results showed that the ripe banana peel had the least value of Ca (0.11), K (0.25), Fe (0.36) and P (0.03) than the other varieties of these peels. This shows that at different developmental and ripening stages of these fruits, there is a difference in their mineral compositions which also has nutritional values and can also be useful in the processing of other food products or conversion to other useful products such as composite manure or livestock feed. Read More »

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Extraction and Characterization of Oil from Melon and Coconut Seeds

Extraction and Characterization of Oil from Melon and Coconut Seeds

ABSTRACT

Oils from coconut and melon seeds were extracted and characterized. The Physicochemical parameters of the extracted oil was determined by standard methods of analysis. The saponification (mg KOH/g oil), acid, peroxide (mg/peroxide/kg), and iodine (mg iodine/100g) and specific gravity values were 254 and 196, 1.20 and 2.80, 0.40 and 3.20, 9.30 and 17.80 for coconut and melon seeds oil respectively. Both solvents demonstrated similar properties in all the analysis. The data shows that the seeds oil are preferable as edible inferring from their low acid value. From the results, the seeds oil have great potential in cosmetics, candle and soap making industry because of their high saponification value. The low iodine and peroxide values suggested that they are non-drying oil, contain few unsaturated bonds, have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and detoriation. Read More »

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Production of Sodium Silicate Using Rice Husk Ash

Production of Sodium Silicate Using Rice Husk Ash

ABSTRACT

This work studied the production of sodium silicate from rice husk ash. Rice husk was obtained from a rice mill in Abakaliki. It was first of all washed with water to remove contaminants. It was then dried under the sun for 48 hours. Dried husk was carbonized using stainless pot and gas stove. The carbonized husk was incinerated in a muffle furnace at 0 650C for 4 hours. The ash generates was used in the production of sodium silicate. Optimum time for producing rice husk ash at 6500C is 4 hours. It is possible to dissolve great part of contained silica in leached ashes by the reaction with aqueous solution of NaOH at 800C temperature. The dissolved silica percentage increases with the increase in temperature and time of reaction. Read More »

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Phenotypic Screening of Beta Lactamase Klebs­iella Species from Isolated Urine Sample

Phenotypic Screening of Beta Lactamase Klebs­iella Species Isolated from EBSU Non-Medical Student Urine Sample

ABSTRACT

The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was done using disc diffusion method. The isolates were screened for β-lactamase using nitrocefin sticks. The result obtained from this study showed that out of the 50 samples analysed, 15 isolates of Klebsiella species were obtained. Of the 15 isolates, 3.(18.75%) were from males while 13(81.25%) were from females. Antibiotics susceptibility test result showed that Klebsiella species isolated were highly susceptible to Imipenem (100%),. Followed by Gemtamicin and Meropenem (93.75%), each and Ciprofloxin (81.25%). They were highly resistant to Aztreonam and Ampicillin, 100% each. The result of the Beta-lactamase production showed that a total number of 15 isolates were tested and 10(66.7) were beta lactamase positive while 5(33.3) were beta-lactamase negative. This study has revealed that healthy individuals are also carriers of organisms that produce β-lactamase; and therefore, there is an urgent need to control and prevent the spread of these life threatening organisms. Read More »

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Effect of Rice Husk as Filler in Vinyl Ester Composites

Effect of Rice Husk as Filler in Vinyl Ester Composites

ABSTRACT

The rising global environmental and social concern, high rate of drop of petroleum resources, and new environmental guidelines has necessitated the search for green composite materials, which are ecofriendly. Agricultural waste fibers have significant potential in composite due to their high strength, environmentally friendly nature, low cost, availability and sustainability. The agricultural waste is one of the most important problems that must be resolved for the conservation of global environment. The potential properties of agro waste fibers have sparked a lot of research to use these fibers as a material to replace man-made fibers for safe and environmentally product. In this study, rice husk fiber (RHF) vinylester composites were produced with rice husk as filler and vinylester resin as the matrix. Several weight percentages of filler loadings were used: 5 wt. %, 10 wt. %, 15 wt. % and 20 wt. % in order to gain insights into the effect of filler content on the mechanical properties of the composites. From the findings, the ultimate tensile strength, tensile modulus and hardness of the rice husks filled vinylester resin composites increased with increasing percentage of RHF up to maximum of 10 wt. % fibers. From these results, we can conclude that RHF can be potentially suitable raw material for manufacturing bio-composites products. Read More »

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Qualitative Phytochemical Screening of Jatropha Curcas Latex

Qualitative Phytochemical Screening of Jatropha Curcas Latex

ABSTRACT

Phytochemical constituents of hot water and ethanol extracts of Jatropha curcas latex was investigated using standard chemical methods. The results obtained indicated that the hot water extract of J. curcas latex contains saponins, flavonoids, and glycosides at varying concentrations, while tannins, steroids, phenol, terpenes, proteins, alkaloid and Phlobatanin were not detected. Also, ethanol extract of J. curcas latex contains saponins, steroids, terpenes, alkaloid and glycosides at varying concentrations. The result indicated that saponins were found in very high amount and this suggests why the latex of J. curcas enhances blood clothing when applied to fresh wounds or cuts on the skin since saponins are known to possess the potentials of precipitating and coagulating red blood cells. The result therefore supports the application of J. curcas latex extract in ethno-medicine and will serve as a good source in pharmaceutical productions against some pathogenic microorganisms and also act as an anti-coagulant. Read More »

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Assessment of Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Locally Grown Rice Species

Assessment of Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Locally Grown Rice Species in Abakaliki

 ABSTRACT

The contamination of food substances by heavy metals has predisposed humans and even animals to heavy metal toxicity which is of public health importance. Rice is one of the most widely consumed staples in Abakaliki in particular and Nigeria in general. This study investigated the concentration of five selected heavy metals namely Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb in three major rice species (Mass, R8 and CP/306) obtained from the popular Abakaliki rice mill industry in Ebonyi State. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-7000) was used to measure the concentration of these metals. Results obtained indicated that Cr level was not detectable in all the rice samples while the other metals were detected in different concentrations in the rice species. Cu and Mn were detected in sample ABR1 (Mass specie) and sample ABR3 (CP/306 specie), only Ni (0.103 mg/kg) was detected in sample ABR2 (R8 specie) while Pb was detected in sample ABR2 (0.431 mg/kg) and ABR3 (0.360 mg/kg). The concentration of Cu in ABR1 and ABR3 was found to be 0.0323 mg/kg and 0.0438 mg/kg respectively, Mn occurred in ABR1 and ABR3 in the range of 0.0648 mg/kg and 0.055 mg/kg respectively. Pb occurred highest in all the species while Cu had the least concentration in all the samples. Pb and Mn levels were found to be above the 0.2 mg/kg and 0.01 mg/kg safe limit respectively set by Joint FAO/WHO CODEX committee. To assess the safety of dietary intake, weekly intake of heavy metals contaminated rice, was calculated. The result indicated that the estimated daily intake (EDI) of Ni and Pb were above the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) of 0.035 and 0.025 mg/kg/b.w/day set for Ni and Pb by the Joint FAO/WHO (2011) respectively. Clearly, this implies that the perennial intake of rice species produced in Abakaliki is likely to induce adverse health effects largely from Ni and Pb exposure. Read More »

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Adsorption Characteristics of Modified Plantain Peels

Adsorption Characteristics of Modified Plantain Peels (Musa Paradisiaca) on Lead(Ii) Ions in Aqueous System

 ABSTRACT

Development of adsorbents from agro-waste for uptake of toxicants from aqueous system is attracting attention of researchers because of its added advantages including availability, low cost and environmental friendliness. In this study, the potential of a readily available agro-waste (plantain peel) as adsorbent for Pb2+ in aqueous system was investigated. In the process, dried unripe and ripe plantain peels were separately reduced to powder and then treated with nitric acid to yield adsorbents. The two adsorbent types were characterized for pH, density, particle size and functional groups following standard methods. Thereafter, 250 μm sized particle were used to remove Pb2+ from aqueous solution of lead nitrate at different conditions of temperature (30-50oC), pH (2-10) contact time (30–150 minutes) and initial Pb2+ concentration (2-10ppm). Equilibrium adsorptions were studied at 30oC and experimental results fitted into Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms respectively to probe adsorption characteristics.  Unripe and ripe adsorbent characterization gave the following results respectively; density (0.251 g/cm3 and 0.274 g/cm3), pH (5.39 and 4.91), particle size (250 μm). Chemical characterization by FTIR showed absorbance peaks of amide, alkyl, hydroxyl, aldehyde and carboxylic functional groups. The efficiency of plantain peel adsorbents increased with the contact time, initial concentration and pH but decreased with rise in temperature over the narrow range studied.  The  removal efficiencies  at equilibrium for different initial concentration using 0.5 g adsorbent is reasonably high and ranged from 89% to 96%.  This value competes well with other biosorbents reported in literature. Unripe Plantain peel adsorption characteristics obeyed Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm as experimental data fitted well with high correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.977 and 0.922 respectively. However ripe plantain adsorbent fitted Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.847) but does not fit Freundlich isotherms (R2 = 0.003). For the same process conditions, modified unripe plantain peel is a better adsorbent than modified ripe plantain peel in lead ion adsorption. Read More »

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