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Inhibition Characteristics of Moringa Oleifera on the Corrosion of Mild Steel

Inhibition Characteristics of Moringa Oleifera on the Corrosion of Mild Steel

ABSTRACT

This research work deals with the inhibitive characteristics of Moringa oleifera fruits and leaves extracts in hydrochloric acid solution and sodium hydroxide solution respectively on the corrosion of mild steel.  This was studied using weight loss and polarization techniques. The effect of immersion time, effect of acid and alkaline concentration on the corrosion behavior of mild steel in 1.0 M HCl and 1.0 M NaOH with addition of extracts were deduced. The fruits which were dried and grounded to powder of 10g and the leaves which range from 25cm3 to 100cm3 were used for this study. The corrosion rate was very high in the absence of inhibitors (Moringa oleifera fruits and leaves extracts). The mild steel were cut into coupon averaging a total surface area of 4.262cm2. The sample were weighed and immersed into a beaker containing 1.0 M NaOH with different volumes of moringa leaves and 1.0 M HCl with 10g  dried concentrated powdered moringa fruits with coupons removed every 7days for weight loss measurements till 4weeks. The corrosion rates were found to be decreased by 83% in 1.0 M HCl and 78% in 1.0 M NaOH respectively. Values of inhibition efficiency   (ƞ%) was calculated from weight loss. The results obtained showed that the moringa oleifera fruits and leaves extracts could serve as effective inhibitors on the corrosion of mild steel in HCl and NaOH respectively.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the study

Corrosion is defined as the deterioration of a metal due to its interaction with the environment. Due to corrosion many useful characteristics/properties of a metal such as malleability, ductility, electrical conductivity etc. are lost. Synthetic organic compounds are widely used as corrosion inhibitors for the prevention of corrosion of many metals and mild steel in various aggressive environments. Because of their hazardous nature, researchers focus their attention on developing cheap, non-toxic, biodegradable and environment friendly natural products of plants origin as corrosion inhibitors.  Extracts of plant materials containing nitrogen, oxygen and/or  sulphur atom has been used to control the corrosion of mild steel and other metals in different corrosion medium such as sodium chloride (NaCl), Hydrochloric acid (HCl), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) etc.

There are several reports on the use of different inhibitors to reduce corrosion of different metals, including mild steel in different media. However, there are few reports on the use of Moringa oleifera fruits and leaves extracts as inhibitors on the corrosion of mild steel, thus this research will contributes to knowledge in the area of corrosion of mild steel.

Nonetheless, corrosion being a natural phenomenon has a negative effect on metals. Mild steel which is a very important metal in the manufacturing industry is highly vulnerable to corrosion which has resulted to huge economic losses. This has led to research on the discovery of diverse means of mitigating or completely eliminating this phenomenal occurrence. Among the various means discovered, the use of organic (green) inhibitors is popular in which Moringa oleifera is hereby captured or investigated.

Moringa Oleifera, commonly known as drumstick or horse-radish, which is reach in vegetable oil and high in nutritional values, is used in Asia as a vegetable and medicinal plant. Moringa have a diverse range of medicinal uses as an antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, diuretic, antiulcer, antibacterial, antifungal and its antinociceptive properties, as well as its wound healing ability can prove its economic potentials.

1.2       Statement of the problem

The main problem faced in the cause of this research hinges at unavailability of materials within the University Community.

1.3       Aim/Objectives of the study

The main aim of this research is to investigate the inhibitive characteristics of Moringa Oleifera on corrosion of mild steel using;

  1. Moringa Oleifera friuts extract in acidic medium and
  2. Moringa Oleifera leaves extract in alkaline medium in order to determine;
  3. Whether this extract of Moringa Oleifera can offer good protection against corrosion of mild steel.
  4. Whether this extract of Moringa Oleifera exhibits high inhibition efficiencies.

1.4       Scope of the study

To achieve these, varying volumes of Moringa oleifera leaves will be used as well as the immersion time in both acid and alkaline media.

1.5       Significance of the study

This research is important because;

  1. It will widen the knowledge of researchers on the inhibition efficiencies of Moringa Oleifera fruits and leaves extracts.
  2. It will lead to a drastic reduction on the huge losses caused by corrosion on the mild steel, if Moringa oleifera is put to effective use as being a low cost inhibitor.
  3. Researchers can predict a percentage of inhibition efficiency (ƞ%) with certainty on the good protection against corrosion on mild steel by Moringa oleifera fruits and leaves extracts.
  4. The economic potentials of Moringa oleifera will be unraveled the more by more researches in the cause of verifying the inhibitive efficiencies of Moringa fruits and leaves extracts on corrosion of mild steel.
  5. This work opens an opportunities for more researches and thus adding to existing knowledge.
  6. It is believed that the results obtained and empirical model proposed in this study will help researchers to predict  the characteristics performances of Moringa oleifera on corrosion of mild steel and in general.

1.6       Limitations of the study

In the cause of this work, I was limited by the following factors;

  1. Poor instruments
  2. Poor sensitivity
  3. Limited time frame
  4. Procedural error

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       Review of Related Literature

Morton (1991), Sengupta and Gupta (1970), stated that Moringa oleifera belongs to the moringaceae family and moringa genus, the best known and most widely distributed species. They further stressed that Moringa oleifera possess and edible oil which can be extracted where it is cultivated, by boiling the seeds with water and collecting the oil from the surface of the water. That the seeds contain all the fatty acids contained in olive oil except linoleic and was used as it acceptable substitute.

Tsaknis et al. (1998), made known a few varieties of Moringa oleifera vizly; jaffina, chauaka, cheri moringa, lalas, tsaknis, chem, kadu, palmurungai and periyakulam(pkm). However, lalas and tsaknis is a selection of local types and is propagated only by seed. Seedlings were observed to grow to 4m in height within 12months of field planting and to have flowered and fruits after 6monyhs from sowing while other varieties need from 3 to 4 years and would yield for 3 to 4 years. After 2years the tree matured to 6m tall productive specimens. The seedpods are left to mature and dry naturally on the tree before harvesting.

Shingh et al; (2010) reported on the inhibitive properties of Moringa oleifera fruits extract on the corrosion of mild steel in hydrochloric acid (HCl) and noted that the inhibition was found to increase with increasing concentration of the extracts. The authors also noted that the inhibition occurred through adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the mild steel surface, obeying the Langmur adsorption isotherm in their observation.

According to H. K. Idu, P. A. Nwofe and N. E. Idenyi (2016), the corrosion rate profile against the exposure time for the coupons in the 0.5M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) environment in the absence of the Moringa oleifera and psiduim Quajava leaves extract and with 75cm3 of the Moringa oleifera and Psiduim quajava leaves extract showed that at 0.5 M of sodium hydroxide concentration with different volume (75cm3) of the inhibitor introduced, the decrease in the corrosion penetration rate (CPR) was relatively the same to that when 25cm3  was introduced.

The authors asserted that it could be due to the sparingly marginal difference in the range of the volumes of inhibitor used.

2.2       Main constituents of Moringa oleifera fruits and leaves extracts

The main constituents of the fruits and the leaves extracts of Moringa oleifera are Arginine and 9-octadecenoic acid whose molecular structure are shown in fig. 1.1 and fig. 1.2 respectively.

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