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Inhibitory Effect of Nauclea Latifolia On Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria

Inhibitory Effect of Nauclea Latifolia On Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria

 

ABSTRACT

The antimicrobial activity of N. latifolia was tested using agar well diffusion technique. The active ingredient was extracted using cold water. The N. latifolia leaf extract inhibited the growth of the bacteria isolate showing inhibition zone diameter ranging from 1-3mm. The leaf extract was more effective against E. coli than S. aureus. The inhibition zone diameter produced by the leaf extract of N. latifolia against the multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria isolates shows that it can be a better and safer option than conventional antibiotics.

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Global antimicrobial resistance is of increasing public health concern, although a number of natural and synthetic antimicrobial agents have been isolated and developed to effectively control pathogenic microorganisms (Nedelkoska et al., 2013). As a result, infectious diseases have remained a sustainable burden to human health. These situations of rampant multi-drug resistance among human pathogenic microorganisms have necessitated a continuous research from new antimicrobial agent especially among plants with reported novel potent antimicrobial activities (Wong et al., 2009).

Seeking remedies for human ailments from the environment has formed the basis for therapeutics (Potier et al., 1999). African plants constitute a rich untapped pool of natural products (Bringmann and Porkorny, 1995). Extracts of different parts of the plants N. latifolia (e.g. fruits, leaves, stem-bark and roots) in distilled water are used in form of infusions, decoctions or concoctions (Irvine, 1996; Agoha, 1994).

Scientific investigations of medicinal plants have been initiated in many countries because of their contributions to health care. The continual search for and the interest in natural plant products for use as medicines has acted as the catalyst for exploring methodologies involved in obtaining the required plant materials and probing their constituents. The plant, N. latifolia is used in many African countries by traditional medical practitioners for the treatment of various ailments including bacterial diseases. N. latifolia commonly known as pin cushion tree is a straggling shrub or small tree native to tropical Africa and Asia. It is a tropical plant that grows commonly in Akwa-Ibom and Cross – River State of Nigeria. Apart from the treatment of bacterial infections such as Corynebacterium dephteriae, Streptobacillus spp; Streptococcus spp and so on, the plant can also be used in the treatment of ailments like malaria (Kokwara, 2006; Akabue and Mittal, 2000; Boye, 2005). Gastrointestinal tract disorders (Maduabunyi, 2005). Sleeping sickness (Kerharo, 2001); prolonged menstrual flow (Eluyoba, 1995); hypertension (Asubiojo et al., 2003).

Many commercially proven drugs used in modern medicine were initially used in crude form in traditional or folk healing practices, or for other purposes that suggested potentially useful biological activity. The primary benefits of using plant – derived medicines are that they are relatively safer than synthetic alternatives, offering profound therapeutic benefits and more affordable treatment.

Antibiotics are needed for the treatment of the several infections caused by the resistant bacteria in which the herbal plants, N. latifolia cannot be effectively treated. Antibiotics can be defined as those substances produced by microorganisms that inhibits (Bacteriostatic) or kill (Bacteriocidal) the growth of the infectious agents. Several antibiotics are in place for the control of these infectious agents. Many new antibiotics with high level of compatibility for patients were introduced for the treatment of community infections as well. Oral cephalosporins, new macrolides, doxycyclin and fluoroquinolones are examples of these conventional drugs.

In addition, some mechanisms of resistance are not revertible. It is clear that the threat of resistant bacteria has been growing in community as well as in hospital environment. Antibiotics such as cephalosporins and aminoglycosides can be effective against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli respectively.

aureus is a major pathogen of increasing importance due to the rise in antibiotic resistance (Lowy, 1998). Its colonies often have a golden colour when grown on solid media, the cell wall is tough with a protective coat which is relatively amorphous in appearance. S. aureus is virulent in nature, about 20 – 40nm thick (Shockman and Barrett, 1999).

On the other hand, Escherichia coli is a normal flora, it colonizes the gastrointestinal tract of human infants within a few hours after birth. Although, E. coli rarely causes diseases in humans, they are several highly adapted E. coli colonies that have acquired specific virulence attributes, which confers an increased ability to adapt to new niches and allows them to cause a broad spectrum of disease.

1.1       AIM OF THE RESEARCH

The aim of this research project is to establish the antimicrobial potentials of widely acclaimed medicinal value of N. latifolia extracts against S. aureus and E. coli.

1.2       OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH

  1. To evaluate the antibacterial activities of the leaves of this plant
  2. To compare the Inhibition Zone Diameter produced by the crude extract of the herbal plant to that produced by the antibiotics disc.
  3. To determine the Minimum Inhibition Concentration of the herbal plant when used against the test isolate

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Nhibitory Effect of Nauclea Latifolia On Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria

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