Motivation as Indices of Enhancing Teachers Output in Economics

Motivation as Indices of Enhancing Teachers Output in Teaching Economics in Secondary Schools in Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State     

                                       

ABSTRACT

This study is concerned with the investigation of motivation as indices of enhancing teachers output in teaching Economics in Secondary Schools in Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.  Four Research questions guided the study. The study adopts a descriptive survey method. The population of this study consists of both secondary school Economics teachers in all the public secondary schools in Izzi Local Government Area in Ebonyi state. The population of this study is two hundred and forty (240). Out of the 30 secondary schools in Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, twenty (20) public secondary schools were randomly selected . while 12 Economics teachers from each of the selected 20 schools will be randomly sampled giving a total sample size of 240 respondents, The instrument used for data collection was a well structured questionnaire then the data collected was presented using frequency table and analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The results of the study showed that: The impacts of good condition of service of teachers’ for enhancing teachers output in teaching Economics in Secondary Schools in Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State are; , teachers, often in urban areas are getting involved in the practice of private lesson; Provision of facilities to working mothers usually increases their interest in teaching; Provision of time allowances to sucking mothers in classroom always increases their interest in teaching and  extension of the leave period, without compromising productivity usually increases their interest in teaching, The impacts of teachers` fringe benefit for enhancing teachers output in teaching Economics in Secondary Schools are; teachers` fringe benefit in form of regular payment of salaries often increases teachers motivational level; addressing the problem of irregular payment of pension always increases teachers motivational level; addressing the problem of gratuities after retirement’s usually increases teachers’ motivational level and discontinuing  the practice of mass promotion and link promotion to recognizable professional achievements. Read More »

Posted in Education | Tagged , , | Leave a comment

Exchange Rate on Foreign Direct Investment in Nigerian Economy

Impact of Exchange Rate on Foreign Direct Investment in Nigerian Economy(1980-2013)

 

ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken to examine the impact of exchange rate fluctuation on foreign direct investment in Nigeria, while the specific objectives were to; investigate if there is any long run significant relationship existing between exchange rate fluctuation and foreign direct investment in Nigeria, find out if there exits any significant causal relationship between exchange rate fluctuation and foreign direct investment in Nigeria. The study employed ex-post facto research design using Nigeria’s data obtained from CBN (1980-2013). The empirical results were on Augmented Dickey Fuller tests. In the second step, Johansen cointegration test was conducted. The presence of long run equilibrium found led to the use of Vector Error Correction Mechanism (VECM). It was found that there is significant long run relationship between exchange rate fluctuation and foreign direct investment in Nigeria within the period under study. It is also estimated from the VECM that 1%increase in exchange rate, on the average will lead to252% decrease in the FDI. This implies that any increase in the exchange rate, will have an adverse effect on the foreign direct investment in Nigeria in the long run. More so, F-statists  for FDI= EXR is 0.9136 and its P-value is 0.4046. Thus the causality that runs from FDI to EXR is not statistically significant. R2 value 0.368 indicated that 36.8% of the total variation in foreign direct investment is accounted for by the explanatory variables while 63.2% of  changes in foreign direct investment is unaccounted for as a result of other factors not included in the error terms. D.W: 2.228761 show that there is absence of Autocorrelation.    it was also estimated from cointegration test result that increase in inflation, will bring about decrease by decrease in FDI. The result implies that increase in the general price level will affect the FDI in Nigeria negatively. The causal relationship between exchange rate and foreign direct investment in Nigeria indicated that exchange rate granger cause FDI. It means that exchange rate changes influenced foreign direct investment. It was found that changes (rise) in exchange rate will reduce the FDI. Therefore, it was recommended that the Central Bank of Nigeria should adopt policies that will help stabilize exchange rate. The stabilization of this variable will promote foreign investment in the country. Read More »

Posted in Economics | Tagged | Leave a comment

Inter-Religious Relations in Nigeria

Inter-Religious Relations in Nigeria (1960-2015)

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

With a population of over 120 million people, Nigeria has been described by Archbishop Tessier of Algiers as “the greatest Islam Christian nation in the world”. By this, he means that there is no other nation where so many Christians and Muslims live side-by-side. This reality makes Nigeria an important test case for developing patterns of Christian-Muslim relations in Africa. Nigeria provides a rich context for understanding the cultural, social, economic and political issues that are involved in Christian-Muslim encounter or inter-religious situation.1

Relations between different religions, especially, between Christianity and Islam, over a period of fourteen centuries have ranged from conflict to concord, from polemics to dialogues from commercial co-operation to open confrontation Christian-Muslim relations, however, they manifest, constitute an important global phenomenon and affect the future of vast multitudes of people. With Christians and Muslims accounting for sixty percent (60%) of the world’s population, relations between the two religions demand serious study and engagement, especially in the new millennium, and it is of paramount importance for efficient and successful governance and leadership. Read More »

Posted in Education, Philosophy | Tagged | Leave a comment

Foreign Direct Investment on Nigeria Economy

The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Nigeria Economy (1990 To 2013)

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Foreign direct investment (FDI) has played a leading role in many of the economies of the Africa. There is a widespread belief among policymakers that foreign direct investment (FDI) enhances the productivity of host countries and promotes development. There are several studies done on FDI and economic growth.

Foreign direct investment (FDI) is a direct investment into production or business in a country by an individual or company of another country, either by buying a company in the target country or by expanding operations of an existing business in that country. Foreign direct investment is in contrast to portfolio investment which is a passive investment in the securities of another country such as stocks and bonds. World Bank (1996) conceptualized Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) as investment that is made to acquire a lasting management interest (usually 10% of voting stock) in an enterprise and operating in a country other than that of the investors (define according to residency)the investors purpose being an effective voice in the management of earning either long term capitalor short term capital as shown in the nations balance of payments account statement (Macaulay, 2012). Broadly, foreign direct investment includes mergers and acquisitions, building new facilities, reinvesting profits earned from overseas operations and intra company loans. In a narrow sense, foreign direct investment refers just to building new facilities. Read More »

Posted in Economics | Tagged , | Leave a comment

Interest Rate Policy on the Level of Investment in the Nigeria Economy

The Effect of Interest Rate Policy on the Level of Investment in the Nigeria Economy during the Period of 1981-2009

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1       Background to the Study

Interest rate policy in Nigeria is a major instrument of monetary policy with regard to the role it plays in the mobilization of financial resources with the aim to promote economic development and growth. Interest rate, due to its importance in the financial sector of the economy, can be a major tool in promoting growth and development of the economy. Prior to August 1986 interest rate in Nigeria  was generally fixed by the Central Bank of Nigeria with periodic adjustments depending on the government sectoral priorities (Ucendu 1993). The Central Bank of Nigeria on July, 1987, announced the abolishment of the interest rate deregulation and all controls under SAP during the Ibrahim Babangida regime which took effect from 1 August 1987. The Central Bank of Nigeria then stated that interest rate became market driven, hence be determined by the forces of demand and supply. Read More »

Posted in Economics | Tagged , | Leave a comment

Student Dropouts by Secondary School Principals

The Problem of Student Dropouts by Secondary School Principals in Ikwo Local Government Area

Abstract

Educational student are inseparable and the importance of student at any level cannot be overemphasized. It has remained a potent instrument for evaluation of the school population level. In recent times, the conduct of students has been fraught with various dimensions of systems of dropouts out of school. Just like corruption school dropout has permeated the entire educational system in Nigeria. Government functionaries, school authorities, invigilators, principles, parents and student are all guilty of the problem of school dropout and the consequent undermining and publishing of the education process and the economy of the nation at large. This therefore raises the issue of student management strategies for qualitative education. This paper examines the concept school dropout, identifies various dimensions of school dropout, highlight problem of school dropout. A number of suggestions, strategies for the way forward towards effective management of the problem of school dropouts are proffered.

Read More »

Posted in Education | Tagged | Leave a comment

Communication and its Problems in Developing Countries

Communication and its Problems in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT

Communication evolved as a result of the persistent natural human love to promote unity and express feelings, from this arise the traditional definition of communication as a process or art of transmitting information, ideas and attitudes from a source to a destination, it is an unavoidable institution in every society. This research work on “communication and its problems in developing countries, Nigeria as a case study” will look into the pertinent of communication in Nigeria. A further insight into the study will reveal the problems associated with this communication system in Nigeria as it affects all other developing countries of the world. The study will use survey research method to sample the opinions of significant number for communicators on the relevance of communication flow and its problems in Nigeria. Chapter one will treat the background of the study, objectives and significance of the study, as well as research question, research hypothesis and limitations of the study. Chapter two, will look into literature review. In chapter three, the research methodology will be stated, also measuring instrument. Chapter four will show data analysis and presentation, while chapter five will be summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation on relevance of communication in development and economic promotion, as well as how to alleviate the problems facing communication in developing countries for effective and balance flow of communication system in Nigeria. Read More »

Posted in Department of Mass Communication | Tagged , | Leave a comment

Poor Academic Performance of Students in Economics

Assessment of Factors Responsible for Poor Academic Performance of Students in Economics in Public Secondary Schools in Ohaozara L.G.A of Ebonyi State

Abstract

This study assesses factors responsible for poor academic performance of students in economics in public secondary schools in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi state. The purpose of the study is to identify the factors affecting the effective teaching and learning of economics in secondary schools in Ohaozara Local Government Area. The research design of the study was descriptive survey design. The total population of the study comprises all the teachers and students of senior secondary schools in Ohaozara L.G.A. One hundred and fifty (150) teachers and students were sampled in five selected schools. The instrument used for data collection was structured questionnaires. The validity and reliability of the instrument were tested. Data collected were presented in a table, mean and frequency distributions were used to analyse the data. The findings show that teaching and learning of economics in secondary schools in Ohaozara L.G.A. are affected by unqualified economics teachers, poor method of teaching, inadequate instructional materials and attitudes and interest of the teachers and students. Based on the findings some recommendations were made thus: employment of economics teachers by the government through the ministry of education should be strictly based on merit so as to make it possible for only those who studied the course to be appointed, the government should provide instructional materials to schools and teachers should also improve where necessary, more emphasis should be laid on economics as a core subject in senior secondary schools etc. Read More »

Posted in Education | Tagged | Leave a comment

Money Supply on Economic Growth in Nigeria

Effect of Money Supply on Economic Growth in Nigeria (1981 – 2013)

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Over the years, the objectives of monetary policy have remained the attainment of internal and external stability and the promotion of long-run economic growth through price, monetary and output management. Monetary policy is concerned with discretionary control of money supply by the monetary authorities in order to achieve stated or desired economic goals (Adeolu et al, 2012). It refers to the combination of measures designed to regulate the value, supply and cost of money in an economy, to match with the level of economic activities and can also be described as the act of controlling the direction and movement of monetary policy and credit facilities in pursuance of stable price and economic growth in an economy (CBN, 1992). Read More »

Posted in Economics | Tagged | Leave a comment

Impact of Inflation on Domestic Savings in Nigeria

Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Inflation on Domestic Savings in Nigeria (1981-2013)

 

ABSTRACT

The study examined the Empirical analysis of the impact of inflation on domestic saving in Nigeria over the period of 1981- 2013. The study employed time series data obtained from the central bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin. The study used cointegration and Error Correction Mechanism to determine the impact of inflation on domestic saving in Nigeria a multiple regression model was specified and used in testing the objectives of the study, regressed Total domestic saving (TDS) as dependant variables against Financial deepening (M2/GDP), Inflation rate (INF) and Interest rate (INT) as the independent variables. The findings revealed that the entire variables employed became stationary at first difference. Also reveal a presence of long run relationship of the model. The major findings in the study shows that there is an inverse but an insignificant impact of inflation on domestic savings in Nigeria. The study therefore recommends that there is need for the government to retain tight monetary and fiscal policies in order to fight inflation in the Nigeria economy. Since inflation have negative and insignificant influence on domestic savings in Nigeria. Read More »

Posted in Economics | Tagged | Leave a comment