Urinary Tract Infection Prevalence among Pregnant Women

Urinary Tract Infection Prevalence among Pregnant Women at Antenatal Clinic at Federal Teaching Hospital

ABSTRACT

Pregnancy is the joy of every married woman, but this pregnancy is associated with some physiological changes in the body that subject the woman to some degree of vulnerability and prone to infections especially urinary tract infection. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of knowledge of urinary tract infections among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (FETHAI) in Ebonyi State. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study. The study population comprised of 784 pregnant mothers that attended antenatal clinic from January to August 2012 at Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki. A sample of 265 pregnant mothers were used and random selection were used to reach the respondents in the antenatal clinic. Data for the study were collected through the use of self-structured questionnaire that have been scrutinized and validated by the project supervisor. Data collected were analyzed with the use of frequency distribution tables and percentages. The major findings revealed that 184 (71%) of the respondents had knowledge of urinary tract infection which refers to any infection that affect the urinary tract like the kidney, bladder, urethra and others. Majority 236(91%) are not knowledgeable of the signs and symptoms of urinary tract infections. Also 228(88%) do not have knowledge about the predisposing factors of urinary tract infections and 230(89%) do not know the preventive measure of urinary tract infections. Also, the factor responsible for urinary tract infections among these pregnant women was poor hygienic practices. Based on this findings, the midwives should always give health talk to pregnant women on urinary tract infections so as to lower its occurrence among pregnant women and in the society at large. Read More »

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Knowledge and Practice of Malaria Prevention among Pregnant Women

Knowledge and Practice of Malaria Prevention among Pregnant Women in Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Ebonyi State

ABSTRACT

The study assessed the knowledge and practice of malaria prevention among pregnant women in Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki of Ebonyi State. Three objectives guided the study which includes: to ascertain the level of knowledge of pregnant women about the causes of malaria, to determine the malaria preventive methods mostly practiced by the mother and to ascertain the factors that hinder the mothers from adopting the preventive measures in Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki of Ebonyi State. Related literature were reviewed and summarized. A descriptive research designs were used for the study. The study population comprised of 106 pregnant women. 84 pregnant women were selected through systematic sampling technique. A self-structured questionnaire validated by the project supervisor is the only instrument used for data collection. Data collected were analyzed with the use of frequency distribution tables and charts. The result of the study shows that the pregnant women have high level of knowledge about the causes of malaria, 72(86%) said the use of drugs is the method majorly put in practice and 62(74%) said they don’t remember to take the anti-malarial drugs and next 52(62%) said the insecticide treated nets is not readily available. Based on the findings, it was recommended that Adequate health education should be given to the pregnant mothers and nursing mothers on the importance of malaria prevention to them and their children and also compliance to their anti-malarial prophylactic drugs. Read More »

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Effect Of Bap Concentration On Macropropagation Of Two Plantain Cultivars

Effect Of Bap Concentration On Macropropagation Of Two Plantain Cultivars

CHAPTER ONE

1.0      INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Plantains (Musa spp) belonging to the family Musaceae are the most ancient food plants having being used all over the world and make a major contribution towards the world’s total food production (FAO, 1987).The fruits are highly nutritious, contain large amounts of carbohydrates and minerals such as Phosphorous, Calcium and Potassium as well as Vitamins A and C and significant amount of several other Vitamins (INIBAP, 1987). Plantains originated from South East Asia, a region considered as the primary center of diversification of the crop and where the earliest domestication occurred (Simmonds, 1962). Read More »

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Analysis of Borehole Water in Nigeria Universities

Analysis of Borehole Water From Presco And Cas Campuses Of Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki

ABSTRACT

Public water supplies require periodic monitoring especially underground water such as boreholes so as to continuously monitor their quality status. In view of the above three boreholes located within PRESCO campus and one borehole located in CAS campus of Ebonyi State University which serves as the major public water supply in the two campuses were analyzed for selected physicochemical properties using standard methods. The concentration of six heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) was evaluated using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-7000). Results obtained showed that the mean values of temperature varied between 27.5 to 27.9 oC, pH (6.80 – 6.93), DO (6.24 – 8.14 mg/L), conductivity (401 – 783 μs/cm) and total dissolved solids (192.5 – 382 mg/L) and salinity (0.19-0.38 mg/L). Mean concentrations of Cr and Pb were not found in any of the water samples while copper (Cu) was only found in P1 (0.667 mg/l), Mn was found only in C1 (0.2917 mg/l), Ni was found in samples P1 (0.2051 mg/l) and P2 (0.1026 mg/l) while Zn was found in C1, P2 and P3 in the range of 0.0087, 0.0057 and 0.0346 mg/l respectively. Apart from Mn and Ni which occurred in higher values above the WHO recommended limits, other physicochemical properties examined compared favourably with the WHO guideline values for drinking water. This indicated that the water samples obtained from these borehole water supplies were minimally contaminated by heavy metals. Read More »

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Extraction and Characterization Tetrapleura Tetraptera Oil (Aiden Seeds)

Extraction and Characterisation Tetrapleura Tetraptera Oil (Aiden Seeds)

ABSTRACT

Extraction and characterization of oil from aiden seeds have been studied. The physicochemical parameters of the extracted oil were determined by standard methods of analysis. In this study, the extraction and characterization of oil from aiden seeds was carried out. The oil from the aiden seeds was extracted through solvent extraction using n-hexane as a solvent after grinding the seeds. Results of the findings showed that the extracted oil has a free fatty acid of 0.0617 ± 0.0079 mg KOH/g, saponifaction value of 182.325 ± 27.768 mg HOH/g, specific gravity at 30 0C of 0.914 ± 0.000 g/cm3, acid value of 0.1234 ± 0. 0160 mg KOH/g, lodine value of 5.15 ± 0.2121 mg lodine/100g, flash point of 106.50 ± 2. 1213 0C, density of 0.9003 ± 0.0035 g/cm3, pour point of 5.50 ± 0.000 0C, cloud point of 8.00 ± 0.000 0C, fire point 112.5 ± 3.5355 0C, free sulphur of 0.576 ± 0.000 g/L and total sulphur of 4.60 ± 0.000 g/L. the observable proprieties such as high saponification value shows that the oil could best be used in cosmetics and soap industries. Read More »

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Phytoremediation of Lead and Zinc Contaminated Soils

Phytoremediation of Lead and Zinc Contaminated Soils

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1        Background of study

Phytoremediation: Since the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, mankind has been introducing numerous hazardous compounds into the environment at an exponential rate. Nigeria  is  a  major  producer  and  exporter  of  crude  petroleum  oil  as  well  as  an  important  agricultural  nation  in  the West  African  sub-region  (  et  al,2005). The  country’s  population  is  increasing  geometrically;  industrial areas  and  many  urban  cities  are  also  expanding  rapidly.

The  continuous exploration, processing  of  crude  oil  and  its transportation  (Agbogidi  et  al,2007),industrial/agricultural  production  amidst  the  absence  of  a  proper  and legitimate waste disposal system (Ikhuoria et al, 2010) may cause the soil to be contaminated.Contaminated soils  pose  a  major  environmental  and human health problem,  which  may  be  partially  solved  by  the  emerging  phytoremediation technology. Phytoremediation involves  raising  of  plants  hydroponically  and transplanting  them into  metal-polluted soil  and water  where  plants  absorb and concentrate  the  metals  in their  roots  and  shoots. As  they  become saturated with the  metal  contaminants, roots  or  whole  plants  are  harvested for  disposal. Most  researchers  believe  that  plants  for  phytoremediation should accumulate metals only in the roots(Salt  et  al.,1997). Read More »

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Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Sachet Water Samples Consumed in Nigeria

Assessment of Levels of Selected Heavy Metals in Sachet Water Samples Consumed in Nigeria- Case of Abakaliki, Ebonyi State

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

Unavailability of good quality drinking water is wide spread and this has serious health implications. In developing nations of the world, 80 % of all diseases and over 30% of deaths are related to drinking water (Dada and Ntukekpo, 1997). According to Federal Ministry of Health statistics, only about 30 % of Nigerians have access to portable water while the United Nations estimated that about 1.2 billion people all over the world lack access to portable water (Oyeku et al., 2001; Ajewole, 2005).

Water is said to be portable when its physical, chemical and microbiological qualities conform to specified standards. To achieve such standards, raw water is subjected to purification processes that range from simple long-term storage to enable sedimentation of some suspended solids to aeration, coagulation, flocculation, filtration and disinfection among other treatments (Ajewole, 2005). Sources of water are many and varied, the levels of contamination also vary, and consequently a high degree of public health hazard can be associated with drinking water. The implication therefore, is that any drinking water sold to the public must be made wholesomely and must meet WHO standards (Oyeku et al., 2001). Read More »

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Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activities on Dialuim Guineense (Velvet Tamarind)

Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activities on Dialuim Guineense (Velvet Tamarind)

 ABSTRACT

Extraction of the constituents of dialuim guineense was done by batch method using ethanol. The removed mark was screened and indicated the presence of alkaloid, saponin, flavniod and terpenes. The screening for phenol or phenolic compound was negative. The layer chromatrography carried out on this marl in benzene- ethanol- aluminium hydroxide (9:9:1) gave Rf values of 0.35 and 0.28; in butanol-glacial acetic acid (5:1:4) 0.73 and 0.73 and also in ethylacetate-methanol-water (4:5:4). The antibacterial susceptibility tests on gram positive and gram negative bacteria showed great sensitivity on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa but no potency against Streptococcus faecalis and Klbsiella pneumonia with values ranging from 12-19mm.The ultraviolet-visible (uv/vis) spectrum showed absorption in the ultraviolent region while the infrared spectrum showed bands and stretches at 3790.28mm for OH, bands and stretches at.2917.92mm for =C-H, and stretches at 2153.64 for CC and other characteristic finger prints. Read More »

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Extraction and Determination of Vitamin C in Four Commonly Consumed Fruit

Extraction and Determination of Vitamin C in Four Commonly Consumed Fruit

ABSTRACT

Vitamin C is an important water soluble vitamin required for healthy and active life. The extraction and determination of Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of some fruits namely orange, lemon, cucumber and water melon, bought from local market were studied. The ascorbic acid content was determined by volumetric method. Vitamin C content was high in orange, pineapple, and water melon and low in cucumber. The vitamin compositions showed 9.33, 7.40, 5.73 and 3.35 mg/100g sample of oranges, pineapple, water melon and cucumber fruit respectively. Hence consumption of these fruits with high vitamin C content is highly recommended since this vitamin is very essential and plays important role in biochemical metabolism and normal function as well as healthy growth of humans and cannot be synthesized by humans. Read More »

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Mineral Composition of Ripe and Unripe Plantain and Banana Peels

Selected Mineral Composition of Ripe and Unripe Plantain and Banana Peels

ABSTRACT

Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and banana (Musa balbisiana) are a major staple food in the tropics. Their peels are the major by-product of plantain and banana fruits. The assay of the concentrations of Ca, Fe and K in the peels of these plants was studied using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS), after the wet digestion was carried out while P was determined using ultra-violet spectrophotometer. Mineral analysis of these peels showed that unripe plantain peel (UPP) had the highest value of Ca (0.23mg/g), K (0.47mg/g), P (0.06mg/g), and Fe (2.61mg/g), than the other varieties of the peel. Also, the results showed that the ripe banana peel had the least value of Ca (0.11), K (0.25), Fe (0.36) and P (0.03) than the other varieties of these peels. This shows that at different developmental and ripening stages of these fruits, there is a difference in their mineral compositions which also has nutritional values and can also be useful in the processing of other food products or conversion to other useful products such as composite manure or livestock feed. Read More »

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