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Antimicrobial Activity of Jatropha Tanjorensis Against Foodborne Pathogens

Jatropha Tanjorensis Against Foodborne Pathogens

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  Foodborne illness is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food , pathogenic bacteria, viruses , or parasites that contaminate food,  as well as chemical or natural toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes. (Acheson, 1999).

The war against foodborne diseases is presently facing new challenges due to the globalization of the food market, climate change and changing patterns of human consumption as fresh and minimally processed foods are currently preferred (Schelin et al., 2011). As food is biological in nature, it is capable of supporting the growth of microorganisms and foodborne diseases from the ingestion of contaminated foods and food products (Guyader and Atmar, 2008). More than 250 different types of viruses, bacteria, parasites, toxins, metals, and prions are associated with foodborne diseases in humans (Schmidt et al., 2009). Although viruses are more responsible for more than 50% of all foodborne illnesses; generally hospitalizations and deaths associated with foodborne infections are due to bacterial agents. The infections range from mild gastroenteritis to life-threatening neurologic, hepatic, and renal syndromes caused by either toxin from the “disease-causing” microbe, or by the human body’s reaction to the microbe itself.

Food poisoning is divided into three types: ‘Infection’, ‘intoxication’, and ‘intermediate’ (Schmidt et al., 2009). ‘Infection’ is caused by the oral ingestion of viable microorganisms in adequate amounts to build up infection and the commencement of symptoms is normally delayed, reflecting the time required for an infection to develop. Examples of food-poisoning that cause infection are enteric viruses, Salmonella, Campylobacter and Vibrio species. ‘Intoxication’ on the other hand, is caused by the ingestion of toxins that have been pre-formed in the food. Therefore, there is no necessity for live organisms to be present and the onset of the symptoms is rapid. Examples are Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The ‘intermediate’ food poisoning occurs when live bacteria are ingested and subsequently produce a toxin in the host, as in the case of Clostridium perfringens food poisoning (Teplitski et al., 2009).

Foodborne diseases is a major source of morbidity and mortality in the general population, mainly in susceptible groups, such as infants, the elderly and the immunocompromised (Vaillant et al., 2005). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), up to 1.5 billion cases of diarrhea and more than three million deaths that occur in children every year are as a result of food and water contamination and in the United States of America (USA) it is estimated that, foodborne diseases result in 76 million illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations and 5000 deaths each year (Mead et al., 1999). In France, it is estimated that these pathogens cause 10,200 – 17,800 hospitalizations yearly (Vaillant et al., 2005). The developing world are not spared, in South East Asia, approximately one million children below the age of five years die each year from diarrheal diseases due to contaminated food and water . Several devastating foodborne outbreaks have been reported on the African continent; in 2004, Kenya experienced an acute aflatoxicosis outbreak which was attributed to maize whereas in 2007, Angola registered 400 cases of bromide poisoning, associated with the use of sodium bromide as cooking salt.

The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among foodborne pathogens is reported to have increased (Yucel et al., 2005), probably as a result of selection pressure created by the use of antimicrobials in animal health. In this study we therefore present a comprehensive review on some selected and important foodborne pathogens and associated illnesses, as well as treatment and control measures in an effort to throw more light on the danger they pose to the community.

             Fooodborne infections are the major cause of hospitalization and death throughout the word (Van et al., 2007). In the United States of America each year about 76 million of food borne related illness, and almost 5000 deaths are estimated, causing by known and unknown pathogens. The infections by known pathogen like Salmonella, Listeria and Toxoplasma are 14 million lead to 60,000 hospitalization and 1,800 deaths each year. While a huge number of cases are related to unknown pathogens. There are more than 200 known diseases which can transmit through food to cause food borne illness including Virus, bacteria, Parasite, Toxins and prions. The sign and symptoms of these diseases range from mild intestinal problem to Life-threatening chronic and acute disease like hepatitis and kidney failure. New trends in the food supply, production and trades are also leading to the emergence and spreading of food borne pathogens and emergence of new and more dangerous serotype and species (Paul et al., 1999).

               Epidemiology of food borne diseases is rapidly changing and foods previously thought safe are now studied as unsafe and contaminated. The emergence of new pathogens and known food borne pathogens are now associated with new food vehicles and way of transmission is changing. A number of microorganisms considering high risk pathogens today were not recognized as a causative agent of food borne infections. For example, Campylobacter jejuni, E.coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Cyclospora cayetanesis. Several emerging food borne diseases may cause chronic clinical complication or even disability some time. Listeria monocytogenes can cause miscarriages in pregnant women and animals or result in meningitis in patients with chronic diseases. Toxoplasmosis can lead to congenital complications and E. coli O157:H7 with association of traveler and kid diarrhea can also lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome, or kidney failure. The large number of food borne disease is thought to be caused by unknown pathogens. Even in United States of America, according to the proportion of the unknown pathogen causing food borne infection is more than 70% (Paul et al., 1999). 68% outbreaks were not identified from 1993 to 2002. The outbreak is considered as of known etiology when at least one clinical sample is laboratory conformed from the affected peoples (Domiguez et al., 2009).

         The cause of the emergence of new pathogen or reappearance of established ones are weakly understood, but are often related to the ecological change and disturbance by the human beings. Furthermore the changing way of food production, improvement, traveling and trades have affected the transmission routs of food borne pathogen, and it will continue to affect in an unfavorable way the epidemiology of food borne infection (Tassios and Kerr, 2009). It has been declare by WHO that about 1.8 million kids died in 1998 in developing countries (excluding china) caused by biological agents or microorganisms originating from food and water. Every third person in the industrialized countries may be victim of food borne infections (WHO, 2010). Food borne infections are equally important in developed and developing countries. Almost 2.5 million childhood deaths occur annually due to acute food borne diarrhea. Though diarrhea is less common in developed countries as compared to developing countries, but equally considerable. About 4% of hospitalization and 2% of outdoor patients among kids are due to diarrhea (Marcus, 2008). The reported cases of Salmonellosis in Australia have averaged around 6000 annually from 1992 to 1998. While the under report cases of food borne Salmonellosis are estimated between 240,000 to 650,000 annually (Sumner et al., 2004). Diarrheal diseases are the main public health problem in Thailand and each year approximately more than 120,000 are reported food poisoning (Minami et al., 2010).

1.2       Aim and Objectives

The of this work was to examine the antimicrobial activity of jatropha tanjorensis against Foodborne pathogens

 Objectives of the Study

  1. To determine the antibacterial properties of Jetropha tanjorensis leaf extracts.
  2. To examine the antifungal of Jetropha tanjorensis leaf extracts against some fungals.
  3. To determine the antibiotics activity of some food borne pathogens.

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