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Ethanol Leaf- Extract of Newbouldia Laevis on Glutathione Peroxidase Activities of Albino Rats

Effect of Ethanol Leaf- Extract of Newbouldia Laevis on Glutathione Peroxidase Activities of Albino Rats

ABSTRACT

This research investigated the effect of ethanol leaf-extract of Newbouldia laevis on Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in albino rats using spectrophotometric method. A total of 24 adult albino rats were placed in four groups of six rats each. The groups (A, B, C and D) were given doses (mg/kg) of 200, 400, 600 and 0 body weights of the extracts respectively by oral intubation for 14 consecutive days after which blood samples were collected through the saphenous vein. The Glutathione peroxidase activities for the four groups (A, B, C and D) showed 19.161±1.34, 19.880±0.45, 19.687±1.56 and 20.012±0.91 in µ/mg of protein respectively. There were no significant changes in the various groups administered with the leaf-extract which showed that the leaves of Newbouldia laevis had enough antioxidants to mop up free radicals.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                    INTRODUCTION

            The use of plants in the management, prevention and treatment of diseases is as old as life. In more recent years following findings from considerable researches, it has been found that many plants do have some medicinal values owing to their phytochemical composition. Medicinal plants are considered as those plants that are capable of alleviating an illness in the human body. Some important chemical components of such plants include tannins, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, and flavonoids (Uraku et al., 2015). Some of these medicinal plants include Newbouldia laevis, Garcina kola, Ocinum basilicum, and Cola nitida (Agbafor and Ezeali, 2015).

Newbouldia laevis is a medium sized angiosperm plant that belongs to Bignoniaceae family. It is native to tropical Africa and grows from Guinea Savannah to dense forests. It is found in Nigeria, Senegal, Angola, Cameroon, Gabon, and some other African countries (Oloyede, 2005). it is known with various indigenous names such as ‘Aduruku’ in Hausa, ‘Ogirisi’ in Igbo, ‘Akoko’ in Yoruba (Habu and Ibeh, 2015) ‘konkor’ in Tiv and ‘obat’ in Efik (Ogbonna et al., 2013). The parts including the root, leaves, bark and stem of the N. leavis plant have been reported to possess many economic benefits some of which include treatment of arthritis and rheumatism, laxatives, gastrointestinal treatment, anti-bactericidal properties, oedema, anticancer activity, epilepsy treatment (Kolawole et al., 2013), antibactericidal (Odunbaku and Amusa, 2012), dermatological properties, uterine contraction, dysmenorrhoea treatment, heartburn treatment, analgesic properties, chest pain (Akerele et al., 2011), toothache treatment, antimalarial, constipation treatment, cough syrup, eye treatment, antidote (Klotoe et al., 2013, Enye et al., 2015), hepatic effect (Enye et al., 2015), antioxidative properties (Akinmoladun et al., 2011; Hassan et al., 2010).

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by living organisms as a result of normal cellular metabolism (Stadtman, 2014). At low to moderate concentrations, they function in physiological cell processes, but at high concentrations, they produce adverse modifications to cell components, such as lipids, proteins, and DNA (Valko et al., 2006). ROS are produced from molecular oxygen as a result of normal cellular metabolism. ROS can be divided into two (2) groups: free radicals and non-radicals (Esra et al., 2012). Molecules containing one or more unpaired electrons and thus giving reactivity to the molecule are called free radicals. Free radical species are unstable and highly reactive or destructive chemicals (i.e. unstable atoms or molecules). Free radicals have an incomplete electron shell that makes them more chemically reactive than molecules with complete electron shells. They become stable by acquiring electrons from nucleic acids, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates or any nearby molecule causing a cascade of chain reactions resulting in cellular damage, cellular degeneration, premature aging, disease and cancer (Stadtman, 2014)..

Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), an enzyme dependent on the micronutrient selenium (Se), plays a critical role in the reduction of lipid and hydrogen peroxides (Bermano, 2010). So far, eight different isoforms of glutathione peroxidase (GPx1, GPx2, GPx3, GPx4, GPx5, GPx6, GPx7, GPx8) have been identified in humans. Several isozymes are encoded by different genes, which vary in cellular location and substrate specificity. GPx1 is ubiquitous and found in the cytosol of most cells, including red blood cells (RBCs) whose preferred substrate is hydrogen peroxide.GPx2 is also cytosolic but is confined to the gastrointestinal tract and it is an intestinal and extracellular enzyme. GPx3 is extracellular, especially abundant in plasma as a glycoprotein, and GPx4 interacts with complex lipids, such as cholesterol and lipoproteins damaged by free radicals, and is found in mitochondria (Imai and Nakagawa, 2013). Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) has a high preference for lipid hydro peroxides; it is expressed in nearly every mammalian cell, though at much lower levels (Muller et al., 2007). The biochemical function of glutathione peroxidase is to reduce lipid hydroperoxides to their corresponding alcohols and to reduce free hydrogen peroxide to water (Muller et al., 2007). GPX-1 has the potential to protect against oxidative damage to a wide range of tissues. Glutathione peroxidase 2 has an unusual distribution in the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract which suggests a specific function in metabolizing the ingested lipid hydroperoxides (Esworthy et al., 2010). GPX-3 has activity against phospholipid hydroperoxides, thus perhaps giving it a more direct role in protection of membranes (Yamamoto et al., 2010). The functions of GPX-4 are clearly associated with its ability to metabolize phospholipid hydroperoxides (Ursini et al., 2010). The major mechanism used by GPx and its isozymes in removal of oxidative stress is by reducing lipid hydroperoxides to their corresponding alcohols and to reduce free hydrogen peroxide to water (Muller et al., 2007).

Studies have revealed that the stem bark of Newbouldia laevis has antibacterial activities (Akerele et al., 2011). Newbouldia laevis can be used for treating patients suffering from diarrhea and dysentery (Enye et al., 2015). Hence, this research project is centered at evaluating the effect of ethanol extract of Newbouldia laevis on Glutathione Peroxidase activities in albino rats.

1.1       Aim

This research is aimed at investigating the effect of ethanol extract of Newbouldia laevis on the activity of glutathione peroxidase of albino rats.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0                                            LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       OVERVIEW OF NEWBOULDIA LAEVIS

2.1.1    Description of Newbouldia laevis

Newbouldia laevis is a medium sized angiosperm plant that belongs to Bignoniaceae family. It grows up to a height of about 7–15 meters or perhaps about 10 meters with a cauliferous habit (Agbafor and Ezeali, 2015) but is usually a shrub of 2–3 meters with many stemmed forming clumps of gnarled branches. The N. laevis leaf is ever green, though it may turn dark purple during the cold seasons (Agbafor and Ezeali, 2015).  It is native to tropical Africa and grows from Guinea Savannah to dense forests. It is found in Nigeria, Senegal, Angola, Cameroon, Gabon, and some other African countries (Oloyede, 2005). N. laevis has common names such as ‘African Border Tree’ and ‘Fertility Tree’. In Nigeria, it is known with various indigenous names such as ‘Aduruku’ in Hausa, ‘Ogirisi’ in Igbo, ‘Akoko’ in Yoruba (Habu and Ibeh, 2015) ‘konkor’ in Tiv and ‘obat’ in Efik (Ogbonna et al., 2013).

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