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Local Government Participation in the Administration of Primary Education

Appraisal of Local Government Participation in the Administration of Primary Education in Afikpo Education Zone of Ebonyi State

Abstract

The study investigated the extent of Local Government participation in the administration of primary Education in Afikpo Education Zone of Ebonyi State. The need for this study arose because the Federal Government by Decree 34 of 1991 trusted the management and control of primary education to the Local Government Education Authority. Six research questions were posed and three null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A 36-item structured questionnaire developed by the researcher was used as instrument for data collection. The population of the study consisted of all headteachers and teachers in the 282 primary schools plus the three (3) education secretaries in study areas. Quota sampling was used to get the number of teachers in each of the local government areas in the zone. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the 699 teachers used for the study. Also, 282 headteachers and three (3) education secretaries were included in the sample to give a sample size of 984 respondents. Descriptive survey research design was adopted. The data collected were analyzed with respect to each research question using mean score and standard deviation. The t-test statistic was employed in testing the three null hypotheses formulated for the study at 0.05 level of significance. The analysis of the data showed that the respondents were of the view that the local government education authorities in Afikpo education Zone do not participate meaningfully in funding primary education though they accepted that the councils participate to a great extent in the day-to-day administration of the primary schools. The analysis equally showed that the respondents opined that the local government councils do not participate to any noticeable extent in the provision of facilities in the primary schools, just as the council participates below expectation in the area of staff-personnel administration, supervision and inspection. Based on the findings the study recommended that the three tiers of government should combine to fund primary education to avoid it being abandoned by a particular tier. The researcher pointed out the implications of the findings for policy, practice and further research. There were suggestions for further studies on the problems associated with local government participation in the administration of primary education and the problems associated with inadequate funding of primary education.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Education is the process of imparting knowledge, values and skills to individuals in order to enable them become effective and efficient members of their society. It is generally known that education is the greatest force that can be used to bring about change. It is also the greatest investment that a nation can make for the quick development of its economic, political and human resources. Education is also known to provide its recipients with skills and techniques designed to improve human competencies. It equally raises the level of productivity, creativity, initiative and these qualities are sources of human resource development because educated people are the agents of change in the society (Oguegbune and Anyacho, 1995).

Members of any social group are identified by a shared consciousness of a kind and a common bond of interest and purpose. Such a bond of shared consciousness and interest dictate certain lines of action, one of which is for the survival of the group. Ehusani (2003) stated that education in the broad sense is the entire process of socialization by which men and women learn to adapt to and where necessary conquer their environment, education is seen as .the process of developing the cognitive, affective and psychomotor faculties of individuals in order to equip them with the knowledge and skills necessary to survive and make progress in the human society.

Education has been identified as a dynamic instrument of change, hence, developed and developing countries have adopted it as an instrument par excellence for effecting national development. It is against this backdrop that the Federal Government of Nigeria is committed to the integration of the individual into a sound and effective citizen and in the provision of equal educational opportunities for all citizens of the nation at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels, both inside and outside the formal school system (Imogie, 2000). Nwuzor and Ocho (1985) defined education as a liberating factor on a “person to fulfill good of both the individual and the society. It librates one to reflect and act upon the world with a view to changing it.

Imogie (2000) viewed education as a “catalyst, which paves the way for the realization of people’s aspiration in all facets of life”. This is easily seen in the overall development by people in the society. Imogie (2000) defined education as “a process by which the human elements of a society, young and old are nurtured and how knowledge, skills and desirable quantities of bahviours are taught and learned”. To him education enlightens, enables, enriches and empowers. We should therefore expect an educated person to be full of wisdom, aware of and participate in civil, social, economic, political and educational activities of his or her society, contributing positively to solving societal problems.

Education does not lend itself to easy definition. Depending on whom you ask, the word has different definitions. Any approach cannot make the meaning of education comprehensive enough to satisfy the different concepts and interpretations of education, which change with people, place and time. However, in whatever perspective education is viewed, the word is universally normative. According to Nwuzor and Ocho (1985), education can be seen as a process, a product or a discipline. As a process, it is a continuous act of passing valued knowledge, skills and societal norms to up-coming generations. The beneficiaries of such knowledge, skills and values are educated people (product of education). Disciplines in schools such as philosophy of education, psychology of education are part of education. Ocho (1988:20) presented education as a product when he stated that education could be defined by listing the qualities of an educated man. According to him, an educated man in African society is a properly socialized man, an ideal citizen. He is a man who has good social interrelationship with his community (knows his blood relations and friends and his obligations to them), who is economically viable not too dependent on relations and friends; who contributes positively to community decisions and execution of policies, who obeys and respects the laws of the land, the elders, ancestors and gods, and who is judicious in giving and receiving advice.

Education as a process is also variously defined as the transmission of the accumulated knowledge of the society. Similarly, Okafor (1992:16), expressed that education is the;

process by which every society attempts to preserve and up grade the accumulated knowledge, skills and attributes in the cultural setting and heritage in order to foster continuously the well being of mankind and guarantee its survival against the unpredictable, at times hostile and destructive elements and forces of man and nature.

The common features of the above definition is that education is used synonymously with socialization, embracing in a broad perspective both formal and informal aspects of education. It is seen as the transmission of cultures. Based on this broad perspective, Okafor (1992) stated that education embraces all the experiences of the individual through which knowledge is acquired, the intellect enlightened or the will strengthened. But in a more restrictive sense, Okafor (1992:19) wrote that “education is a process of accumulation through which the individual is helped to attain the development of his potentialities and their maximum activation, when necessary according to right reasoning and to achieve thereby his perfect self-fulfillment.”

Education here is more concerned with the individual innate abilities rather than socialization. There is also recognition of the mental developmental capabilities of beneficiaries of education, which implicitly should be reflected, in the educational curriculum. Also, in a restrictive sense, Plato in Ocho (1988:21) observed that education:

Makes a man eagerly pursue the ideal perfection of citizenship and teaches him how rightly to rule and how to obey. This is the only education which upon our view deserves the name; that other sort of training, which aims at the acquisition of wealth or bodily strength, or mere cleverness apart from intelligence or justice, is mean and illiberal, and is not worthy to be called education at all. But let us not quarrel with one another about a word, provided that the proposition, which has just been granted holds good, to wit that those who are rightly educated generally, become good men.

The two main themes in Plato’s definition or description of education are that education is for character and political training. The objective of which are to produce the good man with the knowledge of statecraft. As Okafor (1992) is concerned with the possibilities inherent in man, Ocho (1988) is concerned with the appropriate direction of such possibilities. The former is individualistic while the latter is communalistic in what educational goals should be. However, both Okafor and Ocho agreed with the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (2005), meaning of education as the process of teaching and learning usually at school. The different approaches made Peters in Okafor (1992), to have referred the process of education to no particular process; rather it encapsulates criteria to which any one of a family of processes must conform. In this respect, it is rather like reform which picks out no processes.

Plato’s emphasis on the good man in education brings to focus the views of Ocho (2005), that morality is the central focus in education and that any education that does not produce upright people is a failure. This observation is equally in line with the views of other philosophers of the old such as Aquinas who maintained that educated people are those whose rational intelligence have been disciplined for the pursuit of moral excellence and whose highest happiness is in the contemplation of the Christian God .

Other schools of thought such as the behaviorists believe that education is largely a means to other end, particularly a means to life’s unlimited objective. Harbinson and Faberland in Ngwu (1990) believed that education is a productive investment, as educated population produce and provide the type of labour necessary for development. Thus they come up with the capital and human development and modernity theories to sustain their points. Accordingly, education to Ngwu is the use of scientific knowledge to create planned man who will be conditioned to behave in the best-calculated manner to achieve societal goals. On this premise, Ngwu concluded that to achieve societal goals and that of the individual, any educational system should have the following components:

  1. Broadly based pre-employment formal education at all levels.
  2. Out of school education and training services through a wide variety of

Programmes, both privately and publicly supported aimed at developing knowledgeable individuals capable of entering and performing the widest possible range of occupations.

This is also the basis of Eliot’s observation in Okafor (1988) that education is the process by which the community seeks to open its life to all individuals within it and enables them to take part in it. From the above definitions, it is obvious that education is a process of transmitting the normative skills, attitudes, and knowledge necessary to make the beneficiaries functional in their environments both for themselves and the entire society. Thus education could be defined-as a process of accumulating right attitudes, knowledge and skills’ that equips the .individual for a productive and purposive life.

As education provides all that the individual and the society needs for growth and development, it is necessary to appraise from time to time, how the values, skills and knowledge offered by education arc universally provided to the individual for the interest of the society. This is why Obi (2000), ‘advised that the implementation of the UBE in Nigeria should be the responsibility of everybody”.

Education, leads to a permanent change in behaviour as a result of learning, consists of all efforts (conscious or incidental) made by a society to accomplish set objectives, which are considered to be desirable in terms of the individual as well as the societal needs. In all human societies, particularly the modern ones, education therefore remains one of the most powerful instruments for both the development of man and transformation of the human society. However, the ability of education to achieve this objective of development depends entirely on the government policies and the political will on the part of the government to translate the policies into meaningful actions. In Nigeria, like other countries in the world, efforts are often made to shape the direction and dimension of the educational system for capacity building through articulated policy. In this study, particular attention is paid to a very recent educational policy of the Nigerian government known as Universal Basic Education, its challenges and what can be done to make the policy achieve its desired objectives.

The importance of education in the world today shows the great premium placed in its expansion and development in all societies. Such premium is the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme in Nigeria (1999), which can be described as an attempt to give meaning to the life and well-being of children of school age. This is in line with Federal Republic of Nigeria. National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004), which stresses that the importance or usefulness of education is based on the integration of the individual into a sound and effective citizenry. From the above, one can deduce that education is an instrument developed by man for the purpose of living and improving on his environment. It can be acquired through teaching or training.

Education in Nigeria dates back to September 1842 with the arrival of Thomas Birch Freeman and Mr and Mrs William De Grant, at Badagry. They started with primary education through Christianity. The primary level of education is one of the stages of formal education. This level of education is expected to lead to further formal learning or lead to the world of work, where learning should normally take place (Obi, 2000).

Primary education is generally recognized as the bedrock of the child’s educational genesis, which all other factors such as success or failure affecting the final academic attainment of the child revolves. The development of primary education in Nigeria was guided by the Ashby recommendations of 1960, which among other things advocated for careful planning, budgeting, co-odination and control in order to ensure a healthy relationship between resource availability and educational expansion. In the eastern region, the main emphasis of the development programme in primary education was on the teacher education (training) with a view to good quality of work in the primary schools.

Primary education is referred to in the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004) as education given in an institution to children aged normally six to eleven years plus since the rest of the education system is built upon it, the primary level is the key to the success or failure of the whole system. Primary education is therefore basic, as it seeks to develop the child’s efficiently, so that he can be useful to himself and to the society. The ugly and vicious cycles of illiteracy, poverty and disease (ignorance) can be broken by universal basic education policy accessible to all Nigerian children.

One of the major issues in trying to use education as an instrument for achieving even development in Ebonyi State is the age-long economic question as to “who should or whose sole responsibility should the administration of primary education be or “who should finance education”? (SUBEB, 2009). That is whether the expenditure on education should be met by the government or by the individuals receiving education. Nevertheless whichever way it is interpreted, primary school administration in Nigeria is a shared responsibility between and among groups and individuals.

Viewed from either of the conceptions above, it does appear that the present Nigerian system of primary education is far from being qualitatively satisfactory. In other words, the primary school system cannot be said to be well organized and effectively administered due to the conditions in most of the primary schools, and the constant crisis of confidence between and among the various administrative organs.

Following the government take-over of schools in the 1970s, schools were removed from the individual, religious or private voluntary agencies and handed over to the communities as the new facilitating agencies. It therefore stands to reason that communities and local governments should provide the assumed local contribution formally provided by the voluntary agencies. One of the goals of creating local government councils is to bring development to every nook and cranny of our nation.

With the 1976 local government reform and 1979 federal constitution, the provision and maintenance of primary education came under the statutory delegation of local government councils (LGCs). In order to assist local government councils in achieving this task, the Local Government Education Authorities (LGEAs), were established in each local government councils and as subsidiaries of National Primary Education Commission (NPEC) under decree 31 of 1988, and charged with several responsibilities related to primary education management and financing.

With these arrangements came a string of obligations which place severe fiscal burdens on the Local Government Councils and Local Government Education Authorities. Today it is only a few local government councils which do not whether through the so called zero-allocation budget, which has in turn, affected the activities of Local Government Councils Education Authorities (Ebonyi, 1998). Thus, apart from the payment of teachers’ salaries and allowances, which are compulsorily deducted at source, other primary functions of Local Government Education Authorities seem to have been virtually paralyzed due to limited financial resources. The negative impact of this situation on the provision of quality primary education is not hard to see. This is a major concern to educational administration. To enable Local Government Councils vis-a-vis Local Government Education Authorities perform their statutory functions, there is therefore the need to analyze the economic problems of Local Government Education Authorities with the aim of identifying their causes, implications and remedies.

Local government is the government nearest to the rural populace. After the 1979 and 1980 constitution, the local governments have become “mini-giants’ for generating and encouraging mobilization for self-help. They have not only become recognized as a centre for dispensing, but also been delegated substantial functions for developing and husbanding the social and economic, development among, which includes the provision and maintenance of primary education. They therefore, become incumbents which can be used as functional instruments to mobilize the grassroots for effective achievement of primary education policy objectives. This can be made possible because the rural governments accommodate about 80 percent of the entire Nigeria population (Ebonyi, 1998).

Furthermore, this can be achieved through the active involvement of key members of public in their local government. These key members include the following traditional chiefs/Igwes, member of their cabinets, village headmen, women’s associations, local leaders, churches (religious groups), teachers, headmasters/mistresses, age grades, schools, parents, teachers, social clubs, pupils youths, co-operative movements etc. All these different groups can act as catalysts to bring about expected outcome of the primary education.

To guarantee the effective achievement of the primary education policy objectives active involvement and co-operation of these key public members of the government must be encouraged since they arc able to galvanize and mobilize the support of the grassroots.

Local government is as old as the world itself and gave rise to the other levels of government i.e. federal and states. In any human community there is always a local system of administration and traditional beliefs which usually metamorphoses into local government area. As the civilization progressed among man­kind, the idea of running governments in transition occurred. Today, many local governments in the country have witnessed geometric progression to abound. Though it is dictated far from above by the local government in a country in relation to geographical distribution of mineral deposit on the earth surface across the globe. It is the source of both the wealth of states and federal governments in a country.

The Local Government Education Authorities (LGEA’s) are responsible for the day-to-day administration of primary schools in their areas of jurisdictions. According to Ogbonnaya and Oboegbulam (2004), the Local Government Education Authorities (LGEA’s) arc responsible for employment, appointment, development, promotion and transfer of teaching and non-teaching staff of primary schools within their area of jurisdiction. The Local Government Education Authorities (LGEA’s) stimulate and encourage communal participation in primary school and they supervise all education committees in their areas of authority.

In Ebonyi State in general and in Afikpo Education Zone in particular, several problems exist in financing as well as management of primary schools (Otuh, 1998). Many primary schools lack classroom accommodation, instructional materials, no proper supervision and inspection of primary schools, library facilities are lacking as well as lack of qualified teaching staff. There is also gross negligence in the maintenance of existing facilities. Secondly, the dearth of reliable data on primary schools provisions in the stale in particular and in the country in general, had been of concern to both the stales and federal ministries of education respectively. The establishment of the National Primary education Commission (NPEC) by decree 31 of 1989 was aimed at ameliorating the deficiencies in the financing, administration and management of primary education in the country.

In trying to solve some of the problems of primary education in terms of funding and management, two Federal Government Commissions (the Onabamiro committee of 1981, and the study group of funding education under the chairmanship of Babs Fafunwa (1981) recommended that the state should provide teachers with instructional materials while the local government should provide schools with furniture and also maintain school buildings (Adesina 1990).

Since the introduction of the local government reforms Edict of 1976, every state in the federation has been divided into Local Government Areas, and the management of primary schools entrusted to them. The functions and organization of the local government authorities responsible for education vary from state to state. Generally, all the state, they

  1. Prepare and submit to the Ministry of Education estimates of the amount of money required to have sufficient primary schools;
  2. Maintain schools according to the directives and policies of the state Ministry of Education;

iii.     Ensure by supervision that the premises of every school within their area conform to the standards prescribed by the state Ministry of Education;

  1. Secure the establishment of staff including their terms and conditions of service; and
  2. Control revenue and expenditure. In some northern states, the power of the Ministries of Education over primary education has been transfer to the Ministries of Local Government: Even so, there still exists a strong relationship between the Local Government Education Authorities and the Ministries of Education. The latter still continue to provide professional guidance to the primary schools.

The Ministries of Education through their Chief Education Officers responsible for primary education continue to regulate the professional conduct of staff; to provide pre- and in-service education for teachers according to Ocho (2005); to provide expertise in curriculum development, and to supervise the schools. In southern states the administrative functions of the local school boards also vary from state to state. In the Western States, for example, which comprise Lagos, Ogun, Ondo, Osun and Oyo States, the boards are responsible for the appointment, transfer, discipline, promotion, and general welfare of the primary school teachers.

To sum up, the Nigerian Government therefore places emphasis on (i) intimate and direct  participation and involvement at  the local in the administration and management of local schools; (ii) effective lines of communication between the local community and the state and national machinery  for  policy formulation and implementation; (iii) a devolution of functions whereby (a) the management of schools is placed in the hands of district school boards of management; (b) the co­ordination, planning, financing, and direction of the total educational effort within the state are placed in the hands of the state Ministry, Department or Directorate for Education and (c)  the  integration of educational development and policy with national objectives and programmes is  made  the responsibility of the  Federal Ministry.

However, the local government councils are not living up to their responsibilities in this regard. The councils may be making effort but their efforts have not made any impact. For example the lingering issue of poor and inadequate accommodation for the growing population of primary school children enrolled in primary school in the zone in particular, as well as the general poor conditions of primary schools in terms of inadequate funding, poor management of resources, high cost of teaching materials, to mention but a few (Otuh, 1998), and it is this perceived lack-lustre attitude of local government councils towards the primary level of education that has engendered this research work.

Onwuka (1995) expressed dissatisfaction with the system of management and control of primary education using Ebonyi North Education Zone as a case study. She identified some of these problems to include:

  1. poor and inadequate staffing;
  2. Insufficient supply of instructional materials such as textbooks, libraries and
    other teaching aids.
  3. Poor and inadequate accommodation for the growing population of primary
    enrolment in the zone.
  4. Inadequate supervision/inspection of the schools by the local government
    education authority and the State Primary Education Board (SPEB) now UBEB.

All these identified short-comings of the local government system border on administrative machinery put in place to ensure effective implementation of various government policies and programmes at this level.

In time and place, the term administration has been variously defined. Some authors see administration from the perspective of the goal expectation while others see it from that of role expectations. In other words, the first group defines administration based on the goals the administrators hope to achieve but the second group defines it based on the roles they are to play. Gullick and Urwick in Nwankwo (1982) saw administration as having to do with getting things done with the accomplishment of the defined objectives. This explains why the science of administration is concerned with the system of knowledge whereby man may understand relationships, predict results and influence outcomes in any situation where men arc organized at work for a common purpose. Adam in Ozigi (1978) defined administration as the capacity to co-ordinate many and often complicating social energies in a single organization so skillfully that they operate as a unity. Zwoll in Ozigi (1978) seem to have a common frame of reference on the attributes of administration which include:

  1. policy leadership and;
  2. activities engaged in by people who occupy positions of formal responsibility and authority in an organization;
  3. coordinating the efforts of people towards achievement of goals and
  4. educational administration, the policies of the board of education.

The central purpose of administration in any organization is that of coordinating the efforts of people towards the achievement of its goals. As a household word, administration simply put is the universal process of getting things done with and through other people. It is an every minute affair affecting individuals and groups of individuals in their efforts to realize a common goal. This makes administration to involve the planning, organizing, staffing, coordinating, controlling, commanding, guiding, leading, directing, reporting and budgeting of the activities of people within an establishment towards the achievement of the set out goals.

Administration, therefore, is the process of utilizing men and materials in an organization to achieve the goals for which the organization was established. In utilizing them, the administrator directs, leads, controls and coordinates the efforts of the group of the organization.

According to Mgbodile (1986) the Nigerian education system has witnessed a great deal of transformation in recent times. As the aim and objectives for setting up educational institutions have continued to widen, new subjects have been enlarged to reflect the critical needs of Nigerian society. The introduction of the Universal Primary Education (UPE), and the 6-3-3-4 system of education has led to the rising cost of education, as more facilities are needed for effective implementation. Government has placed high premium on the administration of schools to ensure optimum realization of educational objectives. Given these developments, one would think that the Nigeria society would be reaping very bounteously the benefits of the system. Unfortunately the continued resentment and criticism of the system shows that primary education is far from achieving its objectives in Nigeria. Most of these resentments and criticism centre on school administration and organization.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

In recent time, no administration has passed without experiencing one type of shrike action or the other at the primary education level as a resentment against the decaying conditions of the school system. The story is not different in Ebonyi State, even though the Slate has renovated some primary schools, promoted many teachers recently, improved the conditions of service of teachers, and improved the quality of supervision of instruction (SUBEB 2009). These efforts notwithstanding, certain administrative errors and problems have been identified as confronting primary education in the state and in Afikpo Education Zone in particular. However, the situation is more worrisome bearing in mind that not all local government councils have other sources of generating revenue to augment the dwindling federal financial allocations. Each local government school is expected to be handled or supervised by the local government education authority.

From the above, it is clear that most local government councils are finding it difficult fund primary education due to lack of effective and efficient administration. This has accentuated the problems confronting primary education which include poor funding, inadequate physical facilities, poor supervision and inspection of primary schools as well as lack of instructional materials to mention but a few. This is a gap which seem not to have been filled. It is indeed the concern of the present study to appraise the local government participation in the administration of primary education in Afikpo Education Zone of Ebonyi State. One can rightly say that without good administration and control, primary education cannot be successfully run.

The problem of this study therefore posed as a question is to what extent does the local government participate in the administration of primary education in Afikpo Education Zone of Ebonyi State?

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to appraise the extent of local government participation in the administration of primary education in Afikpo Education Zone of Ebonyi State. Specifically, the study was intended to:

  1. find out the extent of local government participate in the provision of funds to
    primary schools in Afikpo Education Zone;
  2. determine the extent of participation of local government in the maintenance of school plant and discipline in primary schools
  3. ascertain the extent to which the local government participate in the provision
    of physical facilities/equipment in primary schools;
  4. investigate the extent to which local government participate in supervision of primary schools;
  5. examine the extent of participation of local government in the provision of staff in primary schools;
  6. determine the extent to which local government participate in the provision of instructional materials in primary schools.

1.4 Significance of the Study

The major issue of trying to use education as an instrument for achieving even development in the state is very significant. Nevertheless, since the success of any system of education is hinged upon proper planning, efficient administration, adequate funding and management, it is hoped that the findings of this study will go a long way towards finding, a permanent solution to the nations educational problems, especially at the primary level.

The result of this study will be of great benefit to the government, school administrators, teachers, students, parents, the communities and of course the general public.

The findings of the study will be of great importance to the ministry of education, school administrators, parents, teachers and individuals who are interested in the proper academic functioning and achievement of youths in the society, as they will work towards making available the necessary educational facilities for effective and efficient teaching and learning.

The teachers will also gain from the results of the study because, if the necessary materials to be used in enhancing teaching and learning arc made available, they will certainly put in their best to make sure effective and efficient teaching and learning take place. Regular monitoring and supervision will also be enhanced to make the teachers more devoted to their work. And this the school administrator/government will do through showing positive support, concern and recognition to the teachers by making them feel like winners. This is through rewarding and reinforcing their performance.

The students will benefit from the findings of the study as they will also enjoy a hitch free academic environment because the teacher’s needs arc met, their morale boasted, thereby enabling them to give in their best to the students. They will enjoy availability of learning material and conducive atmosphere for learning.

Communities will benefit from the results of the study. This is because they would have the opportunity of” participating actively in school programme. They will really get to know each other better than before. This on the other hand will reduce friction between school and communities. Hence, development will come to their doorsteps.

The results of the study will provide the public with a true picture of the appraisal of the local government participation in the administration of primary education in Afikpo Education Zone in relation to the maintenance and the provision of essential infrastructural facilities in the primary schools.

The findings of the study will equally be of great use to policy makers because it will aid them in designing and restructuring primary education in such a way that some of the administrative problems facing the primary schools will be curbed or reduced to minimum.

1.5 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study was delimited to determining the appraisal of the local government participation in the administration of primary education in Afikpo Education Zone of Ebonyi State, especially in the administration of primary schools, funding, supervision, provision of infrastructure and instructional materials.

The study made use of primary schools in Afikpo Education Zone of Ebonyi State. Head teachers, teachers and education secretaries in the Education Zone were used for the study.

1.6 Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide this study:

  1. What is the extent of local government councils participation in the funding of primary education in Afikpo Education Zone?
  2. What is the extent of local government councils participation in the maintenance of primary school plants and discipline in Afikpo Education Zone?
  3. What is the extent of local government councils participation in the provision of physical facilities/equipment in primary schools in Afikpo Education Zone?
  4. What is the extent of local government councils participation in the supervision/inspection of primary schools in Afikpo Education Zone?
  5. What is the extent of local government councils participation in the provision of staff to primary schools in Afikpo Education Zone?
  6. What is the extent of local government councils involvement in the provision of instructional materials in primary schools in Afikpo Education Zone?

1.7 Hypotheses

The following three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study at 0.05 level of significance.    

Ho1:    There is no significant difference between the mean response of teachers and education secretaries on the extent to which local government participate in the administration of primary education in Afikpo Education Zone of Ebonyi State.

Ho2:    There is no significant difference between the mean response of head teachers and   local government education secretaries on the extent to which local government councils participate in staff personnel administration of primary schools in Afikpo Education Zone.

Ho3:    There is no significant difference between the mean response of head teachers and education secretaries on the extent to which local government councils participate in the provisions of infrastructure and instructional materials in primary schools.

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