Indiscriminate Waste Disposal on the Aesthetic Quality of the Environment

The Influence of Indiscriminate Waste Disposal on the Aesthetic Quality of the Environment in Abakaliki Metropolis.

ABSTRACT

The study assessed the influence of indiscriminate waste disposal on the aesthetic quality of the environment in Abakaliki metropolis. Three objectives guided the study which includes to determine the causes of indiscriminate disposal of waste, to identify the environmental problems associated with indiscriminate waste disposal, to identify the various method of waste disposal and to identify the factors that limit the level of efficiency of waste disposal on the aesthetic quality of the environment in Abakaliki metropolis. Related literatures were reviewed and summarized. A descriptive research designs were used for the study. The study population comprised of 400 women. 200 respondents were selected through simple random technique. A self-structured questionnaire validated by the project supervisor is the only instrument used for data collection. Data collected were analyzed with the use of frequency distribution tables and charts. The result of the study showed that a greater percentage 70(35%) said the cause of indiscriminate waste disposal is due to the lack of access to waste collection point; majority 60(30%) said water pollution is major environmental problem, majority 60(30%) said open dumping is the major method used in waste disposal and finally 60(30%) said poor equipment is the limiting factor in the efficiency of EBSEPA in Abakaliki Metropolis. Based on the findings, it was recommended that so far people’s attitude was discovered as the main causes of indiscriminate disposal of waste in Abakaliki metropolis, the need to employ a new orientation on people should be vigorously pursued by the agency concerned, by organizing workshops and seminars where there will always be interaction between the people and environmental professional who will educate them.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Every human settlement generates waste. The settlement may be residential, school, market, industries, agricultural establishment, hospital etc. The type of wastes generated from each differs. The only common thing among them is that they all constitute health hazard. “Cleanliness is next to Godliness” is a popular saying. For this caption to be meaningful, the totality of man and his environment must obey the law of hygiene (Ukpah, 2010).

Waste according to the World Health Organization (2005) is defined as “something which the owner no longer wants at a given time which has lost perceived value”. Environment is a complex weave of physical, chemical and biotic factors that interacts with each other and impact upon all living things and their surroundings.

Waste disposal is the first problem to be addressed in a community because environmental sanitation and waste disposal have been identified as being of utmost importance. In recent times, it is observed that the task of maintaining a healthy environment through sanitary disposal of refuse has become increasingly difficult in West Africa and most other developing countries. The inadequate waste management has its related problems such as filthiness, sporadic fire outbreak, spread of disease and distortion of aesthetic value of our environment (Lucas & Gills, 2006).

According to Oluka (2007), one of the major problems of urbanization is rapid waste generation. The consequence is the pollution of the urban environment and the creation of urban slum. In Abakaliki the Capital of Ebonyi State, indiscriminate disposal of waste at road, streets street drains, residence halls, public places are common. And the rate of waste generation supersedes the rate at which they are been evacuated to the permanent disposal site. The artificial and natural water ways or drainage systems are blocked with waste material causing constant accumulation of stagnant water or at times resulting in over flooding of water from its bank; stagnant water breed mosquitoes and pile up refuse harbours rodent and disease causing organisms which constitute hazards. It can be recalled that at the peak of rainy season in 2012, many homes, farmers and landscapes in Ebonyi and other states in Nigeria were devastated by flood and water. The situation was not just because of much rainfall and because some drainage ways were blocked with refuses which make the water to overflow the banks. This condition rendered so many people homeless, some lives and properties were also lost.

The deplorable environmental condition at Abakaliki necessitated the setting up of the Ebonyi State Environmental Protection Agency (EBSEPA) on December 6th 1996 barely a month after the appointment of the pioneer military administrator, Commander Walter Fedghber for the young state (Ukpah, 2010). Proper Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal helps to prevent breeding of disease vectors (particularly flies and rodents). Direct consequence of the present sanitation situation is high rate of mortality and morbidity due to sanitation related diseases. It is estimated that over 200,000 deaths occur annually due to diarrhea disease alone with most of the casualties being children (0-5 years) (EBSEPA monograph I, 2010). It is my candid opinion that the problem of indiscriminate waste disposal should be looked into.

 Statement of the Study

Ethically, the beauty of any environment depends on its good sanitary condition. This is so because when an environment is clean the lives of citizenry are not threatened by illness and diseases. EBSEPA report 2010 shows that municipal waste disposal pattern is very poor. It is observed that despite present public enlightenment programmes on hygiene and health, Abakaliki Urban as a whole seems to be retrogressing in her environmental cleanliness. In the immediate past, the national sanitation exercise instead of leaving the city clean, resulted to heaps of rubbish at various roads and junctions. Today wastes are not collected from homes by agents as required. Wastes are dumped indiscriminately into gutters and any available space by the populace. The street sweepers are not given adequate supervision and they are not well informed so they sweep into gutters thereby blocking drainage. This outflow onto the roads and homes during rain become injurious and unsightly. As such it prompted the researcher to carry out the study to show the influence of indiscriminate waste disposal on the aesthetic quality of the environment in Abakaliki metropolis.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to investigate on the influence of indiscriminate waste disposal on the aesthetic quality of the environment in Abakaliki metropolis.

 Research Objectives

The specific objectives of this study are as follows:

  • To determine the causes of indiscriminate disposal of waste on the aesthetic quality of the environment in Abakaliki metropolis.
  • To identify the environmental problems associated with indiscriminate waste disposal on the aesthetic quality of the environment in Abakaliki Metropolis.
  • To identify the various method of waste disposal in Abakaliki Metropolis.
  • To identify the factors that limits the level of efficiency of waste disposal by EBSEPA in Abakaliki Metropolis

 Significance of the Study

This study of great benefit in the following ways:

  • It will enable both the state and Local Government realizes the great problems they are facing in area of waste disposal.
  • It will suggest measures to improve upon the present patterns of solid waste disposal create and increase community awareness on the inadequacies of patterns used in disposal of solid waste.
  • It will reveal the problems as it affect the public health, the government, the political and legal systems, nurses, doctors and others which constitute the populace living in Abakaliki metropolis.
  • It will also add to the existing knowledge about solid waste disposal and will be used as data base for further research.

Research Questions

The following research questions have been raised with the view to help the researcher determine the influence of indiscriminate waste disposal on the aesthetic quality of the environment in Abakaliki metropolis.

  • What are the causes of indiscriminate waste disposal?
  • What are the environmental problems associated with indiscriminate waste disposal?
  • What are the various methods of waste disposal?
  • What are the factors that limit the level of efficiency of waste disposal by EBSEPA?

 Scope of the Study

This study is delimited to the influence of waste disposal on the aesthetic quality of the environment in Abakaliki metropolis.

 Operational Definition of Terms

  • Refuse: This can be referred to as solid waste such as bottle, paper, sharps, boxes etc
  • Waste: it is described as something which the owner no longer wants at a given time which has lost perceived value.
  • Municipal solid waste: it can also be called urban solid waste which includes predominantly household waste (domestic waste) with sometimes the addition of commercial waste collected by a municipality within a given area
  • Environment: it refers to the total surrounding of humans that support life.
  • Disposal: final placement or riddance of waste, excess, scraps etc under proper process and authority with (unlike in storage) no intention to retrieve.

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