Extraction and Characterization of Oil from Melon and Coconut Seeds

Extraction and Characterization of Oil from Melon and Coconut Seeds

ABSTRACT

Oils from coconut and melon seeds were extracted and characterized. The Physicochemical parameters of the extracted oil was determined by standard methods of analysis. The saponification (mg KOH/g oil), acid, peroxide (mg/peroxide/kg), and iodine (mg iodine/100g) and specific gravity values were 254 and 196, 1.20 and 2.80, 0.40 and 3.20, 9.30 and 17.80 for coconut and melon seeds oil respectively. Both solvents demonstrated similar properties in all the analysis. The data shows that the seeds oil are preferable as edible inferring from their low acid value. From the results, the seeds oil have great potential in cosmetics, candle and soap making industry because of their high saponification value. The low iodine and peroxide values suggested that they are non-drying oil, contain few unsaturated bonds, have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and detoriation.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

Plant oils are oils derived from plant sources, as opposed to animal fats or petroleum. Oils derived from plants have been used for thousands of years. Plant oils have been a healthy alternative to animal derived oils since their discovery. Plant oils are composed of compounds called triglycerides which may exist in a highly unsaturated form or less (Ahmed, Bamofleh and Munshi, 1999). Saturated compounds are compounds “saturated” with hydrogen; all available places where hydrogen atoms could be bonded to carbon atoms are occupied. Unsaturated compounds have double bonds or triple bonds (C=C) between carbon atoms, reducing the number of places where hydrogen atoms can bond to carbon atoms. Saturated compounds have single bonds (C-C) between the carbon atoms, and the other bond is bound to hydrogen atoms (Evbuomwan, Felix-Achor, and Opute, 2015). The three fatty acids in the first set of equations are usually different, but many kinds of triglycerides are known. There are broadly three types of triglycerides viz: Saturated, Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated triglycerides(American Heart Association AHA, 2010). In saturated triglycerides, most of the fatty acids are saturated. In monounsaturated triglycerides, most of the fatty acids are monounsaturated; one pair of hydrogen atoms in the middle of the molecule is missing. A polyunsaturated triglyceride has most of its fatty acids polyunsaturated. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are two or more pairs of hydrogen atoms short of saturation; examples are omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (American Heart Association., 2010).

However, unsaturated triglycerides are the main constituents of plant oils. There are broadly two classes of plant oils viz: Essential Oils and Fixed Oils .Essential oils are volatile, and are usually derived from the non-seed parts of the plants. Most fixed oils are the so-called  meaning oil-bearing seeds. Some of the fixed oils are derived from vegetables and nuts (Evbuomwan, Felix-Achor, and Opute, 2015). Essential oils have been used for centuries. They have been used extensively in ancient Rome, Greece, Egypt and the Middle East – as perfumes, flavours, deodorants, antiseptics and pharmaceuticals. As a result of new processing technologies, they can today be used for more functions as well. Essential oils refer to the subtle, aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from the flowers, seeds, leaves, stems, bark and roots of herbs, bushes, shrubs and trees through distillation (Vaghese and Naithani, 2000). They are quite different from oils produced from oil seeds i.e. coconut, melon, soybeans, sunflower etc. and glands or hairs originating from epidermal cells. Essential oils are concentrated liquids containing volatile aromatic compounds. Essential oils are responsible for the aroma and flavour associated with herbs, spices, and perfumes (Evbuomwan, Felix-Achor, and Opute, 2015). Also called volatile oils because they easily diffuse into the air where they are then detectable by our olfactory senses, essential oils are usually terpenoids, another large class of “secondary” chemicals. Fixed oils are oils obtained from plants that are fatty, dense and non-volatile, such as olive and sweet almond oil. This is in contrast to essential oils which are volatile in nature. Some of the prominent fixed oils.

The fatty acid profile of edible oils plays an important role in their stability and nutritional value. Monounsaturates (18:1) and polyunsaturates (18:2) fattyacids have been found to be effective replacements for saturates as part of cholesterol-lowering diets (Mattson, and Grundy, 1985). However, it is also known that the oils with substantial amounts of unsaturation, particularly 18:2 fatty acids, are susceptible to oxidation and may produce products that contribute to arteriosclerosis and carcinogenesis. Some studies with experimental animals indicate that excessive amounts of linoleic acid promote carcinogenesis (Kubow, 1990).

Watermelon seed oil, rich in linoleic acid (~64.5%), is used for frying and cooking in some African and Middle Eastern American countries owning to its unique flavour (Akoh and Nwosu, 1992). Much research has been published on the oxidative stability of vegetable or fruit oils, but a little has been reported on the stability of melon seed oil. The modification of melon seed oil fatty acid composition by incorporation of oleic acid (18:1) has been explored

(Charment, Moussata, and Akoh, 1997). The modified melon seed oil was produced with the better balance of monounsaturated (18:1) and essential fatty acids (18:2), and also improved the seed oil oxidative stability and nutritional value (Charment, Moussata, and Akoh, 1998).

 1.2       Statement of Problem.

As civilization continues, the usefulness of oil in domestic and industrial application such as cooking, frying, production of soaps and detergents, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals also increases. This work is an attempt to extract and characterize oil from different sources and use their physiochemical parameters to determine their usefulness.

 1.3       Objectives to the Study.

The main objectives of the study are as follows;

  1. To extract oil from melon and coconut
  2. To characterize the extracted oil.
  3. To determine the chemical properties of the oil

1.4       Significance of the Study.

Oils  has been one of the most essential part of diet of much of the world’s population. It is also used widely in the preparation of soap, biodiesel through tranesterification reaction, in paint preparation and in cosmetics in general. The more prevalent use of vegetable oil for industrial purpose will become economically viable and renewable when it is used as raw material rivals those derived from petroleum based products.

Due to high use of vegetable oil in different industries, it implies that the cost and availability of the product will definitely affect the cost of the finished products in their respective industries. This prompt the interest of researchers to undergo a study to determine the extraction usage and chemical properties of oil from coconut and melon seeds for industrial purpose thereby reducing cost of production of finished products.

1.5       Scope and Limitation of the Study.

The physicochemical properties such as acid value, saponification value, iodine value and specific gravity. However, the characterisation is limited to the seeds and the above mentioned properties. The choice of the seeds is due to the high yield of the oil compared to other part of the plant.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       Concept of Vegetable Oils.

Oil is simply known to constitute a well-defined class of neutral organic substance which are essential constituent of all forms of plant and animal life (Okene and Evbuomwan, 2014). They are soluble in organic solvent except water. The most important characteristic is that they have a caloric content more than twice as high as the other food stuff (Obasi et al., 2012). The only possible way of obtaining large quantity of oil from oil bean vegetable or plant material is by extraction. Bio-oils from oilseeds are used as Straight Vegetable Oil

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