Man in a Sciento-Technological Era

The Fate of Man in a Sciento-Technological Era (A Philosophical Examination Of The Ideas Of Alexander Denis)

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Mechanisms and Meaning

In the chapter two of his book ‘Beyond Science’, Alexander Denis alludes that science and its application can in no way say all about (man) human life and nature at large. The mechanistic claim of Galileo that the sun rotates round the earth was refuted when it was discovered that the reverse was the case. Alexander is well convinced that the application of science is mechanical and so is built under a shaky foundation. In other words, the application of science and technology cannot be equalled to the meaning derivable from human life and nature in its entirety. Science and technology cannot really say all about human life. Read More »

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Justice In John Rawls: Nigerian Democracy

Justice In John Rawls Vis-À-Vis Nigerian Democracy

CHAPTER TWO

CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS

2.1     GENERAL NOTION OF JUSTICE

It is obvious that the idea of justice lies at the heart of moral and political philosophy from time immemorial. Indeed, it is a cardinal virtue that regulates individuals in their relationship with others. Infect, it a principal virtue of social organisation. Traditionally, justice is defined by the Latin tag, suum cuique tribuere, which means “to allocate to each his own.”1 St. Thomas Aquinas, being a natural law theorist sees justice, as “the virtue which observes the right of all. Justice keeps its character as an individual virtue seeking the particular good of each man in relation with all others.”2 In line of these thoughts, Rawls defines justice as “the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of systems of thought. For this reason justice denies that the loss of freedom for some is made right by a greater good shared by others.”3 Read More »

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MAN IN ARISTOTLE: THE BASIS OF MAN’S LIFE CRISIS

THE PLACE OF MAN IN ARISTOTLE: THE BASIS OF MAN’S LIFE CRISIS (An Evaluative Rediscovery)

CHAPTER TWO

DESCRIPTION OF MAN

          2.1           Aristotle’s Notion of Man

Received in an atmosphere of natural science, Aristotle felt the urge to unify the masses of data that he encountered in course of his education. Hence, he had recourse to naturalism in his attempt to understand man. In his approach to human nature, Aristotle proceeded with biology. As it were, he moved from what human beings commonly share with other beings, plants and animals alike in terms of nutrition and sensation and arrives at the defining mark of man-(reason).24                                                                    Read More »

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Golden Mean: Critic of Aristotle

How to Be Happy:  A Critical Evaluation of Aristotle’s “Golden Mean

CHAPTER TWO

 2.0     NATURE OF HAPPINESS

2.1     POPULAR NOTION OF HAPPINESS

Happiness means different things for different people. When someone says, “I am happy,” he leaves people with the task of trying actually to determine what he really means. However, what popularly comes to mind immediately is that perhaps the person is feeling some kind of satisfaction and comfort; he is fulfilled and not really “lacking” anything. Some would see him as being lucky, swimming in affluence or has access to a large quantity of assets. Consequently, we tend to attach happiness to an individual whom we see smile, laugh, and dance, drink profusely or obtain a certain profession. In other words, we generally term as happy, anyone that bears a cheerful outlook, is wealthy, or holds a respectable office and things like that. It is widely believed that good tidings always come the way of these people. Read More »

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Freedom in Jean Paul Sartre

Notion of Freedom in Jean Paul Sartre

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     GENERAL NOTION OF FREEDOM

2.1     DEFINITION OF THE TERM FREEDOM

          By very nature of the term freedom, it possesses many different meanings. It can refer simply to the absence of physical or social restraints. This simply means, those areas or activities within which a man can act unobstructed by others or external force. Freedom can equally be regarded as that capacity or faculty whereby individuals are left to form their own lives through their choices. Read More »

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Change and Permanence in Aristotle

Notion of Change and Permanence in Aristotle

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       EXPLICATION OF TERMS CUM HISTORICAL

       PERSPECTIVES AMONG ANCIENT PHILOSOPHERS

 For a profound internalization of this paper we shall start-off by making clear what we mean by the two key terms that make up our title.

 2.1 REALITY AND NATURE OF CHANGE   

From the etymological perspective, change is derived from Latin term ‘mutalia’ that connotes ‘to become something else’ or ‘to pass from one state to another’. A common idea about change therefore is that it involves shifting of place or position.  According to the New Webster Dictionary of English language “change is the alteration, exchange of things for another, the passing from one form to another.”[1]  Lottie, K., defined change as “the process by which things become different from what they were.”[2] Read More »

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Individual and State In Aristotle

Individual and State In Aristotle In Relation To Promotion of Human Rights in Nigeria

CHAPTER ONE:     INTRODUCTION

1.1 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

Man establishes the state in order to meet his needs. In other words, the individuals are prior to the state, and the state cannot exit outside the individuals. Hence, the individuals and the state are dialectically related. Again Nigeria as a state has a dialectical relationship with the citizens. To this end, any policy in Nigeria, for instance be it economics, social or political policies made by those who pilot the affairs of the state ought to be directed towards insuring the satisfaction of the needs of the individuals or the citizens. The constant tension between the sate in Nigeria and her citizens is often brought about by inability of the state to live up to such essential responsibilities towards the individuals. The consequence of such neglect in Nigeria is better experienced than described. Read More »

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Existentialism: I – Thou Relationship in Gabriel Marcel

I – Thou Relationship in Gabriel Marcel: An Existentialist Analysis

 CHAPTER TWO

 2.0 MARCEL’S SIGNIFICANT I-THOU

2.1     EXISTENTIALIST’S APPROACH TO I-THOU.

Existentialism has appeared as a philosophical reaction against the scientific humanism that prevailed in the early part of the nineteenth century.1 One could be correct not to call it a philosophy, but a type of philosophy.  It is so flexible that it appeared widely in differing forms, such as the atheism of Sartre, the Catholicism of Marcel, the Protestantism of Kierkegaard, the Judaism of Buber and the orthodoxy of Berdgaeu.2  The term “Existentialism” is more often used as a general name for a number of thinkers in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries who made the concrete individual central to their thought.  Just for this confidence, Omoregbe titled existentialism, ‘the most influential philosophical movement in this century’3 and suggest that it is better to describe it as a movement rather then as a school.  In a broader sense, it arose as a backlash against philosophy; such a relational critique on traditional philosophy that exalts the individual by concentrating on the profundity and potentialities of human action and dynamism.  Hegel’s abstractions and absolute idealism accord no importance to the individual man and the concrete realities of existence.  Thus, the existentialists made the individual man and his life experience, the central point of their philosophy in order to bring philosophy down to earth and make it bear on concrete human experiences. Read More »

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Common Good and the Nigeria Police

The Nigeria Police and Mockery of Common Good (A Critical Investigation)

CHAPTER TWO

  1. O COMMON GOOD

A consideration of the idea of common good stirs-up the question: why are civil societies formed? It is of this question that J. Omoregbe holds that the society does not just exist only to cater for the egoistic interest of a few unscrupulous and greedy individuals; rather it exists to ensure that every member of society gets a fair share of the goods which belong to all.1

There is, in the society, co-operation by all members for the realization of societal existential ends or mutual completion. The common good could be seen as a good that is of general welfare, collective and distributive. It is in line with this that A. Gonsalves avers: Read More »

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Addiction and Freedom in Gerald G. May

Notion Addiction and Freedom in Gerald G. May

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW

Having introduced the topic of our discussion in this long – essay and outlined the modus operandi the researcher wishes to apply, it is now time for us to try to present how other philosophies through the ages viewed freedom as a philosophical topic.

 2.1            Ancient Period:

In the opinion of philosophers like Mondin, “the problem of freedom did not receive a meaningful attention in this era”6, because they were concerned with finding the foundations of the cosmos. J.B. Akam also thinks along this line when he wrote, that ‘‘among the ancient philosophers, from the pre- Socratics to Plotinus, none gave freedom the attention it deserved’’.7. He maintained all the same that Aristotle had a coined word which has a close meaning to the notion of some mental state that must precede action. This word “Pro – airesis’’ which means the choice between two possibilities or rather the preference that makes me choose an action instead of another”8. Also some of the concepts that could be sieved out in their discourses made an allusion to what is to be the bone of contention about freedom, among the philosophers. Mondin outlined “three principal reasons why Greek thought was not able to effectuate a satisfying enquiry into the problem of freedom”9. Read More »

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