Hetrobranchus Bidorsalis To Different Concentration Of Orizoprlus Herbicides

Behavioural Responses Of Hetrobranchus Bidorsalis To Different Concentration Of Orizoprlus Herbicides (Propanil/2,4-D)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Fish is an essential source of animal protein in the most part of the globe because some competing protein sources of animal origin like beef have been implication in heart diseases (Owondeinde et al., 2011). It is an essential part of most meals in Nigeria and account for about 37% of Nigeria’s total protein requirement (Ndimele et al., 2011). Fish  production in Nigeria  is dominated by the captured sector especially Artisanal coastal and  Artisanal inland fisheries and  gives employment to a lot of the riverine  population. FAO (2003) reported that Nigeria is one of the large importers of fish in the developing world. She exports about 600,000 metric tones annually.

Natural population of fish is being threatened as a result of over exploitation and pollution of water bodies. Most of the industrial untreated effluents discharged to the natural water ways contains organic and inorganic pollutants in a dissolved, undissolved and suspended forms.

The widespread use of chemical herbicide commonly known as weed killers to control weed has been recognized worldwide as part of agricultural practice to improve agricultural productivity. The indiscriminate use of these herbicide, careless handling and their accidental spillage into the natural water ways have harmful effect directly or indirectly on fish population and other aquatic organism and all that comes in contact with the water. (Akobundu, 1967) reported that, herbicides run-off from agricultural land is one method by which herbicides gets into water.

The degrees of effects caused by these pollutant depends on the specie, sex, age, size, general physical condition, exposure time and the concentration of the pollutant (Roa and  Marty, 1982). Barton (2002) reported that, because behaviour links physiological function with ecological processes, behavioural indicators of toxicity appear ideal for assessing the effects of aquatic pollutants on fish population.

HETEROBRANCHUS BIDORALIS

Heterobranchus bidorsalis an African catfish commonly known as ‘’eel–like fatty fin catfish’’ is a specie of catfish of the family “Clariidae” the air breathing catfish. They mostly occur in the demersal zone of turbulent or fast running fresh water bodies of North, North-East and West African. The fish is commercially fished for human consumption. (Froese et at., 2011). Members of the genus Heterobranchus have been reported to have a higher growth rate and are more resistance to environmental stress factors than other catfish especially with regards to disease conditions (Offern and Ikpi, 2013). Heterobranchus is similar in many respect to Clarias but can readily be differentiated by their rayed dorsal fin followed by an  dispose fin. (Fagbenro et al., 1991). They have high market value in Nigeria and they are ominivorous.

Several features of Heterobranchus bidrosalis such as easy acclimatization to laboratory conditions, wide distribution in the fresh water bodies, availability throughout the year makes it an excellent specie  of test for  toxicity and physiochemical slides such as temperature, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and total dissolved solid studies (Christopher, et al., 2010). There is no specific threat known but dams, polluted water (from agriculture, domestic and commercial industries), ground water extraction, and drought poses possible threats.

 CLASSIFICATON OF HETEROBRANCHUS BIDORSALIS

Kingdom                     –                       Animalia

Phyllum                       –                      Chordata

Class                         –                 Actinopterygii

Order               –                       Siluriformes

Family                         –                       Clariidae

Genus              –                      Heterobranhus

Specie              –                      H. bidorsalis

Aim and Objective

To observe, record, and compare some behavioural patterns or responses such as operculum movement, fin movement, somersaulting rate, convulsion rate, swimming rate, equilibrium status and hyperactivity of Heterobranchus bidorsalis to different concentrations of herbicide (orizoplus) at different duration of exposure.

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