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  1.0  Introduction

:  The importance of omega-3 fatty acids in health promotion and disease prevention cannot be over stated. The three most nutritional important Omega-3 fatty acids are alpha linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). One key reason as to why Omega-3 fish oil has such a powerful effect on fat and carbohydrate metabolism is that insulin levels secretions can be changes by fish oil or Omega-3 PUFAS thereof (Sundar et al; 2003) protein effect of fish oil intake on the development of insulin resistance has been reported in prospective epidermological studies (Fesken et al; 1995) Consequently it has been observed that diabetes and it complications are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the U.S and contribute substantially to health care cost (Centre of disease control and prevention 2008). Therefore diabetes is a disease of carbohydrate metabolism whose hallmark is high blood sugar. Diabetes mellitus is thus defined as a group of metabolic disorder characterized by elevation of blood glucose concentration and is associated with increased prevalence of macrovascular complications. TYPE-1- Diabetes mellitus reflects lacks of insulin the hormone that controls blood sugar; This result from cellular mediated autoimmune destruction of pancreatic B-cells of islets of Langerhans and results in loss of insulin production (Shivananda et al; 2005). Therefore damage to pancreatic B-cells due to the release of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) and interlenkin-1(IL-1) produced by infiltrating macrophages, lymphocytes, and monocyte leads to the development of type-1 diabetes mellitus (DM) (Dunger et al; 1996). In type-2 diabetes, which is much more common than type-1, insulin is present, but it’s functions improperly, as a result blood sugar level rises. Physiology data shows that peripheral insulin resistance and pancreatic B-cells dysfunctions are precursors and key determinants of type -2 diabetes (Lillioja et al; 1993). The factors associated to development of diabetes is changes in sex steroids hormones levels are strongly associated with diabetes and this may negatively impart sexual function (Kim, 2009). Data from center of disease control and prevention have shown that older age, family history and obesity are strong and consistent determinants of type-2 diabetes (Haffner et al; 1991) it has also been observed that in diabetes VLDL levels are markedly increased, thereby increasing the like hood of heart disease, as a result both sugar and fatty acid levels in blood rise. The pancreas makes more insulin in an effort to clear the blood sugar. The liver takes up the fatty acids and returns them to the blood as fat hitched to proteins. As diabetes progresses, the pancreas loses its ability to produce insulin, this leads to deterioration in other tissues and the development of circulatory problems, hypertension, kidney disease, impaired regulation of blood clothing, retinopathy and above all heart disease. Therefore, eating fatty fish regularly is an important strategy to improve health in diabetes. On the other hand, the role of Omega-3 fatty acids in decreasing cholesterol and triglycerides level has been proven (Dorfman et al-, 2005). However, studies on the effect of fish oil on blood glucose and lipid metabolism in diabetes are varied. But, further researches are needed to understand regulative effect of fish oil on blood glucose, especially in diabetic animals.


This project is designed to ascertain the effect of Omega-3 fatty acids on blood glucose and total cholesterol in diabetes and hence improvement in diagnosis and management of diabetes and it’s complications. These changes will be ascertain by using fully automated method which involves the use of standard enzymatic and chemical methods to determine blood glucose and total cholesterol levels, in albino rats.



Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high sugar either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced (Dolories et al; 2011). This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increase thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).


Diabetes mellitus is classified into four board categories. Type-1, type-2, gestational diabetes and other specific types (Dolories et al; 2011)


Type-1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing beta cells of the islets of langerhans in the pancreas, leading to insulin deficiency. The term type-1 diabetes has replaced several former terms, including childhood-onset diabetes, Juvenile diabetes and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)

This type can be further classified as immune mediated or idiopathic. Majority of type-1 diabetes is of the immune-mediated nature, in which beta cell loss is a T-cell mediated autoimmune attack. (Rother, 2007.). Most affected people are otherwise healthy and of a healthy weight when onset occurs, sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are usually normal, especially in the early stages. There are accompanied by irregular and unpredictable hyperglycemias, frequently with ketosis, and sometimes serious hypoglycemais, including an impaired counter regulatory response to hypoglycemia, occult infection, gastroparesis (which leads to erratic absorption of dietary carbohydrate) and endocrinopathies (e.g Addison’s disease) (Merck, 2010). There is no known preventive measures against type 1 diabetes, which cause approximately 10% of diabetes mellitus cases in North America and Europe.


The term type-2 diabetes has replaced several former terms, including adult onset diabetes, obesity –related diabetes, and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. (NIDDM).

Type-2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance, which may be combined with relatively reduced insulin section (Shoback et al; 2011). The defective responsiveness of body tissues to insulin is believed to involve the insulin receptor. However, the specific defects are not known. Type-2 diabetes is the most common type. In the early stage of type-2, the predominant abnormality is reduced insulin sensitivity. At this stage, hyperglycemia can be reversed by a variety of measures and medications that improve insulin sensitivity or reduce glucose production by the liver.


Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) resembles type 2 diabetes in several respects, involving a combination of relatively inadequate insulin secretion and responsiveness. It occurs in about 2%-5% of all pregnancies and may improve or disappear after delivery. Gestational diabetes is fully treatable, but requires careful medical supervision throughout the pregnancy. About 20%-50% of affected women develop type-2 diabetes later in life.

Untreated gestational diabetes, though may be transient can cause damage to the health of the foetus or mother. Risks to babe include macrosomia (high birth weight), congenital cardiac and central Nervous system anomalies, and skeletal muscles malformations. Increased fetal insulin may inhibit fetal surfactant production and cause respiratory distress syndrome. Hyperbilirubinemia may result from red blood cell destruction. In severe cases, parinatal death may occur, most commonly as a result of poor placental perfusion due to vascular impairment. Labour induction may be indicated with decreased placental function. A caesarean section may be performed if there is marked fetal distress or an increased risk of injury associated with macrosomia, such as shoulder dystocia.

A 2008 study completed in U.S found the member of American women entering pregnancy with pre-existing diabetes is increasing. Infact, the rate of diabetes in expectant mother has more than double in the past six years (Lawrence et al; 2008). This is particularly problematic as diabetes raises the risk of complications during pregnancy, as well as increasing the potential for the children of diabetic mother to become diabetic in the future.


  • Pre-diabetes indicate a condition that occurs when a person’s blood glucose level are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of type-2 diabetes mellitus. Many people destined to develop type-2 Diabetes mellitus spend many years in a state of pre-diabetes which has been termed “America’s” largest healthcare epidemic (Handelsman 1999)

Is a condition in which type-1 diabetes mellitus develops in adults. Adults with LADA are frequently initially misdiagnosed as having type-2 diabetes mellitus, based on age rather etiology.

Some cases of diabetes are caused by the body’s tissue receptors not responding to insulin (even when insulin levels are normal, which is what separates it from type-2 diabetes) this forms is very uncommon. Genetic mutations (autosomal or mitochrondrial) can lead to defects in beta cell function. Abnormal insulin action many lead to diabetes (for e.g chronic pancreatitis and cystic fibrosis). Disease associated with excessive secretion of insulin-antagonistic hormones can cause diabetes (which is typically resolved once the hormone excess is removed).

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