Female Genital Mutilation and Its Effect

The Practise of Female Genital Mutilation and Its Effect in Ndiuruku Amagu Community Izzi, Abakaliki, Local Government Area; Ebonyi State


The practice of female genital cutting is known by various names such as female circumcision (FC), female genital mutilation (FGM) or female genital surgeries (FGS), this article examines FGM and looks at the historical background, demographic, psychological and sociocultural information, and prevalence and why the practice continues. This practice of female genital mutilation is as multifaceted as the many names applied to it. The term female circumcision was used in the international literature until 1980s FC is a soft sounding term used to describe all types of genital cuttings and used to imply that the practice is similar to male circumcision. The name female genital mutilation was initiated in the 1970s when US feminists discovered the practice and viewed it as “unspeakable atrocities” or “savage torture” being forced on African girls, this term became widely used in the late 1980s. However, FGC or female genital surgeries (FGS) are the term currently being used. In 1995 the WHO made a strong statement of the practice of FGM. Female genital mutilation is a deeply rooted traditional practice. However, it is a form of violence against girls and women that has serious physical and psychological consequences which adversely affect health. This practice is complex and many reasons contributed its continuation. Questionieer was used as a research instrument to get the information used in the study. One hundred and forty consecutive prime adult and adult were evaluated in Amagu community 1zzi, Abakaliki local government area for evidence of FGM. From the result 94% of the respondent believed that the act was practiced for cultural purposes,   5% were unaware they had FGM, 6 % did not known the reason, 34% it cures vulva itching, 39% reported severe bleeding, 48% believes if a child is not circumcised she will be good, 63% believed if a child is circumcised she will have prolong labour. From the questionnaire served to the prime adult and adult, some of the problems associated with the practice include severe bleeding (haemorrhage), scare tissue formation, infection, and psychological trauma as well as obstructed labour while 30% frown at the practice. Only 5% want the act to continue. Findings are briefly discussed in the project report.



Background of the study

Traditional genital surgery is performed in different societies today for variety of medical, cosmetic, psychological or social reasons. Female genital mutilation is a deeply rooted, traditional practice. However, female genital cutting as a custom or ritual was first recorded more than 4000years ago in ancient Egypt. In fact, one of the cutting is even named “pharaonic circumcision” but is not easy to trace the origin of the practice to any particular point or place of history. It spread through migration route to Africa. Most of the cutting rituals performed excessively for cultural and traditional reasons on girls or young women, often without their approval or full understanding of the consequences of the procedures have lead to serious complication especially during labour. The reasons mostly resolve around social definition of ferminity and attitudes towards woman’s sexuality. A common feature is the social conditioning of women to accept female genital mutilation within social definitions of womanhood and identity. This lead that to perpetuate the custom and have insisted on inflicting pain on them or their daughter’s in other to defend the practices. Again for mothers in the society where there is little economic viability for women outside marriage ensuring that a daughter undergoes female genital mutilation as a child or teenager is living act to make certain of here marriage ability.

The female genital mutilation is the most common in the continent of Africa, in general and in the upper reaches of the River Nile in particular. This ritual is mostly performed as a rite of passage from childhood to adulthood and is undertaking in most communities between ages of 4-14years. However, the age varies form area to area.

In some part of Amagu community is done at the first week of birth or prior to marriage. Preservation of chastity is not always the goal for female genital mutilation as believed by some cultures. Some are being done to create the illusion of virginity. Since a tight vaginal opening is culturally preserved as more pleasurable to the men. Some believe it reduces female libido in other to prevent promiscuity. Some do it to beautify the ugly looking of the vulva as the said. All these believe are not the goal for these harmful practices of children and young women.

Meanwhile, in other to preserve chastity the ritual is not considerable, in Kenya, where almost all women are circumcised preservation of chastity is not frowned at. The proportion of AIDs is still high. In Egypt, Somalia, and Sudan, for example extramarital sex is completely unacceptable and female genital mutilation is to ensure that it does not occur, promiscuity still rear it head. This practice has many health complications both immediate, short and long term complications of type I, II and IV. These include death, haemorrhage, infection and severe pain which lead to shock, pelvic infection, recurrent tract infection, infertility, keliod scar, clitoral neuroma vesico vaginal fistula, cyst and abscess formation, dysparenia etc. WHO is committed to the abolition of all forms of female genital mutilation. It affirms the need for effective protection and promotion of human rights to bodily integrity and to the highest attainable standard of physical, mental and social well being of the individual.

Statement of problem

Having studied and seen health hazard associated with this practice. I, therefore decide to investigate why people still venture into FGM despite the problem.

Many organizations and countries have developed project to educate communities.


  1. The study will broadly look at the practice of female gential mutilation (FGM) among prime adult and adult of Amagu community and complications associated with the victims.
  2. To ascertain why people of Amagu community like practicing female genital mutilation.
  3. To determine whether FGM has adverse effects on the health of teenagers of Amagu community.
  4. Determine problem that are encountered by those working in hospital and health centres in the community where this female genital mutilation is being practiced.
  5. Identify the excisors (those who performs the procedure) at what age and different methods practiced.


The study will help control male prostitution. This is because husbands often seek extramarital sex with some women who are not circumcised and respond why well sexual stimuli. Since their wife do not, because the vulva, responsible for that is being cut for cultural reasons. Men describe the uncircumcised women as “complete” and “hot”. It will help in building good relationship between health providers; client and family whenever there is smooth course of pregnancy and delivery. It will prevent potential complications and loss of previous time during forth coming contact and during labour and delivery.

Again, most women in that community preferred delivering their babies at home because they are frightened by those instruments used in conducting delivery. Example episcotomy scissors. This study would help in creating awareness why episiotomy is being performed on them during child birth. The significance of this practice also explains its importance with regard to girl’s virginity in some community.



Mutilation: To injure or damage somebody/something, example, by breaking or tearing off a necessary part.

Episiotomy: an incision into the tissues surrounding the opening of vagina (perineum) during a difficult birth, at the stage when the infants head has partly emerged through opening of the birth passage.

Infibulations: Cutting or stitching together in order to create small vaginal opening.

Scarification (scar tissue): a mark left on the skin by a wound, burn etc after it has healed.

Keloid: An overgrowth of fibrous scar tissue following trauma to the skin.

Traditional birth attendant: This is an elderly woman recognized by the community as efficient and is usually invited to assist during labour and delivery.

Septicaemia: The presence and multiplication in the blood of pathogenic bacteria.

Labour: The process by which the products of conceptions are expelled from the uterus via the birth canal.

Poultices: a soft substance spread on cloth on the body to ease pain, reducing swelling etc.

Vesico vaginal fistula: Artificial opening between the vaginal and the bladder.

Teenager: Person with the age of 13 through 19 years

Prime adult: Is generally a person in the age range of 20 to 40.

Adult: A fully grown person

FGM: Female genital mutilation

FGC: Female genital cutting

Dysmenorrheal: Painful menstruation

Haemorrhage (bleeding): The escape of blood from a ruptured blood vessel, externally

Avulsion: tearing away.

Haematocolpos: Retained menstrual blood.

IAC: inter Africa communities

—This article is incomplete———–This article is incomplete———— It was extracted from a well articulated quality Project, Research Work/Material

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The Practise of Female Genital Mutilation and Its Effect in Ndiuruku Amagu Community Izzi, Abakaliki, Local Government Area; Ebonyi State

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