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Extraction and Characterization Tetrapleura Tetraptera Oil (Aiden Seeds)

Extraction and Characterisation Tetrapleura Tetraptera Oil (Aiden Seeds)

ABSTRACT

Extraction and characterization of oil from aiden seeds have been studied. The physicochemical parameters of the extracted oil were determined by standard methods of analysis. In this study, the extraction and characterization of oil from aiden seeds was carried out. The oil from the aiden seeds was extracted through solvent extraction using n-hexane as a solvent after grinding the seeds. Results of the findings showed that the extracted oil has a free fatty acid of 0.0617 ± 0.0079 mg KOH/g, saponifaction value of 182.325 ± 27.768 mg HOH/g, specific gravity at 30 0C of 0.914 ± 0.000 g/cm3, acid value of 0.1234 ± 0. 0160 mg KOH/g, lodine value of 5.15 ± 0.2121 mg lodine/100g, flash point of 106.50 ± 2. 1213 0C, density of 0.9003 ± 0.0035 g/cm3, pour point of 5.50 ± 0.000 0C, cloud point of 8.00 ± 0.000 0C, fire point 112.5 ± 3.5355 0C, free sulphur of 0.576 ± 0.000 g/L and total sulphur of 4.60 ± 0.000 g/L. the observable proprieties such as high saponification value shows that the oil could best be used in cosmetics and soap industries.

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

A seed is considered a small box containing some nutrients inside their dormant embryo (Muhammad, Nasiruddin, Tariq, and Syed, S. 2012). These seeds are generally produced from annual plants, crops or trees such as palm, coconut, olive etc.   In addition to the nutrients needed by animals and humans for their dietary needs, the seed contains oil in large quantities for    daily dietary requirements   from the various oil seed crops (Gunstone, 2002). Oils extracted from plant seeds are generally referred to as vegetable oil, which are mostly edible and used in food preparations. Vegetable oils are preferred over the solid animal fats because of their health benefits (Muhammad et al; 2012). This is because vegetable oils contain higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, while solid fats contain more saturated fatty acids, which increased the low density lipoprotein (LDL) level of the blood,  that is considered to be harmful to human health (Lucas, 2000).

Vegetable oils are triglyceride extracted from a seed of plant. The term “vegetable oil” can be defined as substances that are liquid at room temperature. Hence, vegetable oils that are solid at room temperature are called vegetable fats (Lucas, 2000). The component of vegetable oils are triglycerides, unlike waxes which does not have glycerine. That is one of the major difference between vegetable oils and waxes. Oils can be extracted from almost all the parts of plant but it is commonly extracted commercially from the seeds.

The terminology fats are based on the chemical structure of their molecules. Fats and oils belong to a group of biological substances called lipids. The lipids are biological chemicals that do not dissolve in water. They serve a variety of functions in organisms, such as regulatory messengers (hormones), structural components of membranes, and as energy storehouses.  (Ullah, Hamayoun, Ahmad, Ayub and Zarafullah, 2003).  The difference between fats and oils is that fats are solid at room temperature, while oils are liquid, even though both share a common molecular structure.

1.2       Objectives to the Study.

The main objectives of the study is to extract and characterise oil from Tetrapleura tetraptera (aiden seeds).

Specific Objectives

  1. Extraction of oil from Tetrapleura tetraptera (aiden seeds)
  2. Characterise the oil extracted.

1.3       Significance of the Study.

Since oils have been a staple in the diet of much of the world’s population and also used widely in the preparation of soap, in paint preparation and in cosmetics in general. The more prevalent use of vegetable oil for industrial purpose will become economically viable when its use as raw material rivals those derived from petroleum based products.

Due to high use of vegetable oil in different industries, it implies that the cost and availability of the product will definitely affect the cost of the finished products in their respective industries. This study   is to determine the extraction and possible usage of oil from aiden seeds for industrial and consumption purposes.

1.4       Scope and Limitations of the study

This study covers the extraction and characterisation of vegetable oil obtained from aiden seeds. The samples used for the study were obtained from Nkalagu in Ishielu local government in Ebonyi state on 10th June, 2016 and the extraction process seeks to break the fruit cell wall and release the oil by grinding and extracting using n-hexane as a solvent.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       Aiden fruit (Tetrapleura Teraptera).

Tetrapleura tetraptera, commonly known as Aiden fruit is a deciduous forest plant which belongs to the Mimosaceae family (Abii and Amarachi, 2007; Akin-Idowu, Ibitoye, Ademogegun and Adenyi, 2011). It has a distinctive four winged fruits consisting of woody shell, a fleshy pulp and a small brownish-black seeds with characteristic fragrance. The distinct fragrance is attributed to be as a result of the essential oils content of the fruit (Udourioh and Etokudoh, 2014). The dry fruit has a characteristic pleasant aroma which makes it a popular seasoning spice in Southern and Eastern Nigeria (Essien, Izuwane, Aremu and Eka, 1994; Okwu, 2003). It is used extensively in soups of nursing mothers to prevent post-partum contractions and gas-intestinal disorders especially stomach ulceration (Atawodi, Sunday, Yakubu, Ojochenemi, Liman, Mubarak, Iliemene and Dorothy, 2014). In cold weather, it is used to prepare pepper soup and the aroma is believed to drive away snakes (Abii and Amarachi, 2007). The fruit has wide application in Nigeria folk medicine. It is used extensively in the management of an array of human ailments including diabetes mellitus, arthritis, hypertension, epilepsy, asthma, etc. (Abii and Amarachi, 2007; Akin-Idowu et al., 2011). The plant is claimed to be therapeutically useful in the management of convulsion, leprosy, inflammation and/or rheumatoid pains (Adewunmi, 2001). Ghanaians use the fruit as multivitamins while Nigerians and other West African countries use it as spice (Adewunmi, 2001). The potential use of this fruit with some of their corresponding phytochemicals has been identified as molluscidal antimicrobial, anticonvulsants, toxic and insecticidal (Adewunmi, 2001). The dry powdered fruit has been formulated into soap to increase the antimicrobial activity and improve the foaming and hardness of soaps (Adebayo et al., 2000). The fruit is said to contain caffeic acid which serves as HIV replication inhibitor and also inhibit antitumour and inflammatory characteristic (Adesina, 1982).

Although much researches have been done on this plant aiden seeds, particularly on its dry fruits to assess the phytochemicals, minerals and nutrients contents (Adebayo, Abadomosi and Adewunmi, 2000; Adesina, 1982; Antwi-Boasiko and Animapauh, 2012; Essien et al., 1994; Naomesi, Mensa, Dagne and Bogale, 1992) reports on the essential oils and fatty acids composition of the fruit has been scarce. This work examines the essential oils and the fatty acids composition of the dry fruits, to ensure full exploitation of its therapeutic properties and health benefits.

2.2        Vegetable Oils.

Vegetable oils are triglycerides extracted from plant seeds. Oils from plant seeds commonly called vegetable oil are mostly edible and used in food preparations. The term “vegetable oil” can also be narrowly defined as referring only to substances that are liquid at room temperature. For this reason, vegetable oils that are solid at room temperature are sometimes called vegetable fats. Vegetable oils are composed of triglycerides as compared to waxes that are without glycerine in their structure. Although many plant parts may yield oil, in commercial practice, oil is extracted primarily from seeds. Vegetable oils are preferred over the solid animal fats because of health benefits. Oils contain higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, while solid fats contain more saturated fatty acids, which increased the low density lipoprotein (LDL) level of the blood, which is considered harmful for human health (Lucas, 2000). For the above health reason vegetable oils are used as the preferable choice in food preparations.  However, the oil obtained from different seed crops grown by our farmers contains significant amount of linolenic acid (Khalil and Rahman, 1999).

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