Nigeria’s Foreign Policy under Tafawa Balewa in the First Republic

Nigeria’s Foreign Policy under Tafawa Balewa in the First Republic 1960-1967

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

          The history of Nigeria foreign policy since 1960 has constantly been changing, though the principles guiding its foreign relations remain the same1. Nigeria leaders are largely responsible for these unstable external relations. Since Nigeria’s foreign policy is deeply rooted in Africa with strategic emphasis on political and economic cooperation, peaceful dispute resolution, and global nonalignment2. Nigerian leaders also have their attentions fixed on the successful implementation of these principles. However, the influence of personality on Nigeria’s relations with other countries cannot be totally ignored as different leaders adopt different styles in conducting external relations.

Examining the personality of the leader both at the theoretical and practical level is therefore important in understanding Nigeria’s foreign. Again, analyses of Nigeria’s foreign policy show that her leaders operate within four “concentric circles” of national interest. The innermost circle represents Nigeria’s own security, independence and prosperity and is centered on its immediate neighbours. Benin, Cameroon, Chad, and Niger: the second circle revolves around Nigeria’s relations with its West African neighbours, the third circle focuses on continental African issues of peace, development and democratization, and the forth circle involves Nigeria’s relations with organizations, institutions and states outside Africa3. With this in mind, each Nigerian head of state or president work to ensure that no single part is defected in pursuing the country’s foreign policy. Evidence abound on how past Nigerian head of state or president have worked within these four concentric circles. Read More »

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Morphological Characteristics of Honey Bees

Morphological Characteristics of Honey Bees in Izzi Local Government, Ebonyi State.

ABSTRACT

Honey bees are flying insects known for their role in honey production and pollination of flowers. Their morphology characteristics have been used in several quarters to identify honey bee species. Honey bees morphology shows divers functions in different bee species in relation to honey production. Honey bee samples were collected from three (3) selected bee hive in Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Twenty five (25) honey bees’ consisting of workers and drones were collected from each colony using bee equipments. The samples were preserved using ethanol. The bees were categorized into colonies according to their days of collection; day 1: colony A, day 2: colony B and day 3: colony C. Colony A comprising of ten (10) samples having five (5) worker bees and five (5) drone bees, colony B, having five (5) worker bees only and colony C having 10 samples, comprising of five (5) workers and five (5) drones. The morph-metric characters were analyzed, observed and viewed under the microscope with the aid of an ocular lens and measured with an ocular micrometer. The observed mean of forewing length, forewing width, hindwing length, hind wing width, femur, tibia and basitarsus length and width of the forelegs, middle legs and hind legs shows variation of their morphology. The result also shows that drone bees are larger in all their morphological characters compared to the worker honey bees, but the worker honey bees are more prevalent in Izzi region compared to the drones. Read More »

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Mineral Composition of Mangifera Indica Fruit Peel Eextract

Mineral Composition of Mangifera Indica Fruit Peel Eextract

ABSTRACT

The peels of Mangifera indica fruit have been used for centuries in health and medicine as a remedy for various diseases such as cancer, heartburns and liver diseases. Though the peels are being consumed daily along with the fruit little is known about the mineral composition. The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of Mangifera indica fruit peel. The mineral analysis was carried out using flame photometry method for sodium and potassium. The analysis of copper, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc was carried out using standard procedures. The mineral analysis in mg/100g showed thatMangifera indica fruit peel contained Na, 0.35 ± 0.00; K, 0.19 ± 0.00; its Fe content (2.72 ± 0.00) is higher compared to other minerals contained in it while its Pb content(0.06 ± 0.00) is lower than all other minerals contained in it. The zinc (Zn) content of Mangifera indica is 1.35 ± 0.00 which is also higher than other minerals present in it though lesser than the iron content. The mineral analysis in mg/100g of Mangifera indica fruit peel also revealed the presence of phophorus (P) with the value of 0.39 ± 0.00; Ca, 0.26 ± 0.00; Mg, 0.39 ± 0.20; Cu, 0.14 ± 0.00,Zn, 1.35 ± 0.00. The result of the study indicated that Mangifera indica fruit peel is a potential source of minerals (micro and macro minerals) and could serve both health and medicinal purposes. Read More »

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Microbiological Examination of Spoiled Tomatoes

Microbiological Examination of Spoiled Tomatoes

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 Spoilage of tomatoes is defined as those adverse changes in quality of tomatoes, which are brought about by action of predominantly biological factors and physical factors. These changes may include: change in the taste, smell and appearance or texture of the tomatoes fruits (Hooker, 1967).

The importance of tomatoes in food industries and its nutritional importance cannot be over emphasized, and the need for microbiological examination of tomatoes is very importance as it contributes to a large extent to economic development.

1.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

  • To isolate the micro-organism
  • To enumerate the micro-organism
  • To characterize the micro-organism involved in spoilage of tomatoes
  • Enlighten the populace on the danger of consuming spoiled tomatoes.

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Language and Culture in Contact a Study of the Influence of English

Language and Culture in Contact a Study of the Influence of English Language on Ikwo Dialect Names

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

       The question relating to the origin of language has posed a lot of problems and appears to have split scholars in different groups, language is a universal phenomenon, almost every factor of human endeavour finds its existence and expression on the use of language, Ndukwe (1984) believes that the existence of language is assumed to be dependent on the social possibilities of its depend on the nature and quality of these possibilities.

The world is blessed with many languages. Although these languages are distinct in their structural patterns, language contact often results in language influence on one another. This is because no language exist in isolation, there is always a cross fertilization between one language and another. In this process, certain elements in one language are either partly or wholly transferred into another language thereby influencing the linguistic pattern of that particular language. This phenomenon is called linguistic interference in code switching (Smith 1974). Read More »

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Influence of Sales Promotion in Stimulating Performance

Influence of Sales Promotion in Stimulating Performance in the Consumer Goods Market (A Study of Unilever Nigeria Plc Lagos)

ABSTRACT

In this study, a critical research has been done on Influence of Sales Promotion Stimulating Performance in Consumer Goods Market, A Study of Unilever Nigeria Plc. In chapter one, the researcher setout to make postulation on the influence of sales promotion on consumers goods market, and to determine the extent that sales promotion induces variations in consumers’ purchase, and how to identify some relevant ethical problems associated with consumer sales promotion. Chapters two discussions sales promotion in a broad dimension supported by discussion in other literature on sales promotion-the tools of sales promotion, type and more particularly, like coupons, sampling sweepstakes/ contest, premium and competition. The focus of the chapter is also sharp on the various importance of sales promotion, and the effect of sales promotion in consumer goods market. To solve the research problem, both primary and secondary data were collected. The instruments used in collecting the data were questionnaire, oral interview. The respondents were based on both management and staff of marketing and sales department of Unilever Nigeria plc. In organizing and presenting data collected, tables, frequencies and percentages were used. The data are collected, analyzed and presented in charter four with the presentation of tables. Here, discoveries are made as to determine the extent that sales promotion induces variation in consumers particularly in switching to other brands is only temporary and for most companies the sales promotion are unethically carried out. The study recommended the management and staff of marketing and sales department. The following recommendation is emerged from the result of the respondent that management of marketing and sales department of Unilever Nigeria Plc should continually employ better sales promotional strategies that can induce consumer purchase It is also recommended that the management of marketing and sales department should be mindful of such environmental factors as competition in industry such as price, packaging, legal provision and consumer habitual purchase decision which are of importance in application of sales promotion as a marketing strategy that may hinder the influence of sales promotion. Read More »

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Improving Personal Income Tax Administration in Nigeria

Improving Personal Income Tax Administration in Nigeria: A Study of Board of Internal Revenue Service, Ebonyi State

ABSTRACT

This research is focused on Improving Personal Income Tax administration In Nigeria, a study of the Board of Internal Revenue service Ebonyi State with the aim of finding a possible solution to the outlined problems of this study. To carry out this study, survey research design was used and data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. The data collection method includes; self administration of questionnaires, while references were made to lecture notes, libraries and the internet. The population for the study is restricted to; Special Assessment Unit (SAU), Tax Collector (TC) office, Tax officials having sub-offices in the boards from the LGs in Ebonyi state, Collectors unit, PAYE unit and the Statistics unit, in all, having a total of 51 and, due to the small population, 51 was chosen as the sample size. A sample of 51 questionnaires were distributed and same was retrieved representing 100% of the entire population. The data were analyzed using contingency tables and simple percentage method. The hypothesis were tested using Chi-square and it was found out that; there are competent and qualified staff in the Board of Internal Revenue to administer Personal Income Tax on the taxpayers; the tax administration policies in Ebonyi State do not contribute in tax evasion and avoidance among the taxpayers, and; that education plays an important role in the tax compliance decision of the taxpayer. The researcher recommends that, revenue staff should be adequately remunerated so as to attract competent personnel, reduce dishonesty and improve staff morale; government at all levels should assist in changing taxpayer attitude towards the tax system by being transparent and accountable in appearance and fact, and; town hall meetings with taxpayers, management (for staff), taxpayer education, request for stakeholders input and participation should be made a permanent culture of the Internal Revenue Service.   Read More »

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Improving Data Rate in Mobile Wireless System

Improving Data Rate in Mobile Wireless System

A B S T R A C T

Wireless communication systems require high transmission speed, improvement in spectral efficiency, and increasing speed and robustness. This report describes and quantifies the economic and technical challenges associated with deepening wireless networks to meet this growing demand. Methods of capacity expansion divide into three general categories: the deployment of more radio spectrum; more intensive geographic reuse of spectrum; and increasing the throughput capacity of each MHz of spectrum within a given geographic area. The paper describes these several basic methods to deepen mobile wireless capacity. It goes on to measure the contribution of each of these methods to historical capacity growth within mobile networks. The paper then describes the capabilities of 4GLTE wireless technology, and further innovations off of it, to further improve network capacity. These capacity expansion capabilities of LTE-Advanced along with traditional spectrum reuse are quantified and compared to forecast so future demand to evaluate the ability of networks to match future demand. Without significantly increasing current spectrum allocations by 560MHz over the 2014–2022 periods, the presented model suggests that wireless capacity expansion will be inadequate to accommodate expected demand growth. Read More »

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Impact of Work-Family Conflict on Psychological Health

Impact of Work-Family Conflict (Marital-Job) Responsibilities on Psychological Health of Bank Workers in Abakaliki Urban

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

          Work-family conflict is considered to be an important issue in today’s business world (Burke and El-kot, 2010; Grandey, Cordeino, and Crouter, 2005). In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the conflict between work and family life conflict and recent studies highlight the conflict experienced by individuals between their roles in the family and at work, which is covered under the heading called work-family conflict. While the findings obtained mainly in western countries and the related theories refer to the obvious relationship between work-family conflict (sector, Allen, Poelmans, Lapierre, Cooper and Widerszal-Bazyl, 2007), it is indicated that long working hours, duty and heavy work load have a direct influence on work-family conflict (Boyar, Maertz, Mosley, Mosley, and Carr, 2008; Kim Leong, and Lee, 2005). Thus, it is essential to establish a successful so that several demands in both domains could be met efficiently, and the required resources could be attained and used easily (Bass, Butler, Grzwacy, and Linney, 2008).

In Greenhaus and Boutell’s study, (as cited in Willis, O’Conner, and Smith, (2008), work-family conflict is defined as a consequence of inconsistent demands between the role at work and in the family. In other words, work-family conflict exists when the expectations related to certain role do not meet the requirements of the other role, preventing the efficient performance of that role (Greenhaus, Tammy, and Spector, 2006). Therefore, it could be said that the conflict between work and family domains tends to stem from the conflict between the roles. Several studies reveal that work and family are not two separate domains as they are highly interdependent, having a dynamic relation with one another. While family life is affected by the factors at work, the reverse is also experienced (Trachtenbery, Anderson, and Sabatelli, 2009; Namasivayam and Zhao, 2007). Read More »

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Impact of Public Expenditure on Economic Growth

Impact of Public Expenditure on Economic Growth in Nigeria (2000-2015):  (A Study of Federal Ministry of Works)

ABSTRACT

This study is an attempt to assess the Impact of Public Expenditure on Economic Growth in Nigeria and to ascertain whether there is a relationship between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and government expenditure in Nigeria. It covers the period of 2000-2015 and ordinary least square method of econometric analysis was used. The econometric analysis indicates that although there is a positive relationship between dependent and independent variable, the adjustment of economic growth or Gross Domestic Product was a fair one which made it difficult to reject the null hypothesis. The policy implication of the above scenario is that government over the year appears to be bad managers of resources and have failed to play their role in the process of economic growth and development. The study recommended an urgent need to instill fiscal discipline in government expenditure by initiating far reaching effective internal control measure as well as discouraging all non-productive activities and expenditure in all tiers of government forthwith. Also both the federal government and Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) should be more articulate in managing the exchange rate effectively to achieve her macroeconomic objective. This will stimulate investment surplus thus raising output and enhancing the standard of living of Nigeria. Read More »

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