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Christian Religious Studies Curriculum for Junior Secondary Schools

           Evaluation of Christian Religious Studies Curriculum for Junior Secondary Schools in Agbor Education Zone, Delta State


This study aimed at the evaluation of Christian religious studies curriculum for junior secondary schools in Agbor Education Zone Delta State of Nigeria. The Christian religious studies curriculum is used all over Nigeria for teaching. Survey design was adopted in the study. Eleven (11) research questions and three (3) null hypotheses that focused on the objective of the study were formulated. The respondents for the study were a sample of forty male and female CRS teachers from 120 junior secondary schools in urban and rural areas were drawn from the Agbor Education zone Delta State using proportional stratified random sampling technique. The instruments for data collection were a ECRS questionnaire for teachers. The findings showed that the content of the CRS and methods used in teaching the subject and instructional materials were not adequate for achieving the objectives of the subject. The teachers perceived all the identified methods of teaching, except the lecture method, all the assessment techniques as relevant, while they agree that the dearth of instructional materials, lack of qualified CRS teachers etc. militate against the achievement of the objectives of the CRS. Furthermore, the findings showed that school location and the type of school the students attended do not affect their performance in CRS examinations. The occupation of parents do not, recommendations for the study were; that more qualified and experienced teachers who are professionally trained in the act of teaching CRS should be recruited; that Government should provide adequate instructional materials in form of teaching aids to facilitate teaching and learning in the schools, and that teachers in the field should take advantage of in-service, sandwich and workshop programmes to improve.



1.1 Background to the Study

          Christian religious studies is a school subject concerned with the upbringing, instructing, and informing children on Christian beliefs and practices as found in the Holy Bible and Christian traditions, CRS explores human ideas about the divine, as well as the way religious concepts are expressed in texts, rituals and belief systems. Right from time immemorial CRS has been recognized as one of most effective subjects in building character and discipline the mind. Fafunwa (1974) documented this when he stressed that religious studies was the motive force for the introduction and establishment of formal education in Nigeria.

Christian Religious Studies is an academic subject giving children and young people an understanding of how beliefs and values affect our lives, pupils in schools learn about Christian religion and other major religious and non-religious views. Christianity lies at the heart of the curriculum because schools reflect the Christian gospel in all they do.

Religion is a set of beliefs concerning the origin, nature and purpose of the world, especially when considered as the creation of a phenomenal society or agencies, usually concerning devotional and service observances and often containing a moral code governing the conduct of human affairs. Religion is a specific essential set of beliefs and practices generally agreed upon by a group of persons.

According to Idowu (1996), religious studies are the procedure through which religious ethics, practices and values are transmitted from generation to generations to the young people. llori (1992) observed that religious studies is an educational discipline which upholds the highest level of ethical and moral standard that encourage progress of sense of right and wrong and deliberation of other people.

CRS is a stabilizing factor in the individual personality; it trains the children morally and instills in them the wish to do well. The introduction of CRS at all level is necessary for the purpose of inculcating moral and spiritual values into human relationship. Through the teaching of CRS in schools, the students achieve the rules of conduct, right discipline, holiness, required for peace and firmness of the society. Teaching generally, is said to be complex problem solving activity because it revolves around five important elements each of which has inherent peculiarities and complexities. The five elements are the teacher, students, subject-matter, methodology and the objectives. If not handled carefully and with expertise it deserves, each of the above stated elements can make teaching problematic. According to Ajidagba (2002) stated that the concern of this topic is to evaluate the problems facing the teaching of Christian religious studies curriculum, the following issues will be adequate:

In terms of societal value, Nigeria is country that is besieged with omitted value. Most people give maximum concern to material wealth, and anything that would bring that wealth, no matter how honest, is accorded respect and pursued. This is why a typical well-to-do Nigeria parent would wish for his child to read medicine as the first choice, while average students in sciences would first jump at accounting and banking finance, and the poor students as they called them go for CRS. So, the population of religious studies students is declining day by day, while those offering the subjects are always passionate about it. At times, some students offer the subject to make up for the required number of credits as demanded by WAEC or National Examinations Council (NECO). With this, even if the teacher is prepared, if students are not paying attention in the subject, that teacher would have problem.

It has long been observed that there are no sufficient pertinent textbooks for Christian religious studies. In most cases, the old books that were written for the Old School Certificate for CRS, being used in the pre-6-5-4 system, are still in use. The few new ones that have been written by scholars are either not physically available or they carry high-priced. There is need to write current CRS books that would stand the test of our time, in view of the up-and-coming information and communication technology.

The truth is that the standing of Christian religious studies in the curriculum is an unpredictable dilemma that blends its teaching on the face. The teacher, the students and even the parents know the negligence with which the government handles religious studies. Initially, the subject was important at the senior secondary school level; it later became elective subject, and later became voluntary. As a matter of fact, the government would not have bothered to relegate it further, but for the fear of the noise from religious leaders. The implication of the foregoing is that the government, that controls education and that can make things happen, pays only lip service to religious education. If, for instance, the government makes Christian religious studies a must, irrespective of the area of interest or specialization, at least, to revive the moral standard of the citizenry, the story would be different.

Some secondary schools lack basic facilities that are essential for meaningful teaching and learning of CRS. A situation where a student do not have a seat and table to himself/herself cannot be said to be conducive for teaching and learning. For some obvious reasons, some schools have isolated rooms for religious studies; such a situation is capable of dampening the morale of the teachers and students.

One big problem of religious studies is quality, quantity, and qualification of the teachers employed to teach the subject. It is common during this political era to see anybody in classrooms parading as teaching religious studies are worst affected. To some people, being, a Christian automatically confers on one the wherewithal to teach religion, especially, if the person can put on tag as a born again Christian, as the case may be. Most of our religious studies teachers, teachers do not possess the requisite education to do the job. Ironically, some of them think that the ability of merely read simple Bible text is enough, while some others are contended only with education received in TTC2, which they did not take serious while they were there in the first instance. A good religious studies teacher that is versatile in his subject is always an exemplary to the students, they drive and not control students, and they command and not demand respect.

One other problem confronting the teaching of religious studies is the poor condition of service. It should not sound strange that there are some religious studies teachers that are on salary grade level 2. The rationale for place them as such is their ‘unrecognized’ certificate. This may not be tenable because, there should not have been chance for unqualified people to come in, if the power that be is sincere. Gone were the days when qualified personnel were difficult to find, we now have more sufficient qualified personnel. But what is more disturbing is that when such ‘uncertificated’ individuals get in, they do not make effort at self-improvement. For those who are qualified to teach, there should enhanced condition of service. Closely associated with this is the obvious degree of difference of the take-home pay of religious studies teachers in different states in the same country. It has been discovered that some teachers on the same salary grade level two in neighbouring states get different salaries. This is very likely to affect the quality of teaching negatively.

Religious studies certificate is not attractive in the labour market anymore, even in the teaching job; advertisement no longer favours the subject. A lot of factors are responsible for the situation, and some of them can be inferred from the preceding paragraphs. It is not only longer encouraged to pursue a career in the area. The fact is that no body wants to invest in a ‘non-yielding’ venture. The situation is so bad that even the scholars, specialists and those who rose to prominence by the grace of the subject do not donate any of their children to the field. Religious studies have now become an area for those who do not have any other thing to read, but have to content with it to have higher education. On the side of the prospects of teaching religious studies, hope should still be kept alive. No matter the situation now, improvement could still be envisaged; after all, the situation is a human creation, in the sense that everything is hinged on government policies and programmes. The moment the government realizes the indispensable role religion can play in turning around the affairs of this country for good; its teaching would be attractive. It should be added that it is not only the subject that is so maligned, teaching generally is facing a lot of ordeal in the hands of successive governments which always see education as a ‘threat’.

Another factor is time schools allocated to the CRS subject, in some schools, there is no time allotted to CRS subject in the teaching timetable. Teachers can come in at their convenience hour. And few schools that offer the subject allocated the time at the closing hour when majority of the students are feed up for the day, and is always at hot afternoon, of which we know that in secondary schools of ours, there is no class that will be conducive for effective learning to take place in that hot weather.

Gender is another socially constructed roles and socially learned behaviuors and expectations associated with males and females. (Oakley, (1996; Nwagbara, 1998; Okeke, 2000 and World Bank Policy Research Report, 2001).  Women and men are biologically different, though all cultures interpret and elaborate their inherent biological differences into a set of social expectations about what behaviours and activities are appropriate for them and what right, resources and even power they possess. Like race, ethnicity and class, gender is a social category that largely establishes a persons life chances, shaping one’s participations in society (Nwagbara, 2003). Though some societies do not have obvious racial divides, all societies have gender differences and disparities to varying degrees, but there are however, some striking similarities. For instance, virtually all societies give to women the primary responsibility for the upbringing of infants and young children, while it is expected that national security and military service should to a large extent be the preserve of men. Gender has to do with the socio-cultural constructs of roles and expectations of male and female in any given society.

A lot of stereotyping and prejudices take place in the classroom. Stereotyping is attributing to people. Traits that we assume are characteristics of the group we assume they belong. Some teachers assign courses to students, for instance they see science, mathematics and environmental studies as belonging to male students while certain subjects such as Needle Work, Christian Religious Studies, Secretarial Studies, Home Economics and Nursing belong to female learners. Esiobu (2005) believes that the effect of stereotyping has led to the under presentation of women in science related professions, such as engineering, architecture, veterinary medicine and nuclear physics. The language and illustration in textbooks and readers also speak volumes on gender stereotyping. Girls are portrayed as occupying a “negative space” as opposed to boys who speak “the language which is bold and firm”. This development shows a growing awareness that language does not just reflect but also shapes our thinking. If words and expressions imply that women occupy a “lower space” than men, the assumption of inferiority naturally tends to become part of our mindset (Nwagbara, 2003). There is need therefore to be cautions in the use of language in our textbooks as there can be severe implications.

It has been a difficult task enrolling girls in school for many obvious reasons, some of which have been earlier mentioned. Going by available statistics, the ratio of female pupils/enrolment in school to that of male pupils is low. The same goes with teachers who are the implementers of the curriculum. A situation where we have more male teachers than female teachers may not augur well for female learners as female teachers who are supposed to be their role models as guardians and confidants may not readily be available.

The ratio of primary school enrolment by gender and the ratio of male teachers to female, at each given time however, the enrolment rate for males is higher than that of females. For instance, the study of the gender enrolment ratio of primary school pupils between 1991 – 2000 in Nigeria, shows a consistently male dominated environment at an average of 82.2% and 72.7% respectively (FME, 2002). Also, in recent times, in order to fast track the development of women to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the actual elements of the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategies (NEEDs), the basic education and senior secondary school curricular have been reviewed. The newly reviewed curricular are designed to take care of gender and women issues, among others. This is expected to reduce a certain level of ignorance as well as reduce the gender difference between men and women and improve the status of women in the society at large.

For the all-round development of the learners, educators have come to classify educational objectives into three: the cognitive domain, the affective domain, and the psychomotor domain. The cognitive domain deals with acquisition of knowledge, the affective deals with attitude while the psychomotor domain deals with the acquisition of physical skills.

Evaluation According to Stuffule Beam (1971) is the process of delineating or explaining, obtaining and providing useful information for judging decision attributes. Stuffule Beam (1971) and his colleagues formulated the so called CIPP evaluation model to show how evaluation could contribute to decision-making in programme development. CIPP is an acronym for four types of evaluation included in the model: Context evaluation, input evaluation, process evaluation and product evaluation. Each type of evaluation is tied to a different set of decision that must be made in the planning and operation of programme. Each of the evaluation types proposed by Stuffle Beam has its merits according to the purpose it serves.

Alkin (1999) asserted that evaluation is the collection of evidence or information (data), arrangement of same into useful interpretable forms, to assist in educational decisions. Evaluation is the process of passing judgment on the adequacy of the scores or mark obtained, to determining whether the scores are high or low, good or bad, satisfactory or unsatisfactory. Evaluation is very important in all aspect of education and life in general. A model according to Aguokagbue (1994) is a representation of reality, or something you focus at for the actual making of things. Inadequate services rendered by teachers of CRS causes poor performance on students. Researches have shown that without in-service training of teachers, subject teachers must encounter problem in teaching their respective subjects because the success and effective learning and performance of students depends on the preparedness of the teacher (Oluoch, 2002). Most of the secondary school teachers are not qualified to teach the CRS subject, because  is not their area of specialization they lack the knowledge of teaching CRS, in some schools, English language teachers, economics, geography, history or social studies teachers combine their subject with CRS. More often than not the government does not make it compulsory to recruit qualified teachers conveniently” for the CRS subject. But the problem has been: should or must CRS teachers be qualified before he handles the subject? What should be his qualification before he handle CRS subject in the JSS? Does qualification of teachers have any implication in the teaching and learning of CRS?

According to National Objectives of CRS (1992) the National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) (1992) on CRS is an academic discipline designed for the moral and spiritual development in the country. Similarly, Lekwat (2000) also define CRS as veritable channel of acquiring a sound moral and spiritual development for peaceful co-existence. CRS is a subject of study that inculcates in the students or recipients a sound moral and spiritual development for harmonious relationship between man and God and between man and his fellow human beings.

The National objectives of CRS according to (NCCE) (1992) are as follows: the learner should be able to:

  1. Demonstrate sound knowledge and appreciation of moral values needed to live as a Christian in the various stages of growth and development.
  2. Express accurately and respectfully what the various churches and religions groups believed and practices and to eliminate prejudice and intolerance.

iii.       Explore the place and significance of religion in human life and to make a destructive contribution to one’s search for a faith by which one to live.

  1. Logically resolve tension and conflicts arising from interplay of traditional practices and gospel values.
  2. Radiate attitude and values which are typical of a nature and responsible member of the Christian community such as love, respect, honesty and service,
  3. Demonstrate professional proficiency for teaching CRS in the primary, junior and senior secondary schools.

vii.       Express satisfactory intellectual capacity to benefits from further education in CRS.

It can be deduced from the above laudable national objectives of CRS that the discipline is meant to produce a well behaved cultured community of people whose ways of life are associated with discipline, tolerance, honesty, kindness, and steadfastness necessary for the attainment of the objectives.

The aims of religious studies, therefore is to facilitate desirable changes in an individual since it encompasses theoretical, practical, moral, spiritual, human and divine respects. The entire society, the home, school administrators, church, media has roles to play. Although the study presents interest in the evaluation of CRS curriculum, the researcher’s profile suggestions that the subject, CRS should be taught at all levels of secondary schools and even higher institutions, to produce qualified teachers that are competence in this thematic (broad field).The researcher also suggests that continuous in-service training for all the teachers of CRS should be compulsory. The curriculum planners should make or implement CRS as a compulsory subject of study at all level of education in Nigeria. A look at these objective reveal that they were formulated to reflect the three aforementioned educational domains, as a matter of fact CRS is essentially one of the major subjects that deal with attitudes feelings and beliefs.

According to Malefijt (2006:111) a religion is particularly important because it codifies and expresses the cultural value of a society as a whole. Malfefijt also says that religion supplies answer to otherwise and unanswerable questions, reinforcing social values by divine sanctions and providing hope and consolation. Okafor (2008:199) stresses that CRS helps to inject sanity into society and minimize the turning of a nation into a police state by cultivating citizens who acknowledge metaphysical sanction and therefore, whose acceptable behaviours are often determined not just by external constraint but by spiritual consideration. This is why Metuh (1995:14) finally concluded that the upward trend in the incidence of crime and immorality shows that to abolish Christian religious studies subject in school, is like planting a time-bomb into a nation. The teaching of CRS has relied more on traditional methods. For example story-telling, reading of the Bible text only, lecture method etc. which are teachers-centred. In order to achieve the objectives of CRS, the West African Examination Council (WAEC) curriculum in CRS is designed to test students on two important areas.

  1. knowledge and selected themes running through most of the books of the old          and new Testaments as a necessary preparation for higher studies, and
  2. Ability to evaluate and apply these basic themes in their lives and actions. The CRS curriculum has been arranged maintained the order in the Bible. The Bible passages are selected to provide relevant information to secondary school students on Christianity, the relationship of human beings with God and other people, and the conduct of Christians in a society. Year one CRS curriculum, students are exposed to the Old Testament, in the year two, the students study the New Testament while in the third year, the student are to learn the contents of the Acts of the Apostles. The summary of the curriculum is as follows:

The content of the year one curriculum include some life themes with Bible passages corresponding to each themes from the Old Testament. Where, applicable, references are made to the New Testament. For example, life situation based on the need for reconciliation are taken from the two topics, one in the Old Testament the story of Esau and the second one from the New Testament The prodigal son. This topic of reconciliation is used to encourage students to have peaceful relationship among them. The second year curriculum exposes the students to the New Testament. This is to introduce them to the fulfillment of Gods promise sent through Jesus Christ. The exemplary life and sacrifice of Jesus Christ is selected to the students to learn about the importance relationship with God and with fellow human beings. The year two curriculum teaches students the importance of honesty, dedication, love, patriotism. The students are also exposed to two different gospels for them to be able to compare the differences. The students are treated to the Acts of the Apostles in their third year of the junior secondary school education. By doing so, they would be able to know the historical foundation of early Christian communities. The Acts of the Apostles will also teach them the characteristics of the early Christians like faith in Christ, love to fellow human beings and oneness. Through the study of the Acts of the Apostles, students would appreciate that Christian communities may experience great difficulties of disagreement, mystification and division. Students are to learn that the church should evangelize and not keep the message to itself.

The government takeover of missionary schools in the seventies, however, seems to have begun the beginning of the declining impact on religious values among youths. Obuna (1993:57) confirmed this view when he opined that:

Our children began to train into intellectual giants but spiritual dwarfs. Obuna continue that in most state-owned schools, the children were rather deformed instead of being formed and instead of imbibing the spirit of hard work; they imbibed the spirit of strikes at the slightest provocation. Religious studies can be seen as teaching children the shared morals of society. What is right and wrong, CRS should be made compulsory up to senior secondary school level in order to enhance moral values and instill in them the fear of God in the teenagers.

In Nigeria, therefore three major religions are predominant: Christianity, Islamic and African Traditional Religions (A.T.R). In secondary schools, CRS has been a subject of study; it is a core subject in junior secondary schools. The subject aims at the inculcation of all elements of Christian Religious awareness. It is an attempt not only to emphasize an understanding of the religious content but also its educational and experimental implications for the learner. Odo (2005) observed that a well planned and articulated lesson provides the students with correct stimulus, thereby provides avenue for good performance. Odo pointed out that a good and professionally trained teacher should be master of his subject, crowed with abilities to manipulate tools to enhance learning. He should be able to employ versatile techniques and skills in administering his lesson for easy understanding and retention by the students.

In view of the existing trend in CRS junior secondary schools certificate Examination in Delta State generally and Agbor education zone in particular, poor enrolment and performance in the CRS subject are apparent reflections of teachers’ poor teaching method in the subject and these made the researcher’s to consider evaluation as a means of improving the good quality of Christian Religious Studies curriculum for Junior Secondary Schools in Agbor Education Zone.

CRS is a school subject which inculcates knowledge into the learner, his duties to both God and his fellow human beings; moral, norms and values. Though, Students find the subject boring, abstract and uninteresting. From observations these contributed to poor performance of students’ achievement for CRS in Junior Secondary certificate Examinations (JSCE) and their negative response in choosing the subject for external examinations. These can be attributed mainly to the methods of teaching applied by teachers during learning process.

There is every need then to evaluate Christian Religious Studies, to make it more practical, lively, concrete and interesting.

1.2 Statement of the Prob­lem

It has been observed that since the implementation of the CRS subject into curriculum and in addition to government takeover of schools, CRS witnessed a new decrees and the policy on education changed as well. Poor methodology, combination of different subject with CRS, poor supervision of teaching of CRS, there was decline on student’s interest and attitude towards the study of CRS. Almost all the secondary schools in Agbor Education Zone are facing problems of poor performance in junior secondary school certificate examination. According to Delta State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB, 2004) and there have been questions as to the effectiveness of the subject in instilling discipline, molding and developing Christian attitudes in the youths. Report from various scholars revealed that a good number of students, who offered CRS in junior schools certificate examination, performed poorly in them. Kelvin (2005).For example registered that in Ime-obi secondary school Agbor Delta State, in junior secondary school certificate examination organize by SUBEB (1995) out of 80, students who enrolled for CRS in 1995 only 10, students passed the subject at credit level. In the same exam 1997 out of 68 students that enrolled for the CRS only 20, students passed the subject at credit level. In 1999 out of 82, students that enrolled for CRS only 21 students respectively passed the subject at credit level.

Okolocha (2003) registered that in Otu-Ugbo secondary school, MBIRI, Delta State hard a similar problem. In junior secondary school certificate examination Out of 69, students that enrolled for the CRS subject in 2001, only 12, students passed the subject at credit level. In 2002 out 84, students that enrolled for CRS only 10, students passed at the credit level. In 2005 out of 70 students that enrolled for CRS only 16, students passed at the credit level.

In addition to such poor performance in CRS subjects in schools, there is the need for evaluation of CRS in junior secondary schools (Okafor, 1994), Ukigwe, 1997; Imodibe, 1999). Give the impression that CRS is taught without the required impact. Questions have been raised about student’s performance generally in school examinations and impressive researches have been carried out on the teaching of CRS (Hillard, 2000; Goldman, 2000; Akubue; 1999; Amana, 1998). Unfortunately, none of these has addressed the problem encountered in the implementation of the CRS into curriculum, adequacy of its content and the effect of academic achievement in CRS on attitudes as they are related to socio-moral behaviour of the students. From this picture, the problem of this study could be summarized as the evaluation of the Christian Religious studies curriculum for the junior secondary schools in Agbor Education zone Delta State. Therefore the statement posed as a question in the face of these abnormalities one may tend to ask whether CRS still exist or? Does CRS have impact at all in the life of people or students and society? Is there anything relevance in the study of CRS again? Does the Christian Religious Studies subject fulfill the stated objectives at the junior secondary school in Agbor education zone?

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to evaluate the content of CRS curriculum for Junior Secondary Schools in Agbor Education Zone Delta State. The study is specifically designed to:

  1. Ascertain the objectives of CRS subject in JSS Agbor Education Zone.
  2. Determine the content of CRS curriculum in order to ascertain whether they help to achieve the stated objectives.
  3. Ascertain causes of difficulty in teaching CRS in JSS schools.
  4. Evaluate the instructional materials available to achieve the objectives
  5. Evaluate the teaching strategies for using instructional materials in teaching CRS.
  6. Evaluate the assessment methods to test the objective of the curriculum.
  7. Evaluate the teaching personnel in terms of quantity of teachers of CRS in junior secondary schools in Agbor Education Zone.
  8. Evaluate the teaching personnel in terms of quality of teachers of CRS.
  9. Determine areas of possible revision of the CRS curriculum.
  10. Evaluate the quality of textbook for CRS.
  11. Assess the adequacy of the CRS curriculum.

1.4 Significance of the Study

The evaluation of CRS subject for JSS is of great benefits to the following stakeholders in the society: the students, teachers, school administrators, principals, curriculum experts and the society at large.

For the students, it is hoped that the findings will bring about the awareness and the social change at both national and local levels. It is also hoped that the results of the research will stimulate competence in the acquisition of knowledge by students to cope with life so that they can live good and useful life in the community.

For the teachers, it is possible that some of the findings may require the teachers being made to sit up through improvement of their teaching skills, through improvisation of teaching materials and aids where they are lacking or insufficient.

The administrator: In its diagnostic approach, this study will identify the source of problems in the implementation of the CRS curriculum in the study area. This will keep the governments informed on who or what is responsible for the persistent problems impending short term as well as long term success of the subject and also galvanize her into actions aimed at evolving final solution to the problems. Since the study has to do with learning outcomes.

For the school principal, may also, through the findings, be sensitized to the need for providing relevant teaching equipment in the school and the over-riding importance of supervising instruction and making available post service and in-service training.

Because the research is concerned with situational analysis of the state of the art relating to the secondary schools’ CRS subject within Agbor education zone, Delta state of Nigeria it will generate in the make policy makers and implementers an awareness of what is, in contradistinction to what ought to be. This is crucial in modifying approaches to problem situations, decision-making and programme innovation.

The results of the study, it is hoped, will act as preventive measure against possible failures of similar planning and implementation exercise in education in Nigeria in the future. The findings will make the governments to fund and equip all the secondary schools in Nigeria with resourceful learning materials for CRS.

Finally, at a higher level, the study will certainly contributes to the knowledge of the local and National communities on the problems impeding the realization of the CRS educational objectives in developing countries of the world with Nigeria case in focus.

1.5 Scope of the Study

The study was delimited to the evaluation of Christian religious studies curriculum for junior secondary school students in Agbor education zone, Delta state. The objectives of CRS, teaching method apply by the teacher during leaning process, the use of instructional materials by the CRS teachers and quantity and qualities of CRS teachers.   This covered all the selected schools in urban and rural areas in Agbor education zone Delta state. CRS teachers were used for the study.  

1.6 Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study:

  1. To what level are the objectives of CRS curriculum achieved in junior secondary schools?
  2. What is the level of difficulty experienced in teaching each section of CRS?
  3. How often do teachers use instructional materials for teaching CRS?
  4. How often do teachers use instructional strategies to teach CRS in schools?
  5. How often do teacher adopt the following assessment methods in teaching CRS?
  6. What are the possible causes of difficulty encountered in teaching CRS curriculum?
  7. How many teachers are available for teaching CRS subject?
  8. How do you rate the availability of CRS textbook for teaching CRS?
  9. How would you assess CRS textbook for teaching?
  10. How adequate is the CRS curriculum for junior secondary schools?
  11. Which area of CRS curriculum should be revised?

1.7 Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance.

HO1     There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female CRS teachers on the extent of achievement on CRS objectives in Agbor Education Zone.

HO2        There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of CRS teachers in urban and rural schools in terms of instructional materials used in teaching CRS.

HO3:    There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female CRS teachers on the extent of assessment methods used in teaching CRS.

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