Theism and the Existence of Evil in St. Augustine: A Critique

The Problem of Theism and the Existence of Evil in St. Augustine: A Critique


This work looks into the different mysteries of life as experienced by man, specifically, the reality of evil in the world created by Omnipotent, Omniscient and all-loving creator, these evils in the world have caused division among thinkers; theists, where St. Augustine is used as a case study and atheists. The work therefore is an attempt at reflecting on the existence of evil in a world assumed to be created and designed by a God that is both Omnipotent and infinitely good as the theists believe. Furthermore, the work aims at revealing some supportive opinion as well as counter-opinion given by different philosophers and schools of thought concerning this problem. However, the answers or responses which may not in themselves be conclusive are intended to help man understand more about this problem. For it is only when he begins to understand the happening in this world can he truly understand himself. Read More »

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Strategies for Improving Student’s Interest in Studying of Economics

The Strategies for Improving Student’s Interest in Studying of Economics in Senior Secondary Schools in Abakaliki Local Government Area of Ebonyi State



Background to the Study

Economics is taught as a course at the senior secondary school level and in the higher institution. Economics is a very important subject in the school curriculum which does not only improve the mental ability of an individual for a fruitful living but also increase potentials for problem solving, in the society, Samuelson (2000). The realization of these advantages requires all the necessary strategies and materials to be put in place to deliver the education which the society aspires to offer every students in Economics.

Unfortunately, much of what passes Economics or the performances is not encouraging in Abakaliki Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Economics like other social science subjects has no specific definition. As there are many definitions that depend greatly on the perception of the definer subject. These universal variation in the definition of Economics arise because of the fact that the subject studies human being and their behaviour which can never be the same Nwogu (2000), these divergent human behaviours are subject to different interpretation. To substantiate our argument that Economics has multifarious definition we will quote some definition given by those we consider as authority in Economics. Read More »

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Female Genital Mutilation and Its Effect

The Practise of Female Genital Mutilation and Its Effect in Ndiuruku Amagu Community Izzi, Abakaliki, Local Government Area; Ebonyi State


The practice of female genital cutting is known by various names such as female circumcision (FC), female genital mutilation (FGM) or female genital surgeries (FGS), this article examines FGM and looks at the historical background, demographic, psychological and sociocultural information, and prevalence and why the practice continues. This practice of female genital mutilation is as multifaceted as the many names applied to it. The term female circumcision was used in the international literature until 1980s FC is a soft sounding term used to describe all types of genital cuttings and used to imply that the practice is similar to male circumcision. The name female genital mutilation was initiated in the 1970s when US feminists discovered the practice and viewed it as “unspeakable atrocities” or “savage torture” being forced on African girls, this term became widely used in the late 1980s. However, FGC or female genital surgeries (FGS) are the term currently being used. In 1995 the WHO made a strong statement of the practice of FGM. Female genital mutilation is a deeply rooted traditional practice. However, it is a form of violence against girls and women that has serious physical and psychological consequences which adversely affect health. This practice is complex and many reasons contributed its continuation. Questionieer was used as a research instrument to get the information used in the study. One hundred and forty consecutive prime adult and adult were evaluated in Amagu community 1zzi, Abakaliki local government area for evidence of FGM. From the result 94% of the respondent believed that the act was practiced for cultural purposes,   5% were unaware they had FGM, 6 % did not known the reason, 34% it cures vulva itching, 39% reported severe bleeding, 48% believes if a child is not circumcised she will be good, 63% believed if a child is circumcised she will have prolong labour. From the questionnaire served to the prime adult and adult, some of the problems associated with the practice include severe bleeding (haemorrhage), scare tissue formation, infection, and psychological trauma as well as obstructed labour while 30% frown at the practice. Only 5% want the act to continue. Findings are briefly discussed in the project report. Read More »

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Knowledge and Attitude of Women towards Menopause

The Knowledge and Attitude of Women (40-60 Yrs) Towards Menopause in Idemili South Local Government Area of Anambra State


The word ‘menopause’ is derived from men and pausis and is a direct description of the psychological and physical events in women where menstruation ceases to occur. It is the time in a woman’s life when she has experienced the last menstrual bleed. Menopause is not a disease per se but a condition associated with hormonal changes where estrogen diminishes to a low level causing health related symptoms. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the knowledge and attitude to women (40-60 yrs) towards menopause in Idemili South Local Government Area of Anambra State. The target populations used for this study were the 400 women aged 40-60 years. The stratified sampling method was used and participation in this study was based on obtaining informed consent. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire consisting of three parts: demographic information, questions to assess knowledge and attitude investigation questions. Sampling technique was used to select the six communities and the focused group in Idemili South Local Government Area of Anambra State. Sample size of 117 subjects was determined by data saturation. The validity was assessed by the fellow course mates, knowledgeable aged women and the researcher’s supervisor. Data collected from the questionnaire was analyzed using tables, percentages and bar charts. The findings of the study indicated that women in Idemili South Community had the common understanding of the concept menopause, that blood is gone, old age, it was God nature of doing things and that cessation of menstruation was a normal and natural transition. They could not attach cessation of menstruation to menopausal conditions but old age and physical as well as physiological health related problems, and % of 57 and 56% got their information about menopause was positive for the 74% of women while 57% of women have negative influence towards it. The conclusion was based on the findings of the study, 58% of the respondents were acknowledged about menopause and 56.1 were not. The study recommended that more avenues should be created to disseminate information concerning this natural but compulsory phase of life for women. There is need for health care providers to conduct workshops in order to enlighten the women in this community regarding the phenomenal issues of menopause. Read More »

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Stress and Coping Strategies among Pregnant Women

Stress and Coping Strategies among Pregnant Women Attending Ante-Natal Clinic in Federal Medical Center Abakaliki


Pregnancy is a special time for a woman and her family. It is a time of tremendous stress, anxiety, emotional turmoil and readjustment (Ball. 2009, Bick and MacAuthur, 2005, Niel and Roger, 2007). Stress, however does not have to be all bad when managed properly. The rationale of this is to gain insight on stress and the coping strategies among pregnant women. The research setting is Federal Medical Center (FMC). The sample size is 80 pregnant mothers drawn from those attending ante-natal clinic in Federal Medical Centre Abakaliki. Convenience sampling technique was used for data collection, a structural interview schedule comprising of section A and B was used to generate data. Section A is on demographic data, while section B is based on stress and coping strategies among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in Federal Medical Center Abakaliki. The data was analyzed by the researcher using percentage (%). It was observed that stress has no negative effect on pregnancy when managed appropriately. Read More »

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Sports Facility Utilization as Determinant Of Recreational Sports Participation

Sports Facility Utilization as Determinant Of Recreational Sports Participation among Students of Ebonyi State University


The rationale for this study was to determine the rate at which students in the Ebonyi State University participate immensely in recreational activities which could lead to self-fulfillment, fun, good health conditions et cetera, by the individual student in utilizing the available facilities predicting participation in recreational activities by students in the Ebonyi State University. The study focused on sport facility utilization as determinant of recreational sports participation among students of the Ebonyi State University. A descriptive survey research design was used for the study using both male and female undergraduates in the Ebonyi state University as the respondents. A simple random sampling and convenient sampling technique was used. The research instrument used was a self structured questionnaire of a close likert type techniques of summated rating of Yes or No. the result of the research proved that the independent variables as determinants to the utilization of sport facilities on participation in recreational sports activities among students in the Ebonyi State University were significant. In conclusion, availability of sports facilities, accessibility to sports facilities maintenance and standard of sports facilities, knowledge of sport and games and income of an individual student, had effect on sport facility utilization for recreational sports participation among students in the Ebonyi State University and it was recommended that the school with the help of the government, should make available the motivational factors needed by the students in utilizing the available facilities to enable them participate in recreational activities in the Ebonyi State University.   Read More »

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Socio – Economic Status of Parents and Academic Performance

Socio-Economic Status of Parents and Academic Performance of Their Children


This is a study of the socio-economic status of parents and academic performance of their children in Ebonyi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. This study is important because it will enable the researcher find out the extent to which inequality in status or class affects the academic performance of children in the school system. For investigation, the researcher used questionnaire and academic record (examination) of the schools. Students were issued questionnaire to obtain information on their home convenience, parental encouragement and economic performance, four research questions were formulated, the data collected were analyzed using tables and percentages. The following findings were made that the socio-economic status of parents affects their children academic performance. Children of high socio-economic status have chance of performing better than colleagues from low socio-economic status. The researcher therefore recommend amongst others that the government, schools and parents should encourage the children, provide conducive environment and the necessary school facilities and materials for teaching and learning to take place. The government should also aid the poor by helping them to bridge the gap between the privileged and the less privileged children. Read More »

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Satire as a Tool for Social Intercession in Wole Soyinka

Satire as a Tool for Social Intercession in Wole Soyinka: A Study of The Trials Of Brother Jero And A Play Of Giants


This research work focuses on the social and political problems confronting African societies with a view to making corrections. Thus, making the modern society a better place to live. Two plays from a popular and seasoned Nigerian writer, “Wole Soyinka” are used to satirize the economic, social and political problems and ills which morally demeaned our society and the community at last, and call for transformation. Here, sociological theory or approach is used. The quota sampling system is also used in this research work, bringing out the religious pretence, moral decline, martial imbalance and corruption palpable a savage, portant of group of dictatorial African leaders at the texts used in this study (research). This research brings out the evil inherent in African socio-political system and call for a change, especially in a society. Read More »

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Resource Provision and Utilization as Correlation of Performance in Economics

Resource Provision and Utilization as Correlation of Students Performance in Economics in Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE): A Case Study of Some Selected Secondary Schools in Ezza North Local Government Area.


This research work focused on resource provision and utilization as a correlation of students’ performance in (SSCE) A case of some selected secondary schools in Ezza North Local Government Area. Many educational reforms, policies, projects and programmes embarked upon by may administrations in Nigeria within the past decades had not made any noticeable impact on any level of education students’ performance in Senior Secondary Certificate Education has been consistently on the fall many reasons have been added for this, some believe that the resources provided in terms of manpower, buildings, infrastructures health, incentives to personnel were grossly inadequate and not properly utilized. A survey research designed was adopted for the study structured questionnaire was used to gather the required data from the 100 sample size which was randomly selected from the population and the data collected was analysed using simple percentage and mean was used to analyse the research questions. The finding revealed a significant positive relationship between resource provision and utilization and students performance in the final examination. It was also revealed that if resources were provided but not adequately utilized and this makes the students perform poorly. So also, if resources were not provide but we have efficient and effective manpower (teacher, good results will be made. It was therefore, concluded that adequate or lack of resources and under utilization of the available resources and responsible for students poor performance in external examinations Based on these findings, some recommendations were make for equitable and optimal utilization of resources in secondary education programme, that government, parents Teachers Association, philanthropist, old students Association, communities should match educational development with the provision of modern day resources, so that the students can perform better in external examination and suggestions were make made for further studies on this topic.  Read More »

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Prevention of Diarrhoea: Evaluation of Mothers’ Knowledge

Prevention of Diarrhoea: Evaluation of Mothers Knowledge In Igbeagu Izzi, Ebonyi State


A study to assess mothers’ knowledge of prevention of diarrhea diseases was conducted in Igbeagu Izzi, Ebonyi State

A three-staged sampling strategy was used to select 300 respondents. This study showed that 58.3% of the respondents practiced exclusive breast feeding. There were positive associations between mothers’ level of education and introduction of water, occupation and hand washing, and the level of education and the use of IEC on health issues (p < 0.05). IEC was highly effective for feeding practices.

The findings also showed that there was no significant association between occupation of mothers and introduction of water, however, 85.1% of the 121 respondents who served water to their babies before six months were self-employed. Significantly, 60.2% of the respondents were also adult mothers between 26 and 35 years who gave artificial feed to their children.

This study showed that 44.7% and 1.3% of the respondents obtain drinking water from handdug wells and streams respectively. The study also revealed that 79.9% of those who do not wash their hands with soap and water were self-employed and 20.1% were public service employees which shows a positive association between mother’s occupation and hand washing practices. Again, 39.3% of the respondents store water in wide-mouthed pots and buckets and the use of cups which are kept under unhygienic conditions. This can cause contamination. Significantly, there were no clear socio-cultural barriers to the use health information but farming and poverty affect mothers use of health information.

In management of diarrhoea diseases, 26.0% mentioned the use of ORS and drugs; this confirms the WHO/UNICEF Report in 2008 that recommends the combination of ORS and oral zinc supplementation. It is recommended that more health staff should be retrain to manage diarrhoea cases, intensify and broaden its health education and promotion activities. Read More »

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