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Jatropha Tanjorensis In Haematological Indices In Anaemic Mice

Assesment Of The Aqueous Leaf Extract Of Jatropha Tanjorensis In Haematological Indices In Anaemic Mice.

ABSTRACT

Anaemia is a common blood disorder that affects people of all ages, although the people at greater risk are the elderly, young women of child-bearing age and infants. Aneamia is characterized by a decrease in Haemoglobin Concentration (Hb), Red Blood Cells Count        (RBC) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) (Okochi et al., 2013).in recent time, natural product of plant sources have been the centre of focus as the main source of new, safer and more effective bioactive compound with medicinal properties. The aim of this work is to determine the antianaemic effect of Jatropha tanjorensis. A total of twenty mice were used for the study seventeen were induced with parasitaemia while three were used as the control. The induced mice were subdivided into five groups and treated with different doses of both standard drugs and extract (100mg/kg and 400mg/kg) for 4 days. After treatment the mice were sacrificed and the blood collected were used for packed cell volume, Red blood cells count,white blood cell count, haemeglobin count. The result showed that treatment with extract of Jatropha tanjorensis (100mg/kg and 400mg/kg) has a significant effect on the mice. There was a decrease in the red blood cell level of all the grouped mice but it was less with group 4 and 5 treated with the extract (100mg/kg and 400kg/kg). The packed cell volume level of all the groups increased with a predominant increase found within members of group 4 and group 5 and an increase level of all the heamaglobin level of all the groups except group 1 increased with a predonminant increase found within members of group 4 and group 5. There was also an increase in the white blood cells of all the groups as a result of the bone marrow hyper activation to produce red cells which leads to the release of much white blood cells in the circulating blood. The increase in the animal body weight were also observed .the result of the effect of the aqueous leave of Jatropha indicates that there is a decrease in the weight compare to the control group. From the results it were observed that the extracts of Jatropha tanjorneis has a significant inhibitory activities against sensitive P. berghei in mice. This study confirms the effectiveness of the leaves of Jatropha tanjornisis in treatment of anaemia.

      CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Anaemia is a common blood disorder that affects people of all ages, although the people at greater risk are the elderly, young women of child-bearing age and the infants. Aneamia is characterized by a decrease in Haemoglobin Concentration (Hb), Red Blood Cells Count (RBC) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) (Okochi et al., 2013). The anaemia prevalence remains high in Africa, with an overall incidence of 64.6% in children, 55.8% among pregnant women and 44.4% among young girls (WHO, 2006).

This condition is not a disease but could develop as a result of various diseases. There are many types of anaemia (Ogbe et al., 2010), many of which are rare but in all cases there is lower than normal number of circulating red blood cells. Presently, more than half of the world’s population experience some form of anaemia in their life time (Duff, 2008). Theincidence of anaemia is higher in the third world than in developed countries due to thepresence of many aggravating factors such as poor nutrition, high prevalence of blood parasites like, plasmodium, trypanosomes and helminthes infestation. It is also known that women are susceptible to anaemia during pregnancy due to high demand from the developing foetus (Ong, 1973). Immense benefits have been derived by man from using medicinal herbs in disease management because they are relatively safer, more affordable and sometimes offer better therapeutic value than synthetic drugs (UNESCO, 1998). The increasing discovery of more medicinal plants demanded for increased scientific scrutiny of their bioactivity so as toprovide data that will help physicians and patients make wise decision before using them.

Green plants are most significant in their role as producers of food. From them directly or indirectly come animal foods. Proteins, carbohydrates and fats as well as accessory nutrients such as vitamins and minerals are all made available to man and other animals through green plants. Plants are also used as medicine. Medicinal plants are the sources of many important scientific drugs of the modern world (Oduola et al., 2007). The incidence of anaemia is higher in the third world than in developed countries due to the incidence of many aggravating factors such as poor nutrition, high prevalence of blood parasitic infections for example, plasmodium, trypanosomes and helminthes infestation.

Although there are various drugs for the treatment of anaemia, they are not affordable to many poor people especially those in the developing countries such as Nigeria. In addition,the rural populations in various parts of the world do not have adequate access to high quality drugs for the treatment of anaemia, so they depend heavily on plants and herbal products for the treatment of diseases. As a result of the fact that anaemia is very common and the incidence is likely to increase in future (Duff, 2008), there is need to prevent it or seek for more cost-effective and better treatment strategies.

Blood transfusion is the fast and reliable technique of saving lives in severe cases of haemolytic anaemia, but some religious and cultural beliefs are strongly opposed to receiving or donating of blood for another’’ survival. Disease conditions such as hepatitis, ebola and AIDS have remained a great threat to blood transfusion as blood screening techniques are poorly handled especially in rural dwelling, mainly due to absence ofnecessary expertise or equipment. Psychological trauma, blood incompatibility and clinical complications (such as iron overload) at times pose challenge for this procedure. It is therefore pertinent to opt for a more affordable, convenient, acceptable and less traumatic strategy for treatment or prevention of anaemia (Oluwale and Akingbala, 2011).

Jatropha tangorensis (J. tangorensis) belongs to the family “Euphorbiacea”. Other species are Jatropha curcas, Jatropha glandulifera, Jatropha gossypifolia, Jatropha multifida,Jatropha podagrica and Jatropha intergerrima. It is a bushy, gregarious shrub of about1.8meters in height. The leaves are 3-5 lobed, palmately, 20cm glandular hair. Jatropha tanjorensis is a perennial shrub, up to about 15ft (5m) tall having a stem with thick greenglabrous. It is mostly herbaceous or somewhat succulent, becoming woody at the base.

The leaves are alternate with long petiole, palmate veined, the leaves margin are irregular orwith 3.5 shallow lobes. The flower is point which is acute to obtuse, small, yellow,unisexual that clusters in leaf axils, mostly hidden in foliage. The fruits are ovoid with 3-locular capsule which are initially green and fleshy, which turns brown or almost black anddry at maturity (Little et al., 1974).

Although a lot of work has been done on this plant like nutritional and antimicrobial properties of Jatropha tanjorensis leaves, but studies on the potency of this plant as a remedy to haemolytic anaemia have not been reported.

This study can give some indication if this plant can ameliorate haemolytic anaemia, and can be used as an alternative for the prevention of haemolytic anaemia.

1.2 Aim

To determine the effect of Jatropha tanjorensis extract on malaria induced anaemia in mice.

1.3 Objective

i.       To determine the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Jatropha tanjorensis in haematological indices (Iwalewa et al., 2005) to packed cell volume (PCV), Haemologlobin, White blood cells, (WBC), Red blood cells (RBC) in mice.

related work

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